Green Living Spaces And Wellbeing - Libarynth

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GREENLIVINGSPACESANDWELL-BEINGAl Francis D. LibreroDiego S. MarananUniversity of the Philippines Open UniversityThere are two on-going trends regarding people and their work habits. First, it is no longeruncommon for people to work long-hours everyday. The emergence of occupations such asthose in the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry has also led to the mass subjectionof employees to odd working hours. The same emergence has also helped lead to the secondtrend. More and more people are now able and opt to work from home. While it may seemamenable on the surface, the truth of the matter is that working from home is a next steptowards breaking the traditional distinction between a home and a workplace. This leads tothe bottom line that many people spends more and more time in environments that can bedeemed stressful due to work.Since such a setup makes escaping stressful environments more difficult, there is now agreater need to mitigate stress. Perhaps this can be achieved by enhancing the living spaceitself as to improve the well-being of its occupants.TIER 1: Sustainable Building Design for Tropical ClimatesModern Philippine housing often takes inspiration from foreign influences. While thesedesigns are definitely appealing to their inhabitants, some of these influences do not fit inwell to the local environment. On the other hand, vernacular architecture, while drawn out ofgenerations worth of techniques to address the context of the local culture and climate, hasbeen largely abandoned.The growing green building movement in the Philippines has already started to revisit theviability of vernacular architecture, but it remains outside the realm of mainstream propertydevelopment and construction. In fact, green building in general faces its own barriers as itentails costs and adjustments which potential dwellers may not be willing to accommodate.Perhaps there is a meaningful way of combining the local with the foreign, the modern withthe traditional, into a living space design not just for the sake of aesthetics, but also forenvironmental conditions conducive to the well-being of its inhabitants. The accommodationof modern amenities cannot be discounted. While some of these amenities will lend to it, theharmonious relationship with the immediate environment will very much depend on greenand vernacular architectural values applied. Lastly, if possible, this hybrid method ofdesigning should avoid significant increases in building costs that can discourage itsadoption.

Figure 1. Leaflet of a typical Philippine real estate development project advertising the use of“Swiss inspired” architecture.Building Performance Aspects That Need To Be Addressed1. Thermal comfort – a person’s psychological state of mind wherein there is a feeling ofsatisfaction out of how cool or warm the surrounding area is.2. Acoustic comfort – being spared from undesirable noises from the outside of abuilding, or even from adjacent rooms is important for the psychological well-beingof occupants.3. Visual comfort – largely about natural and artificial lighting in good quality andquantity. Aside from occupant satisfaction, effective use of lighting can also increaseenergy efficiency and to some degree, thermal comfort.4. Air quality – with people spending majority of their time indoors, indoor air quality isa critical issue affecting the well-being of occupants. The proliferation of syntheticand potentially hazardous substances in modern buildings has been known to make airquality worse indoors than it is outdoors.5. Spatial comfort – design must take into account the freedom of movement of itsoccupants and their access to the amenities offered by the building.All these criteria lead to the goal of increased energy efficiency. This is very importantbecause buildings globally consume around 40% of the total energy produced and is thecause of 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions.

Factors To ConsiderClimate may probably be the most important factor to consider in building design. Unlikemost countries from which local modern real estate projects take inspiration from, with theexception of a few certain areas, the Philippines is subject to the following conditions:1.2.3.4.A narrow, but very warm range of temperatures (except for highly elevated areas)High levels of humidity, making the area feel warmer than it actually isLarge amounts of rainfall, whose patterns vary across the archipelagoAround 20 storms enter the Philippine area of responsibility every year, with at leastone or two being exceptionally strong typhoons.The Philippines is located within the Pacific Ring of Fire, making the whole country prone toearthquakes and volcanic eruptions. There are 37 volcanoes across the archipelago, 18 ofwhich are considered active.Another important factor to take into account is the local economy. The likelihood ofadopting new building designs gets lower as immediate costs get significantly highercompared to traditional or more conventional ones.How To Do ItGenerally speaking, sustainable design can be achieved by following the checklist (or at leastparts of it) below:1. Smaller buildings2. Use of recycled and renewable materials3. Use of low-embodied-energy materials4. Use of harvested lumber5. Water catchment systems6. Low maintenance7. Recycling of buildings8. Reduction of ozone-depleting chemicals9. Preservation of the natural environment10. Energy efficiency11. Solar orientation12. Access to public transportationAt this stage, it is not fully known just how realistic it is to fully comply with this checklist.Determining this will be one of the most important objectives should this turn into full-fledgeresearch.Greening BuildingsPopulating the interior and exterior of buildings with plant life can be beneficial on differentfronts. The most obvious benefit is the aesthetic value of a well-thought of garden(s). Second,vegetation is a proven mitigating agent against the heat island effect and can help lowerambient temperature. Green roofs further counteracts the heat island effect and is an effective

