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TWI Job Instructions Foundation Of Standardized Work

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TWI – Job InstructionsFoundation of Standardized WorkMarek Piatkowski February 2012Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.com1

TWI – Job InstructionsHow to complete Job Breakdown SheetMarek Piatkowski February 2012Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.com2

Job Breakdown sheetJob Breakdown SheetDepartment:Ref no.:ProcessWork Station :Tools & Material:Safety Equipment:Date:By:Pre-Requisites:#MAJOR STEPSKEY @rogers.com3

Job Breakdown sheetJob Breakdown SheetDepartment:Ref no.:ProcessWork Station :Tools & Material:Safety Equipment:Date:By:Pre-Requisites:#MAJOR STEPSKEY POINTSREASONS Complete information about the Job – operation number, work station,parts and components used, tools, material, safety equipment, etc Major Steps123456789101112131415 Key points Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.comAs it says – only major stepsAlways start with a “verb”Single short sentencesSafety and Quality“Knacks and tricks” – knowledge based on experienceReasons4

Job Breakdown sheetCriticalMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Job Breakdown sheet does not have to cover everyconceivable step, key point or motion It is not a “Complete Instructions Manual” for the job that canbe handed to the employees. The purpose of the Job Breakdown sheet is to help theinstructor organize the job in their mind and determine thebest way to convey this knowledge to the employee. Once written it is merely a note from “us to ourselves” – not toanyone else. They are organizing tools for the Trainer – not forhanding over to the Learner. Train-the-Trainer.5

Major StepsMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Definition: “Any logical segment of the operation that helps advancethe job or adds value to the product”. List all the steps of the job exactly as done by the present method. Besure details include all material handling, machine work and workelements Is “Obtain pin and pick up screw driver” a Major Step? Is “Insert the pin into the designated hole” a Major step? Major steps are not meant to be complete time motion studies. Focus only on Operator movements6

Key PointsMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com For every Major Step list the important Key Points – safety and qualityare always key points You know that there are a few “key points” in every operation that , ifobserved and followed, prevent accidents, scrap, delays, and damageto tools and equipment If these key things are done right, the whole operation is right. If anyone of them is missed the operation is wrong If you present the job with these key points made clear, the operatorwill really “get it” He will do the operation right the first time. He won’t be “fighting”the work - making mistakes - getting hurt7

Reasons There is a difference between child education and adult education.Most of the adults while learning need to know the reason – WHY? In creating Reasons to perform a job try to use special words used intalking about the work, the product, the tools, or doing the job: Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.comIdentify special precautions to insure required qualityList notes on waste prevention, either of tools or materials. Safety and healthprecautions necessary for the learner to knowNotes on the troublesome points where the learner must exercise his ownjudgmentSupplementary information such as how the product is used, and how his partties into other operations.8

Job Breakdown sheetMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Job Breakdown sheets should be simple, common sense reminders ofall that we must cover when teaching the job or capturing the workelements. While it is important to be thorough, it is equally important to besimple and concise.9

Example of Job Breakdown Sheet – Operating roomMajor StepsPrep the patientApply anesthetic1. Swab chest with antiseptic2. Inject 5cc’s of lidocaineInsert needle into venacava1. Find clavicle2. Puncture chest with right under the clavicle3. Continue to push needle into the subclavian vein with asteep angle4. Pull back on the syringe5. Pull syringe off, leaving the needle in placeInsert guidewire1. Insert guidewire into the needle’s bore and into the venacava2. Do not force in3. Do not let go4. Do not let wire touch anything unsterileDilate the puncture pointPut in the central lineMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.comKeypoints1. Set out central line kit2. Check lab reports3. Lay patient on back4. Place rolled up towel between patient’s shoulderblades1. Remove needle and replace it with a thick plastic1. Remove plastic, thread the line over the wire until it is all theway into the vena cava2. Remove wire3. Flush the line with heparin solution with a syringe4. Suture the central line into the chestReasons for Key points1. immediate access to materials2. prevents potential adverse affects ofthe procedure/check to see ifprocedure could be potentially harmfulto the patient3. makes access to vena cava easier4. makes finding the clavicle easier1. prevents infection2. keeps the patient from feelingexcessive pain1. makes locating the vena cava easier2. finds subclavian vein3. avoid puncturing the lungs4. indicates if the needle is in the venacava or an artery. Maroon bloodindicates vena cava, red blood, artery.5. helps to put the guidewire in place1. serves as a placeholder for the dilatorand the central line2. prevents damaging the vena cava orthe heart3. prevents loss of the wire inside thepatient4. prevents infection1. the plastic widens the vein opening1. inserts the central line into the vena cava2. wire is no longer needed3. removes fluids out of the central line4. keeps the line in place10

