Cat't Paths

2y ago
768.41 KB
5 Pages
Last View : 28d ago
Last Download : 1y ago
Upload by : Philip Renner

Cat't PathsBy James L. Holmes, Mid-Western Agronomist, USGA Green Sectionredwood and otherDirt,typespineofneedles,wood chips, tanbark, peanut and pecan hulls, sawdust, shells,concrete, sand, gravel and asphalt areamong things used for golf cart roadways.Indeed,thegrandentranceofmechanized golf carts has altered maintenance practices as well as the gameitself. Golf carts, especially those withwide tires, cause little compaction tosoils. However, the shearingactionwhere the tire meets soil, sandwichinggrass blades between, results in bare,rutted areas very quickly. One cartpass will cause damage or shearing.Consequently, many golf course superintendents have cart paths, or plan toinstall them.What is the best arrangement?Courses which have 12-month play andwhere cart use is heavy have installedpaths throughoutthe grounds, andmany insist that carts stay on thosepaths at all times. A non-cart en-thusiast measured the distance walkedfor 18 holes with a cart and againwithout a cart. The difference was approximately 500 yards longer withoutthe cart. Unless the golfer is inhumanlyaccurate and can hit his ball to a pathin every shot, he is in for some walkingwith this arrangement.Rather than build paths throughoutthe course, some clubs install roadswhere cart operators naturally seem togo. Invariably, this starts at the Number 1 tee, and also in funnel areasbetween greens and the following tee.Efforts are made, as indeed theyshould or must be, to place paths inout-of-play areas, such as among treeswhich may be close to putting surfaces,behindtrapsplacedneargreens, or behind the green.Fairway-Length PathsRules are made, but not always enforced, whereby cart operators mustuse paths in funnel areas or wherepaths exist. Some paths have beenPaths for three modes of transport are shown in this picture. First, the rail car forwalking golfers who shun hills. To its left is an asphalt path for poweredcarts. Alongside the asphalt path is a worn track created by walking golfers who climb hills,but not on hard paths.

Paths often are laid throughnorma!lyinstalled the length of entire fairwaysfor some specific purpose. If fairwayand rough conditions are such on agiven hole that paths cannot be installed, they are placed in remote areasor where cart use is assured.Where paths have not been installed,it has been observed that less permanent damage is done if carts are allowedto roam throughout the course ratherth m restricted to specific locations,such as rough only or fairway only. Cracked and crumbling edges demonstratethe damagedone to paths that are notwide enough to contain a cart.unusedportionsof the course.Where it is not desirable to install anartificial path, but turf wear is aproblem, increased cultural practicesare helpful. Such practices as aeration,extra fertilization, artificial wateringand disease control should be carriedout.Even though many items are Hsedas path material, the trend definitelyis toward asphalt. If other materials,such as gravel or sand, are used, theyeventually are covered with asphalt.Many superintendents, contractors, andcart users have been asked what typeof path they prefer. Without exception,the one considered best, and actuallythe most economical in the long run,consists of 3 to 4 inches gravel underbase covered with 2 inches of "hotroll" (240 -280 ) asphalt which willnot harden to a consistency impenetrable by spikes.Width Of PathsIn the beginning most paths were4 feet wide. But carts simply will notstay on a 4-foot expanse. Paths havebeen increased to 6 feet in many casesbut the trend is to 8-foot width. TheUSGAGREENSECTION RECORD

8-foot width is appropriate for a number of reasons:1) Anyone can stay on them.2) They can be used for maintenanceequipment.3) asphalt spreaders ncrmally lay8-foot swaths; thus it could be lessexpensive to place 8-foot rather than6-foot paths in some instances.At Number 1 tee locations, ofteneven 8 feet is not adequate. Grass thatonce covered the areas next to tees isgradually being replaced by asphalt atsome courses. Grass cannot grow whenyou are standing on it, and the Number1 teeing area is the most difficult tokeep turfed. As much asphalt or othertype pathing as necessary must b2placed here.The range of path material is wide,from one extreme of just dirt roadsformed by traffic to complete concreterunways. But, as previously mentioned,gravel covered with asphalt is findingfavor. Generally these paths are builtas follows:1. Of most importance is the formationof a sound, well-constructed base;the resulting path will be as goodOnce grassy, the area alongsideWater was encouragedto run off to thesides of this path, causing the erosionshown along the its base.Remove existing sod and soil to sucha depth that the finished asphalt surface will be level with the soil. Thecenter of the path should be 2 % to3 % higher than the edges to providefor drainage. If four inches of graveland two inches of asphalt are to belaid, the depth should be six inches.One variation here could be to "swale"the pathway or make the center lowerif water drain or carry-off frem thecenter area is necessary. This couldNo.1 tee is now beingand foot traffic.convertedto accommodatecart

