Malignant Hyperthermia-Jordan Burt [Read-Only]

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1/20/2015DisclosureMalignant Hyperthermia:Managing and Understanding Acute EpisodesJordan Rae Burt, Pharm. D.Mayo Clinic Florida PGY‐1 Resident 2014burt.jordan@mayo.eduObjectives 1. Define malignant hyperthermia (MH) 2. Identify recommended MH treatmentstrategy 3. Summarize the role of a pharmacist in MHtreatment 4. Memorize MH hotline phone numberIncidence and Mortality I do not have a vested interest in or affiliationwith any corporate organization offeringfinancial support or grant monies for thiscontinuing education activity, or any affiliationwith an organization whose philosophy couldpotentially bias my presentationDefinition Rare but lethal pharmacogenetic conditiontriggered by volatile anesthetics andsuccinylcholine that results in ahypermetabolic state. Results in hypercarbia, hyperkalemia, andmyoglobinuria that leads vital organ damage. Terminology Malignant HyperthermiaSusceptiblePhysiology of Muscle Occurs approximately in 1 in 5,000 – 10,000children and 1 in 50, 000 adult anesthesias– Historical mortality rate: 80%– Current mortality rate: 10 % Approach every patient as possibly beingMHS.1

1/20/2015Mitigating Components Triggering Agents– Inhalation anesthetics Halothane, isoflurane,enflurane, sevoflurane,desflurane– Succinylcholine– Temperature– Stress Genetic Factors:– De novo– Autosomal dominantinheritance Results in 50% chanceof passing it to offspring Mutation Factors:– Mutations encoding thegenes for RYR1 or DHPreceptorsTesting Methods In vitro contracture test (IVCT)– Caffeine Halothane Contracture Test (CHCT) Genetic Testing– Alternative methodPresentation of Early Signs/Symptoms Onset of Presentation:– Anytime during anesthesia and post‐operatively– Fulminant or indolent Muscle Rigidity– Masseter muscle rigidity– Generalized rigidity Hypercarbia– Rise in end‐expired carbon dioxide concentration Sinus Tachycardia Tachypnea and CyanosisPresentation of Late Signs/Symptoms Fever and Sweating– Temperatures can be up to 113 F Myoglobinuria and cola colored urine Hyperkalemia– Cardiac Arrhythmias (V‐tach or V‐fib) Mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis Excessive BleedingLaboratory ValuesDifferential Diagnosis Primary:– Hyperkalemic cardiac arrest in muscular dystrophy patients– Poor ventilation– Rhabdomyolysis– Neuromalignant Syndrome Exact same presentation– rigidity, hyperthermia, acidosis, rhabdomyolysis– Drugs of abuseSecondary:– Sepsis– Thyroid Storm– Pheochromocytoma– Iatrogenic overheating– Transfusion reaction from blood product2

1/20/2015Therapy Goals Treatment must be emergent.– Administer once a diagnosis of MH is reasonable.Acute MH Crisis Management 1. Stop the trigger agent 2. Purge the anesthesia machine with 100% O2 at high rates 3. Alert the team and others to help 4. Administer dantrolene Goals:– 1. Hyperventilate/Manage Hypercarbia– 2. Administer Dantolene– 3. Treat Hyperkalemia– 4. Cooling to core temperature of 38 CMH Cart Content Dantrolene– 36 vials Sterile Water– Room temperature or35‐ 40 C– Vials v. bags debateBicarbonate 8.4 %Dextrose 50 %Calcium Chloride 10 %Regular InsulinLidocaine 2 % orAmiodarone Refrigerated saline Goal 2 : Initiate Dantrolene Hydantoin derivative developed as a muscle relaxant in 1973– Mechanism of action: binds to the ryanodine receptor to deter the release ofcalcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Utilization of dantrolene in malignant hyperthermiadiscovered in 1975– Dr. Keith Ellis teamed with South African anesthesiologistGaisford Harrison– Only available in PO formulation IV formulation approved in 1979 5. Place activated charcoal in inspiratory and expiratory portsof machine 6. Place a foley and gain additional access 7. Cool the patient to 38 C 8. Blood samples.Goal 1 : Managing Hypercarbia Hypercarbia concerns:– Increase minute ventilation or increase tidalvolume– Look for obstruction If this doesn’t solve the issue, then we havegreatly increased or suspicion of MH andshould initiate the treatment protocol.Dantrolene Monograph Indications:– Malignant Hyperthermia– Chronic Spasticity– Tetanus*– Neuroleptic malignantsyndrome*– Rhabdomyolysis*– MDMA toxicity* Pharmacokinetics:– Tmax IV : 1 minute Storage:– Room temperature– Accessible from any GA areawithin 10 minutes ADRs:– Nausea– Diarrhea– Fatigue/Malaise– Flushing– Lightheadedness– Muscle weakness – Respiratory muscleweakness Blackbox warnings:– Hepatotoxicity3