insulator, especially when compared to the galvanized iron sheets typically used in buildingsas roofing material. Indoor gardens are also particularly helpful in the abatement of indoor airpollution, which can help prevent the sick building syndrome -- a very serious, but oftenoverlooked problem in buildings with poor ventilation and those heavily dependent on activeair conditioning systems. Poor ventilation can cause the accumulation of harmful substancesthat bring about health problems to inhabitants.Figure 2. Biophysical factors affecting living spacesIndoor gardening by itself is a realm of many possibilities. A 1989 NASA report noted anumber of plants that thrive indoors in relatively low light conditions which are particularlyeffective in filtering airborne toxins. Indoor and roof gardening can also be taken a stepfurther by adopting permaculture practices to actually raise crops at a small scale.Figure 2. Anatomy of a green building m)Vernacular ArchitectureVernacular architecture was borne out of lessons learned about how buildings can exist moreharmoniously with nature. Unfortunately, mainstream building projects have adoptedbuilding designs that primarily take inspiration, if not directly copied from Western values.While aesthetically pleasing to some people, the problem is that these designs more or lessevolved through adaptation to the environment they were natively designed for.

The case of the “log cabin” shown in Figure 2 is peculiar. This is a house currently being soldthat’s located in or near Tagaytay, a city south of Manila situated on a plateau. With its higherelevation and cooler climate, Tagaytay is a prime area for real estate development and is a hotspot for all sorts of Western inspired house designs. Location-wise, this log cabin is not evennear a forest. It is apparently sitting on what used to be a pineapple plantation. Of course, onecan say that there’s no rule saying a log cabin should only be built in or near the woods. Awooden house certainly has its advantages even under warm climates and open areas.Unfortunately, this particular house won’t benefit from them, as it is actually made ofconcrete made to look like logs. The effort required to mimic logs had surely raised the costto build the house – money which arguably would have been better spent on actually makingit greener.Figure 3. A “log cabin” that’s actually made of concrete built on an open field (left) and ablock design requiring multiple air-conditioning units (right).It may no longer be possible to completely go back to using vernacular architecture. Forexample, the hut in Figure 3 exemplifies good insulation and airflow. Unfortunately, hutsalso have the downside of having a relatively short lifespan and cannot offer the security andamenities any modern house design would have.Figure 3. Bahay kubo – iconic traditional Filipino house

However, people may still benefit from the lessons it can teach. Methods on how modern andtraditional values can be incorporated in a sustainable design, bringing the best of bothworlds into play.Figure 4. Upscale contemporary modern Filipino interior designFigure 5. Modern vernacular design attempting to blend with a natural environmentA small post-modernist movement recently arose as a response to the disregard of traditionaldesigns in favor of foreign ones, or worse, the disregard of building aesthetics itself toaccelerate construction and cut costs. This heralded the return of vernacular and traditionaldesigns from the mundane to the spectacular. However, good examples are far in between andare usually considered prime property. Furthermore, it is still unclear just how green thesebuildings are.