help control erosion at the edge of thepath. This consideration is for areaswhere considerable water must movein natural drainways.2. Be sure that drainage is assured,then place 3 to 4 inches either fieldrun gravel, "pea" gravel (thoughpea gravel does not compact well orevenly), or what is known in Illinoisas Grade 8 crushed stone. A materialof this type is finding favor becauseit is easy to handle, compacts evenly,makes a smooth, even surface, doesnot erode readily, is acceptableto foot and cart traffic, thus can beleft uncovered by asphalt for aperiod of time if immediate use ofasphalt is not possible.The book, StandardSpecificationsfor Road and Bridge Construction, published by the State of Illinois, specifiesGrade 8 stone as: "Crushed stone shallbe the angular fragmentsresultingfrom crushing by mechanical meansthe following type of rock quarriedfrom undisturbed,consolidateddepositscalcareous or dolomitic limestoneor similar rock." With thefollowing specifications:100 per cent passing a 1 inch sieve60-90 per cent passing a Yz inch sieve40-60 per cent passing a No. 4 sieve(1;4 inch)25-50 per cent passing a No. 8 sieve(Vs inch)20-40 per cent passing a No. 16 sieve(1/16 inch)5-15 per cent passing a No. 20 sieve(1/25 inch)With the above sieving specifications,it should be possible to locate similarmaterial anywhere.This type material definitely makesthe most suitable cart path if gravelis used.3. Roll-firm-compactgravel. Be suresoil to the sides of the cut is notbroken down. Especially if existing4soil is sandy, superior results areobtained if barriers are placed atedges. Also, barriersdefinitelyshould be placed near the clubhouse or any other location thatcarries heavy foot traffic.4. Place asphalt so that two inches willbe present after compression (2%inches to start), or figure that oneyard of hot asphalt will be reducedby 30 per cent when compressed.Use material readily penetrable withspikes after hardening. This is important because golfers simply willnot walk on hard surfaces and it isdangerous to do so.As specified by the State of Illinois,asphalt is:P A 1-2 For surface treatment andseal coat.P A 3-4 For bituminous concrete,dense graded aggregate type, and forbituminous macadam pavement.P A 5 For bituminous macadam pavement.PA 5-6-7 For bituminous concrete,dense graded aggregate type.P A 7-8 For sheet asphalt binder andsurface courses.P A 3 or P A 4 is suitable for cartpaths.5. Compress with rollers which arenot to exert more weight than 400psi or less than 200 psi of rollersurface. Rollers are not to be propelled at more than 150 feet perminute.6. The cost range is wide. It is difficultto arrive at an exact figure forevery area. One course paid 37ft asquare foot for all work done by thecontractor. Another dug road bedsand the contractor laid stone andasphalt for 30ft a square foot.7. After asphalt has been firmed, turfdamage to side of path should berepaired by filling and sodding. However, the freshly-laid path should beUSGA GREENSECTION RECORD

allowed to harden for 8 to 12 hoursbefore it is used.8. After asphalt has been in place 30days, apply a sealer coat. This sealercoat, which costs between 3 and 4 a square foot, can be obtained invarious colors. If desired, a green,white, or lavender path can beobtained. Sealer coat lasts about 3years. For sealing old asphalt, mix1 quart of sand with every 3 to 5gallons of material used. Sealer coatis merely dumped on and spreadwith mold boards or squeegees.9. Asphalt paths hold up amazinglywell if installed properly. Nonetheless, breaks are frequent. Cold patchcan be used to repair small ruptureswhen hot mix is not available. Largebreaks should be repaired with thesame hot mix used in originalconstruction because cold patch isnot long lasting. Therefore, it isdesirable to re-repair cold patcheswith hot mix when hot mix isavailable.Care must be taken to insure safety,especially in hilly terrain. Sharp corners and turns should be adequatelybanked. In extreme cases, even a patheight feet wide may not be wideenough. Paths must not slope downhillor toward water. Except where absolutely necessary, stay away fromtrees. Repair large chuck holes immediately.The tendency, even though much lessthan in the past, simply is to not makea long enough path. The carts mustget off some place when the entirecourse is not pathed. Where carts always leave the path at the same spotturf is worn away. The roadwaymust be extended from the green tothe tee and 50 yards or so down thefollowing fairwayin heavy trafficareas. If the cart path can be bowedor meandered off into the woods toJANUARY,1967the right or left of the fairway, itis then possible to place barriers onthe path which force carts off at thatlocation.Saving WearCarrying the roadway slightly pastthe tee, then "flaring" it out, is notparticularly successful in reducing endof-path wear. Unless forced to do sootherwise, all drivers leave the pathin the same place.Carts can be forced off the path atdifferent points from day to day by theuse of portable barriers.One verysuitable barrier consists of a long steelrod with both ends bent at a 90 an le. The ends are driven into theground on either side of the path andthe center of the rod stretches acrossthe path at about a 3-foot height. Asign with an arrow pointing to theright or left can be hung from thecenter of the rod. Rarely will cartusing golfers move such barriers, andit is quite difficult to run over them;the cart occupants may be decapitated.These barriers are moved to differentsections of the extended path as considered necessary by the golf coursesuperintendent.Some sophisticatedmaterialsarebeing tried for paths. The big interesthere is to find something with lessbounce to the ounce than asphalt foruse in areas where shots frequentlyland. Synthetics such as those used assurface materials in the Houston Astrodome and on race tracks are excellentbut quite expensive. A suitable basesuch as asphalt must first be installedanyway.Anyone considering installation ofcart paths should plan to extend pathsas dictated by cart wear even if itmeans completely from tee to green tofollowing tee. This is especially so onhilly courses where the terrain limitsareas where carts can travel.5