How to change a tireMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com11

Job Breakdown SheetWorkshop Theme:Workshop No.Parts:TeamTools:WHAT?Important StepsHas the job advanced?Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.comLean WorkshopPage:Of:Process:No.Date:HOW?Key PointsMake or break,injure worker, easier to doWHY?Reasons(f or the key points)Training Aid12

Job Analysis for Instruction PurposeMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Qualified Instructor should be able to analyze each job prior toinstructing or developing Standardized Work. Experienced operators often overlook details of the job, which,because of his intimate knowledge, have become “second nature” tothem. They must look carefully at every detail of a job from the beginner’sviewpoint before attempting to teach it. They must be able to recognize and pull out the key operating pointsor “tricks of the trade” which are most vital to the successfulperformance of each operation.13

How to instruct Adults Most of us just “jump right in” and start instructing or correcting anoperator without much thought or planning. Perhaps your Supervisors/Leaders do the same because: Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.comThey know the job so well they have forgotten the things that “stump” thelearnerThey know it so well that they do not plan how to instructThey know it so well that they don’t pick out the key points—the knacks—thethings that cause accidents, scrap, re-work, delays, and damage to tools andequipment.To instruct an employee right takes just a little extra time at themoment, but it always saves hours and days of time later on, andprevents a large part of the scrap, spoiled work, and accidents14

How to Instruct – 4 Step Method When instructing, there are four Basic Steps to follow1. Prepare the Learner2. Present the Operation3. Try out performance4. Follow up Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.comThey really are no different than what your instructors do now.These steps help them do it well and thoroughly. At least they havehelped thousands of others.15

Job Instructions Starting Point ofStandardized WorkHow to initiate Standardized WorkMarek Piatkowski February 2012Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.com16

Traditional Approach to Work Instructions2. Delivers Standard Work toManufacturing toImplement1. Engineering CreatesWork Instructions usingMTM, Time Studies orother methodologies Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.com3. Difficult to Implement due tooverwhelming factors – No deep understanding of WorkInstructions Can not use as a problem solvingmeasure to eliminate waste fromarea Can not fully see Chaos situationon Line Often not updated when changeis made17

Standardized Work Approach2. Team Leader implementsStandardized Work on theshop floor1. Supervisor / TeamLeader engagesEmployees andEngineers to developStandardized WorkMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com3. Team Leader uses STW to manage ProductionArea more efficiently Deep understanding of tasks associated withoperators job Team Leader and Operators work together toprovide a safer/more efficient workenvironment. Can use Standardized Work to solveproblems and eliminate waste Easily update Standard Work after change tofloor18

Establishing Standardized WorkMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Standardized Work should be determined at the actual worksite by agroup of employees lead by a Supervisor Standardized Work should not be determined by Engineering or otherdepartments. Engineering must support and be a part of anImplementation Team. The Implementation Team identifies work elements and the sequenceof operation If possible the Supervisor or Manager should perform the newsequence by himself – to demonstrate that it works Operators use this information as a starting point to develop andimprove Standardized Work.19