1/20/2015Dantrolene Products Dantrium IV Rapid Mixing Powder for solution– Lypholized powder 20 mg vial with 3 g of mannitol– Sodium hydroxide pH 9.5– DSM Pharmaceuticals– Cost: 65 / vial Revonto IV Powder for solution– Lypholized powder 20 mg vial with 3 g of mannitol– Sodium hydroxide pH 9.5– JHP Pharmaceuticals– Cost: 92 / vial Dantrium and generic oral capsuleDantrolene AdministrationDantrolene Products Ryanodex IV Powder for suspension– Recently FDA approved – available August 1, 2014– Single‐use vial of 250 mg of dantrolene in lypholized powder– 125 mg of mannitol– Eagle Pharmaceuticals– Cost: 2300 / vial Azumolene– Analog therapy that is 30X more soluble than dantrolene– In development and not FDA approved– Effective in swine trials, promising results for futureSupply Requirements Dosing:– LD: 2.5 mg/kg IV Push Bolus doses: 1 mg/kg IV Push until symptoms subside Max: 10 mg/kg IV Push May require up to 30 mg/kg IV Push– Additional post‐op doses required Administration:– Dissolve each with 60 mL of sterile water PF– Large bore IV line in largest central or peripheral lineavailableGoal 3 : Treatment of HyperkalemiaGoal 4 : Supportive Care Hydration to protect the kidneys Cool to core temp– Infuse cooled saline– Lavage open body cavities– Nasogastric lavage– Ice the surface– Goal Core Temperature: 38.5 C (101.3 F) Bladder catheterization– Monitor hemeglobin for myoglobinuria Continue monitoring twice daily trends downward4

1/20/2015Post‐Op Management Continue dantrolene– Bolus dose: 1 mg/kg IV Q4‐6H for 24 – 48H– Continuous infusion: 0.1 – 0.3 mg/kg/hr Continue treatment of any symptoms or components ofMH Transfer to ICU– Ventilation care– Hemodynamic monitoring for at lest 24 hours Monitor for recrudescence– Monitor vitals and respiration continuously for 24 hoursFuture General Anesthesia Utilize non‐triggering anesthetics or local anesthetics– Local: Spinal, epidural, and nerve block agents– Lidocaine, ropivacaine, bupivacaine, etc.– Alternative agents: nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, thiopental, propofol, diazepam, etomidate,ketamine, opioids, vecuronium, cisatracurium If intubation is required:– Machine MUST be purged Change circuits Remove vaporizers Flush the machine at 10 L/min for 20 minConstant temperature and capnography monitoring Components of Success 1. Education 2. Kit Preparation 3. MHAUS BasedProtocol 4. Periodic Drills Call the MH HOTLINE1‐800‐644‐9737References 1. Rosenberg H, Davis M, James D, Pollock N, and Stowell K. Malignant hyperthermia. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2007; 2:21. 2. Litman RS, Jones SB, and Nussmeier NA. Malignant hyperthermia: Clinical diagnosis and management of acute crisis. UpToDate -acute-crisis. Last Reviewed Aug 2014. AccessedSeptember 2014. 3. Litman RS, Jones SB, and Nussmeier NA. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia: Evaluation and management. UpToDate agement. Last Reviewed Aug 2014. Accessed September2014. 4. Kim TW, Rosenberg H, and Nami N. Current concepts in the understanding of malignant hyperthermia. Anesthesiology News. 2014; 40 (1): 1-6. 5. Malignant Hyperthermia Guideline. Mayo Clinic website. AN-0000178465. Last Reviewed May2014. Accessed September 2014. 6. Ryanodex website. Last Reviewed July 2014. Accessed September 2014. 7. Revonto website. Last Reviewed 2014. Accessed September 2014. 8. Dantrium website. Last Reviewed 2014. Accessed September 2014. 9. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States website. Last Reviewed 2014. Accessed September 2014. 10. Lee E, Kibler K, Shaffner H, Kim T. Is the new formulation of dantrolene sodium quicker to dissolve than the old /2010winter/syllabus/pdfs/abstracts/wapd/P123.pdf. Last Reviewed 2014. Accessed September 2014. 11. Brooks M. FDA Oks injectable dantrolene for malignant hyperthermia. Medscape. July 23, 2014. 12. Rosenberg H. Current state of malignant hyperthermia and the use of Dantrium IV as treatment. Anesthesiology News. 2010; 36 (3): 20-1. 13. Larach MG, Localio AR, Allen GC, et al. A clinical grading scale to predict malignant hyperthemia susceptible. Anesthesiology. 1994; 80 (4): 771-9. 14. SUNY Department of Anesthesiology. Anesthesiology knowledge – Malignant Hyperthermia. SUNY downstate website.5

Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States website. Last Reviewed 2014. Accessed September 2014. 10. Lee E, Kibler K, Shaffner H, Kim T. Is the new formulati on of dantrolene sodium quicker to dissolve than the old formulatio n. . Microsoft PowerPoint - Malignant Hyperthermia-Jordan Burt [Read-Only] Author .

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