Understanding Codes For Windborne Debris - Connecticut

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ProTek : Understanding Codes forWindborne DebrisMike Gilbert, CDTBrand ManagerJuly 2010

YKK AP America Inc. is a registered provider with the AmericanInstitute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Creditearned upon completion of this program will be reported to CESRecords for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIAmembers are available upon request.This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuingprofessional education. As such, it does not include content thatmay be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement bythe AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner ofhandling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services willbe addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.Thank you!

1-Hr Understanding Building Codes and WindBorne Debris MitigationLearning ObjectiveUsing the ASCE7 Standards and the detailedinformation provided in this seminar, theparticipant will be able to make more educateddecisions when designing projects that mustthe stringent building requirements ofhurricane prone areas.

Hurricanes Classifications Code Requirements History Recent Storms Power of a Hurricane Product Testing Bldg Codes React Glazing Systems

Hurricane ClassificationsSaffir-Simpson ScaleCategory One: 74-95 MPHCategory Two: 96-110 MPHCategory Three: 111-130 MPHCategory Four: 131-155 MPHCategory Five: Greater than 155 MPH

United StatesLandfalling Hurricanes1950-2005Safir-Simpson Categoryof Landfalling HurricanesCategory 1Category 2Category 3Category 4Category 5

Satellite Image HurricaneAndrewAugust 24, 1992

Time Lapse Photo of Andrew

Structural Requirements ASCE :The IBC & FL Building Codes reference ASCE 7(American Society of Civil Engineers) to calculate aproject’s “Design Pressure” and define requiredprotection from Hurricanes.Hurricane Prone Regions are defined as: The U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coastswhere the basic wind speed is greater than 90mph. Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, andAmerican Samoa.Wind Borne Debris Regions are defined as thoseareas within the Hurricane Prone Regions located: Within 1-mile of the coastal mean high water linewhere the basic wind speed is equal to or greaterthan 110mph and Hawaii. In areas where the basic wind speed is equal to orgreater than 120mph.

ASCE 7Wind BorneDebris ASCERegions7-98 Mid-Atlanticfor the110mph: 1-milefrom the CoastNortheast120

Wind Borne DebrisRegions for theSoutheastASCE 7120

ASCE 7Wind Borne DebrisASCE 7-98EasternCoastCoast&RegionsforGulfthe GulfTexas120

High Velocity Hurricane ZoneThe Florida Building Code requires impact resistantsystems for the HVHZ to be tested in accordancewith: TAS 201 Impact (Large & Small) TAS 202 Air, Water, & Structural TAS 203 Cycle Test (Positive & Negative)TAS 201 requires each lite of glass to be impactedtwice to pass the large missile test.(ASTM E-1996 only requires one impact.)TAS 201 requires framing members to be impacted.(This is not a requirement of ASTM E-1996.)The Pass/Fail for TAS 201 is also more stringentthan ASTM E-1996. TAS 201 limits a tear in the interlayer to 5” andno wider 1/16”. ASTM E-1996 states that a tear in the interlayermay not be longer than 5” and may not permit a3” sphere to pass through.HVHZ

Impact Test RequirementsLarge MissileMissileASTME-19962” X 4”LumberLevel B2lb @ 50 f/sLevel C4.5lb @ 50 f/sLevel DLevel E9lb @ 50 f/s9lb @ 50 f/s(Impact Location)Pass/Fail No Tear Permitting a 3”Sphere to Pass Through No Tear Longer than 5”Pass/FailTAS 201 No Tear Longer than 5”and 1/16” in Width9lb @ 50 f/s(HVTZ)Small MissileMissile(Impact Location)Pass/FailASTME-19962g @ 130 f/s No Tear Permitting a 3”Sphere to Pass Through No Tear Longer than 5”(10) 2 GramSteel Balls TAS 201(HVTZ)Pass/Fail2g @ 130 f/s No Tear Longer than 5”and 1/16” in Width

Cyclic Pressure LoadingInward-Acting Pressure (Positive)RangeCycles0.2P max – 0.5P max3,5000.0P max – 0.6P max3000.5P max – 0.8P max6000.3P max – 1.0P max100Total:4,500P max is the design wind pressure from thebuilding code based on an unbreachedbuilding envelope.

Cyclic Pressure LoadingOutward Acting Pressure (Negative)RangeCycles0.3P max – 1.0P max500.5P max – 0.8P max1,0500.0P max – 0.6P max500.2P max – 0.5P max3,350Total:4,500P max is the design wind pressure from thebuilding code based on an unbreachedbuilding envelope.

Calculating Design Pressure inAccordance with ASCE 7Method 1 allows for a simplifiedprocedure as specified in section 6.4 forbuilding meeting these requirements.Method 2 allows for an analyticalprocedure as specified in section 6.5.Method 3 allows for Wind Tunnelprocedures as specified in section 6.6.