STW Implementation StepsMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com1.Select production line or a work cell2.Calculate Takt Time or PCT (Planned Cycle Time)3.Capture current situation – Work Elements4.Calculate Process Capacity5.Analyze Current Situation6.Kaizen - Implement process improvements7.Implement Standardized Work20

Standardized Work Implementation Steps1.Select Production Lineor a Cell2.Calculate TaktTim e or PCT3.Capture currentsituationINITIAL OBSERVATION SHEETCritical OperationQuality CheckStandard In-ProcessStockSafety04.03.11Operator Cycle TimesObserv. # 2Observ. # 3Observ. # 4Observ. # 5C/T4145.537394244M/C # 3WIPWIPR/MM/C # 4R/MM/C # 2M/C # 2Number of ShiftsWorking Hours per ShiftTAKT TIME37.230Work Elements1. pattern drtivern onto capanello2. etsblno momento frinvertp lagunad seca3. ingotment dfrromgn drafter mondureato4. picken dtiremnto5. installatzione drivento6. test minutorgen7. wlk away from the unit unt smhmilen8. ih kinde finito9. stndo tsrtto forgetito moentoRough Sketch of a ProcessM/C # 4Customer Requirements1020Observ. # 1M/C # 3.Manufacturing Cell DProcess Name / Address:Date:WIPM/C # 54.Calculate ProcessCapacityWIPWIPM/C # 1M/C # 5WIPPROCESS CAPACITY SHEETMachine CapacityM/C # 1AndrewMacPhailJuniorR/MSequence of ImplementationDatePart Description07.03.09Gear MachiningMachine Cycle Times ObservationsMachine Description#12345Gear Cut - GC614Chamfer - CH228Gear Cut - GC 1444Gear Cut - GC 1445Test - TS1110Created by:J.F.Gaudette8" Pinion GearManualMachineMachine Cycle#1#2#3#4#5TimeAuto 134336956667287383033313443610NotesPROCESS CAPACITY SHEETMachineOperator Cycle TimesLine / SectionOperator Time Observations#Work Elements7. Im plem ent StandardizedWorkDate#2#3Load cross bar4.53.55.5Load C bracket6.53Insert pins and screws7.04.5 Total5.56.07.04Start the machine5Unload C bracket6Unload cross barPart DescriptionTotal Cycle Times(Working or Walking - Waiting is NOT a work element)12Waiting for machine to cycle#1Best#5Work*Time**4.5VA4.5A lot of walkingA lot of Man5.0Created by:Type of#47.05.5 136 137 VA5.5139136 133VA6.06.07.05.0Total6. Kaizen - processim provementsMachine / SectionMachine Time ObservationsR/MCompleted by:NotesWaiting - 7 seconds4.54.5VA4.5Walk and inspect4.04.0VA4.0Walk and inspect25.5 30.0 27.5 28.0136Using both hands25.55.Analyze CurrentSituation301. Clarify the GoalTakt Time 27 sec252. Analyze the CurrentSituation6. Evaluate the NewMethod2015103. Generate OriginalIdeas5. Implement the Plan54. DevelopImplementation PlanMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.comD2 - 10D2 - 12D2 - 14D2 - 16D2 - 18D2 - 26PP - 01PP - 03D2 - 0121

Job Methods TechniqueSTEP 1 – Break down the JobList all details of the job exactly as done by the present method. Be sure detailsinclude material handling, machine work and manual workSTEP 2 – Question every detailWhy is this necessary? What is its purpose? Where should this be done? Whenshould it be done? Who is best qualified to do it? How is the “best way” to do it?STEP 3 – Develop the new methodEliminate Waste and unnecessary details, combine details when practical,rearrange for better sequence, simplify work. Write up your proposed newmethod.STEP 4 – Apply the new methodGet final approval of all concerned on safety, quality, quantity, cost. Put the newmethod to work.Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.com22