TIER 2: Living Spaces for Slowness, Relaxation and Well-BeingA living space is an important factor in the well-being of any individual. However, with allthe bigger issues attracting attention, it is not uncommon for it to be overlooked. The effect ofthis neglect is exacerbated by the growing number of people working from home. Thisblurring of the line between living and working spaces highlights the importance of beingmore conscious of their qualities in relation to the overall well-being of their inhabitants.While sustainable design heavily weighs environmental factors, it may or may not take intoaccount for the factors beyond the physical well-being of those inhabiting a living space. Anindividual’s overall well-being actually covers a number of aspects: physical, mental, socialand spiritual.Figure 6. Facets of well-beingIt is reasonable to consider that a relaxed state of body and mind can be considered anessential requisite for well-being. Therefore, it can be surmised that a living space conduciveto relaxation can be of significant benefit to its inhabitant.Approaches for designing sustainable living spaces that encourages relaxation anddeceleration will be explored. Why this matters in a world that is concerned with speed andimmediate gains will be reflected upon.Effect of Architecture and Design on Human BehaviorIt would be worthwhile to explore how architecture influences human behavior. Placement ofcorridors and pathways, as well as furniture and fixture placement practically dictatesmovement within a space. The arrangement of tables and chairs along with the availability ofappliances such as television sets, a sound system or a game console has an effect on howinhabitants interact with each other. The proximity of an appliance to a bed also affects howthey are used.Manipulating these parameters will be crucial in enhancing the relaxation within a livingspace.

ErgonomicsOptimizing the design of all interactive objects within a living space is a key element inensuring an inhabitant’s well-being and maintaining a relaxed environment.The problem with cookie-cutter living spaces is that they are designed under the assumptionthat one size fits all, or would at least cater to a lowest common denominator as far as humansize and habits go. Fixture, furniture and appliance design and layout will have to bethoughtfully studied in order to accommodate the needs of its users.Interacting With NatureStudies have shown that interacting with nature or even the mere act of viewing natureprovides cognitive benefits and improve overall well-being. It is therefore reasonable tosurmise that bringing nature into living spaces through greening can bring about the sameeffect. This is in line with the points raised in Tier 1, whose implementation will be coveredmore comprehensively.Practical Value of Traditional Cultural PracticesTraditional or even superstitious beliefs abound all over the world touching on well-being.For example, feng-shui (wind and water) is an ancient Chinese belief system that hasremained popular throughout the millennia. Commonly referred to as geomancy, feng-shuipromotes one’s being in tune with his or her environment to receive positive life force or qi.This is achieved through manipulating the situation and arrangement of the built environmentwith respect to the natural environment. Oro plata mata (gold, silver and death) is a Spanishinfluenced Filipino superstition regarding the succession of steps in a flight of stairs. Ideally,the last step ends in gold which equates to good luck. Silver is considered acceptable, butunder no circumstance should it correspond to death - obviously a sign of bad luck. Thismeans that the number of steps must not be divisible by three.Reception and acceptance in modern times have been mixed, but it is still worth looking intothe underlying principles and logic behind these beliefs.

TIER 3: ConvergenceThe Gaia Theory holds that the Earth's physical and biological processes are inextricablybound to form a self-regulating system that has allowed life to thrive for eons. The questionnow is that whether or not it is possible to apply the Gaia Theory or at least certain aspects ofit on a smaller scale. Is it possible to even come close to attaining a self-regulation system ona scale as small as a typical living space, such as a house, a shop or an office?Incorporation of Information and Communication TechnologiesOn the surface, it is not difficult to deduce that naturally mimicking global scale selfregulation will not be possible as a typical living space obviously does not have the necessarylevel of biodiversity to create a stable feedback mechanism. But perhaps this is whereinformation and communication technologies (ICT’s) can come in.Smart buildings have always used ICT to monitor building performance parameters such asambient temperature, humidity and power consumption. There are also implementationswhere the building detects the presence of its occupants and adjusts conditions accordingly.However, much of these innovations focus on biophysical parameters. There is little or noconcern over the other aspects of overall occupant well-being.The framework shown in Figure 5 illustrates how ICT can augment the feedback mechanismbetween space and occupants. Furthermore, it is also a conduit to the outside world.Generally speaking, living spaces in the real world are not closed systems. This has beenemphasized by the ubiquitous use of the Internet and social networking in recent history.Traditional dynamics within a household hardly applies anymore.Figure 7. Convergence framework