Paths often are laid through norma!ly unused portions ofthe course. installed the length of entire fairways for some specific purpose. Iffairway and rough conditions are such on a given hole that paths cannot be in-stalled, they are placed in remote areas or where cart use is assured. Where paths have not been installed, it has been observed .

Related Documents:

2007 cat d6t xl 2012 cat d6t lgp (3) 2006 cat d6r xl series iii 2004 cat d6r lgp 2012 cat d6n lgp (2) 2012 cat d6k-lgp (4) cat d6h lgp cat d6h 2012 cat d5k2-xl (3) 2008 cat d4g 2012 cat d3k lgp (3) 2002 john deere 750c 2006 john deere 700lgp 2013 komatsu d39 px motor graders cat 16g 2014 cat

Cat C2.4 (DI Turbo) Cat C4.4 Cat C7.1 ACERT Cat C4.4 ACERT Cat C7.1 ACERT Cat C7.1 Cat C7.1 Cat C9.3B Cat C7.1 ACERT Cat C9.3 Cat C13 Engine 47 91 157 143 157 260 212 311 259 346 405 Net Horse Power (hp) 0.25 0.65 1.2 1 1.3 - 1.4 1.8 1.6 2.12 1.88 2.69 2.41 - 3.21 Bucket Capacity (m3) Large boom base for strength and .

cat 320e lrr 153 48,940 21’ 9” cat 321d l cr 148 53,704 . 22’ 10” cat 323f l 161 50,920 21’ 9” cat 324e l 190 55,664 22’ 0” cat 326f l 203 58,847 22’ 4” cat 330f l 239 68,209 23’ 9” cat 335f l cr 200 83,703 . 23’ 8” cat 336f l 300 82,917 24’ 7” .

Flowchart of Animated Story *Initial state* Background: Railroad Cat: What should we do? Cat: Left side Dog: Right side *Introductions* *Color* Cat says: Lets do Tricks! Cat: I can change colors! Cat changes to 5 colors Cat changes back *Whirl* Cat says I can whirl Cat whirls 5 times Cat changes back Flowchart of Animated Story *Initial state*

goria crociera tubo interno tubo esterno cate-goria crociera tubo interno tubo esterno 540 giri min 1000 giri min 540 giri min 1000 giri min kw kw kw kw cat. 1 12 18 cat. 5 35 54 cat. 2 15 23 cat. 6 47 74 cat. 3 26 40 cat. 7 55 83 cat. 4 26 40 cat. 8 70 110 potenze pag. 067 frizione a dischi di attrito .

CLAMP METER SELECTION GUIDE 61-775 61-765 61-757 61-747 FEATURES CAT Rating (Safety) CAT IV 600V CAT III 1000V CAT IV 600V CAT III 1000V CAT IV 600V CAT III 1000V CAT III 600V Listing cULus, CE, RCM cULus, CE, RCM cULus, C


The Cat in the Hat (Tune: The Adams Family) The cat in the hat (snap! snap!) The cat in the hat (snap! snap)! The cat in the hat The cat in the hat The cat in the hat (snap! snap!) He causes so much fun But when the fun is done You will be the one To send that cat AWAY! Repeat chorus.