Major Steps - Work ElementsMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.comTraining within IndustryStandardized WorkTeaching the jobAnalyzing the job23

Capturing current situationObserve and learn about work process at the cellMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Identify Cell layout (boundaries) Learn about a type of product being produced or service beingperformed Identify number of machines/equipment and their functions Identify which equipment operate automatically and which requireOperators to load and unload parts Identify number of operators and their responsibilities Learn about the flow of work and delivery of components24

Sequence of Work ElementsMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Work elements are used to describe the steps (sequence) to operate amachine, assemble a part or change a tool Work Elements in Standardized Work should be the same as MajorSteps on the Job Breakdown sheet (Job Instructions) Work elements are those which are required to complete a job at avery basic level By combining work elements in a sequence we are able to complete awhole job Any job can be broken into a series of elements. When analyzing thecontents of an operation it is very important to understand whatmakes up the most basic elements of a job25

Work Elements of the OperationMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com An element is a fixed amount of work Upon completion of an element you will have advanced your job insome fashion You can not complete an operation by doing just one element You must combine several elements to complete a task Combining elements leads to a series of actions Elements can stand alone, but the can also be further subdivided An element is something you can teach or show26

Operator observationsMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Observe an operation until you fully understand all operator’smovements, motions and sequence Breakdown each operation into Work Elements. Identify a Starting point and a Finishing point for each work element Work Element is the smallest amount of work that can be performedby one person. Set several work elements into groups substantial enough to timethem in seconds Establish the lowest repeatable time per each work element.27

Examples of Work ElementsGood Paint top of the component Load the part into tester Assemble part A to B Insert the pinPoorMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Assemble all parts - (too broad) Repair part - (too general) Pick up the bracket with your left hand and hold it. With your right handinsert a blue pin, be careful –(too complex) Inspect the part - (no standards)28

Capturing current situation Collect all the information regarding: Changeovers and changeover timesValues added and non value added activitiesNames and types of products and components manufactured at this work cell Type of service or activity being performed Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.comCycle timesTakt TimeObserve the Process Develop rough sketch List work steps (sequence of work) and work elements29

Process Capacity SheetMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com Machine Capacity sheet is used to calculate daily production capacityof each machine or equipment of a manufacturing process. By completing the Machine Capacity Sheet, it is possible to locate theslowest machine (bottleneck) among all the equipment of themanufacturing process. The slowest process/machine (constraint) will define the processPlanned Cycle Time (PCT) and Machine Capacity The Process Capacity sheet serves as a foundation for preparing aStandardized Work Combination Table.30

Operator Work vs Machine Work If the operator is merely observing machine operation, then thatobservation is waste (waiting) and should be eliminated.Cycle times must be separated between work that requires people and machines to work together – in this case it includes time toload and unload the machine and work done by a machine working without human involvement - machineoperates automaticallyMachine Cycle Time loading machine auto cycle unloadingMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com31

Worksite Management Provide training to operators on using Work Standards andStandardized Work Assure that operators perform tasks in accordance with definedstandards Solicit feedback from operators on effectiveness of standards Alert engineering and support groups of any problems with standards Revise standards to reflect all changes made Maintain and improve existing standardsSupervisors are expected to manage their areas of responsibilitiesthrough a use of Work Standards and Standardized Work.Marek.Piatkowski@rogers.com32

Lean Transformation SolutionsThis presentation is an intellectual property of F.S.P. Consulting Inc.No parts of this presentation can be copied or reproducedwithout a written permission from:Marek PiatkowskiF.S.P. Consulting Inc.VM: 416-235-2631Cell: work.comMarek.Piatkowski@rogers.com33

Job Breakdown sheet Job Breakdown sheet does not have to cover every conceivable step, key point or motion It is not a “Complete Instructions Manual” for the job that can be handed to the employees. The purpose of the Job Breakdown sheet is to help the instructor organize the job in their mind and determine the