The Biomodd ConnectionThis integration adopts the foundations Biomodd (http://www.biomodd.net) has been builtupon. Synergy between technology and biology, environmental advocacy, social networking,collaboration, cross-culture – they can all apply. But whereas Biomodd has always been setwithin the context of a new media art installation, this research idea takes things a step furtherto create an actual living space. Conversely, there is no reason not to consider the whole thingas an art project in itself as the two previous tiers do touch on aesthetics. Back in 2009, theBiomodd[LBA2] team in the Philippines had already come up with suggestions approachingto this idea where the audience/users Biomodd are physically and virtually immersed withinBiomodd . Unfortunately, time, expertise and resource constraints prevented many of theseideas from being implemented.Figure 8. One of the earliest concepts for Biomodd[LBA2] and a higher level of immersioncompared to Biomodd[ATH1]Data visualization was meaningfully incorporated in Biomodd[TUDelft3] in 2011. But asidefrom aesthetic value, data collected can also be used to complete a feedback mechanism andcreate some form of self-regulation within Biomodd, or in the case of this research idea, aliving space.

Figure 9. Biomodd[TUDelft3] data visualization rendering environmental parameters withinthe installation.TheBigPictureEach tier can probably stand alone, and it may even be more realistic to take them on one at atime, due to possible constraints on time and resources. But we believe that taking on thewhole thing as one while collaborative research idea would be worthwhile.We look forward to receiving any comment or suggestion you might have.Thank you and best regards to everyone.

References:Bateson, G. 2000. Steps to an ecology of mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago,Illinois. 533pp.Berman, M.G., J. Jonides and S. Kaplan. 2008. The cognitive benefits of interacting withnature. Psychological Science 19:12, 1207-1212.Beesley, P., S. Hirosue, J. Ruxton, M. Trankle and C. Turner (ed). 2006. Responsivearchitectures: subtle technologies. Riverside Architectural Press,Birkeland, J. Design. 2002. Design for sustainability: a sourcebook of integrated eco-logicalsolutions. Earthscan, London, United Kingdom. 274 pp.Caruncho, E.S. 2003. Designing Filipino – the architecture of Francisco Mañosa. TukodFoundation, Inc., Manila, Philippines. 254 pp.Gleiniger, A., A. Hilbeck and J. Scott (ed). 2011. Transdiscourse 1: mediated environments.Springer-Verlag/Wien, Austria. 184 pp.Holmgren, D. 2002. Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability. HolmgrenDesign Services, Victoria, Australia.Javellana, R., F.N. Zialcita and E.V. Reyes. 1997. Filipino style. Archipelago Press,Singapore. 232 pp.Lockton, D. 2011. Architecture, urbanism, design and behaviour: a brief review. RetrievedJanuary 15, 2012 from eview.Lockton, D. 2011. Design and behaviourism: a brief review. Retrieved January 15, 2012 19/design-and-behaviourism-a-brief-review.Skinner, S. 1982. The living earth manual of feng-shui. Graham Brash (Pte) Ltd, Singapore.Szerszynski, B. 2005. Nature, technology and the sacred. Blackwell Publishing, Malden,Massachussetts, 222 pp.Trewin, D. . An alternative framework for measuring well-being. Retrieved October 24,2011 from http://www.unescap.org/stat/apex/2/APEX2 S.2 Alternative Framework.pdfWigginton, M. and J. Harris. 2002. Intelligent skins. Butterworth-Heinamann, Linacre House,Jorgan Hill, Oxford, United Kingdom, 176 pp.Wines, J. 2000. Green Architecture. Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Koln.Wolverton, B.C., A. Johnson and K. Bounds. 1989. Indoor landscape plants for indoor airpollution abatement. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Final Report. RetrievedJuly 2, 2010 from ts

Zarate, E.R. 2011. Filipino building beliefs. Retrieved November 8, 2011 articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm 1&i 106

Figure 2. Biophysical factors affecting living spaces Indoor gardening by itself is a realm of many possibilities. A 1989 NASA report noted a number of plants that thrive indoors in relatively low light conditions which are particularly effective in filtering airborne toxins. Indoor and roof gardening can also be taken a step

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