Design Pressure Calculations(Old Method)It used to be a very simple calculation:Velocity2 X 0.00256 Design Pressure

Design Pressure Calculations(Current Method)Now, many other factors are used in thecalculation to determine the required designpressure for all areas of the building.Basic Wind Speed and DirectionalityImportance FactorExposure CategoryTopographic FactorGust Effect FactorEnclosure ClassificationInternal Pressure CoefficientExternal Pressure CoefficientVelocity PressureDesign Wind Load

Design Pressure ComparisonExample: 50’ Tall Building 100’ Minimum Width 120 mph Basic Wind SpeedOld Way: 1202 X 0.00256 36.86 psfNew Way: ASCE 7 Mid-Zone Positive 44.6 psf Mid-Zone Negative -46.1 psf Corner Zone Negative -77.8 psf

Building Importance Factor(ASCE 7)Category I: Buildings & Structures that Represent LowHazard to Human Life Agriculture Buildings & Storage FacilitiesCategory II: All Buildings & Structures Except ThoseListed in Categories I, III, or IVCategory III: Building & Structures Where More than300 People Congregate (Schools are 250 or Greater)Category IV: Buildings & Structures Designated asEssential Facilities Buildings that Contain Toxic or Explosive Material Hospitals, Fire Rescue, Police Communication Centers, Power Stations Hurricane Shelters

Building Exposures Categories(ASCE 7)Exposure B: Urban & Suburban AreasExposure C: Open Terrain with ScatteredObstructions Less than 30 Feet Including FlatOpen Country & Grasslands & Shorelines inHurricane Prone RegionsExposure D: Flat, Unobstructed Areas andWater Surfaces outside Hurricane ProneRegions. This Category includes Smooth MudFlats, Salt Flats, and Unbroken Ice.

Determine MinimumBuilding Width (Footprint)B The Least Width for the Building

Determining Near CornerZone Dimension “a”ASCE 7-98 Corner ZoneDimension “a” 0.10 X Minimum Bldg Width,But Not Less Than 3’-0”

ASCE 7BLDG IMPORTANCE WIND POSITVE MID-ZONE ZONE 4 NEAR CORNER ZONE 5HEIGHTFACTORSPEED ZONES 4 & 5NEGATIVENEGATIVE50'II12032.8 psf-35.9 psf-40.9 psf13038.5 psf-42.1 psf-48.0 psf14044.6 psf-48.8 psf-55.6 psfIII12037.7 psf-41.2 psf-47.0 psf13044.2 psf-48.4 psf-55.2 psf14051.3 psf-56.1 psf64.0 psf100'II12038.8 psf-40.1 psf-67.7 psf13045.5 psf-47.1 psf-79.4 psf14052.8 psf-54.6 psf-92.1 psfIII12044.6 psf-46.1 psf-77.8 psf13052.3 psf-54.1 psf-91.4 psf14060.7 psf-62.8 psf-106.0 psfRequired Design Pressure ChartBased on Bldg Height and BasicWind Speed

Corner Zone5'-0"3'-0"8'-0"System Requirements in Corner Zones5'-0"5'-0"5'-0"5'-0"20'-0"(15) Thus Mid-Zone(4) Thus Corner-ZoneIntermediate Verticals May RequireReinforcing @ for Corner-Zone Frames

Designing for Wind Pressure Positive Pressure- Negative PressureThis graphic illustrates the effects of wind forces on a building.The arrows indicate positive forces pushing on the surface andnegative pressures pulling on the opposing side of the building.The wind forces impact and vary on every surface of the building.In most cases the pulling (-) forces are the higher loads.

Photo:Plywood Driven Through aPalm Tree

Photo:2 X 4 Piece of Wood DrivenThrough a Palm TreeNote: Height of Impact

Increased Internal PressureIncreased InternalPressure Occurs Whenthe Building Envelop isBreached by FlyingDebris. Positive Pressure- Negative PressureThis graphic represents the effects of internal pressure whenwindows and doors fail. Wind enters and creates additionalpressure that can lead to catastrophic damage to a structure.

Power of a HurricaneBuildingEnvelopBreached Dueto Loss ofWindowsRoof FailureDue toIncreasedInternalPressure

ASCE 7 RequirementsProtection from flying debris may beaccomplished with either a shutter system(plywood or steel) or a glazing systemdesigned and tested to resist the impacts.Buildings more than 45’ tall may NOT use woodshutters for protection from wind borne debris.Plywood ShuttersMetal ShuttersImpact Resistant Glazing System

ShuttersWill Plywood ProvideProtection for Homes?

ShuttersWill Plywood ProvideProtection for Homes?Yes!

ProtectiveGlazing SystemWill Protective GlazingSystems Provide Protectionfor Buildings?

Old GlazingSystemngDacur ityProtectiveNew ProtectiveGlazingSystemGlazingSystemSeerWill Protective GlazingSystems Provide Protectionfor Buildings?Flying DebrisYes!

Shutters Are Not Possible ForMost Commercial Buildings.

Conventional Glazing & ProtectionStandard Annealed/TemperedNo Protection from HarmfulUltraviolet LightEasily Broken by Flying DebrisOffers No ProtectionApplying Mastic/Duct Tape to Standard GlazingFalse Sense of SecurityEasily Broken by Flying DebrisOffers No Protection

Conventional ProtectionPlywood CoveringsConventionalGlazing & ProtectionMust be Stored or Purchased at Time ofNeedMust Be Installed as the HurricaneApproachesNo Protection if Not Securely AnchoredStorm ShuttersMust be Taken Out of StorageMust Be Installed as the HurricaneApproachesNo Protection if not Securely AnchoredLeaves Holes at Anchor Locations

Shutter ProtectionStorefronts leftvulnerable todamage due toanchor failure!

Shutter ProtectionStorefronts leftvulnerable todamage due toanchor failure!

2004 Storm Track


2005 Storm Track


Damage from Flying Debris

Damage from Flying DebrisNew YKK AP LOGO

Damage from Flying DebrisNew YKK AP LOGO

Damage from Flying DebrisNew YKK AP LOGO

RoofingMaterial Blownoff by Storm!New YKK AP LOGO

Impact Resistant Framing SystemsThe concept is to maintain theintegrity of the building envelopeby developing glazing systems thatprovide protection from wind bornedebris without the use of shutters.Procedures have been establishedto test the ability of a glazingsystem to resist impacts from bothlarge and small missiles and thestrong buffeting winds associatedwith hurricanes.Test Labs have been licensed toconduct the test and to certify theresults.Large MissileImpact Test

Test as a “Total System”:The building codes require thatthe all of the components thatmake up a “protective glazingsystem” be tested together: Framing System Gaskets Structural Silicone Glass Anchors“Total System” testing ensuresthat the glazing system willprovide the desired level s

Glazing SystemsStorefronts and Entrances: Large Missile - Silicone GlazedSmall Missile - Dry GlazedMonolithic & Insulated GlazingThermally Broken OptionDoors as Large as 8’-0” X 8’-0”Hardware: MS Locks & Exit Devices Check with System Manufacturer Design Pressures up to –90psf Optional Water ResistantThresholds

Glazing SystemsCurtain Walls: Large Missile - Silicone GlazedSmall Missile - Dry GlazedMonolithic & Insulated GlazingThermally ImprovedGlazed from Exterior or Interior4-Side Capture or 2-SideSilicone Glazed Design Pressures up to -130psf

Glazing SystemsOperable Windows: Large Missile - Silicone GlazedSmall Missile - Dry GlazeMonolithic & Insulated GlazingThermally Broken OptionsConfigurations: FixedCasement & Projected VentsSlidingSingle & Double Hung Design Pressures up to -65psf

Glazing SystemsSliding Glass Doors: Large Missile - Silicone GlazedSmall Missile - Dry GlazeMonolithic & Insulated GlazingThermally Broken OptionPanels up to 4’-0” X 10’-0”Configurations: OX, OXO, OXXO Design Pressures up to -120psf Water Resistance up to15 20psf

Building StructureThe building itself must alsobe designed to meet thehigher design pressuresrequired to mitigate thedamage from hurricanes.The building structure thatthe window, storefront, orcurtain wall are anchored tomust be capable of caringthe higher loads that will betransferred through theglazing system anchors.AnchorFailure

The Best Option Is Impact Resistant Glazing9 Provides Protection from Flying Debris9 Large Missile Debris Does NOT Penetrate theGlass9 Building & Contents Protected from a Build up ofInternal Pressure & Water Damage9 Always In Place (24/7 Protection)9 No Need to Allocate Valuable Space in theBuilding for Storage9 No Additional Labor Required to Install Shutters9 Not Possible to Shutter Large Openings9 Protects Household Furnishings from Damageand Fading Due to Ultraviolet Light9 Additional Security Against Burglary

THANK YOU VERY MUCH.This concludes the AIA portionour our presentation today.ARE THERE ANYQUESTIONS?

Mike Gilbert, CDT Cell Phone: Office Direct Line: Email:(404) 451-1134(678) 838-6078mikegilbert@ykk-api.com

1950-2005 Safir-Simpson Category of Landfalling Hurricanes Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5. Satellite Image Hurricane Andrew August 24, 1992. Time Lapse Photo of Andrew. Structural Requirements ASCE : The IBC & FL Building Codes reference ASCE 7 (American Society of Civil

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