Chapter 5 Toll Structure And Rates, Other Dues And Charges .

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Chapter 5 Toll Structure and Rates, Other Dues and Charges5.1Toll structure and rates5.1.1OutlineTolls for the Suez Canal transit are assessed on SCNT. The toll rates are determined on thebasis of SDR units. Tolls calculated on this basis are payable in one of designated hardcurrencies according to its exchange rate in relation to SDRs declared by the IMF. Tariff oftolls in 2000 is shown in Table 5.1.1.Table 5.1.1 Rates of Tolls to be Applied as from 1st January 2000(SDR/SCNT)Vessel TypeFirst5000LBNext5000LBSC Net Tankers of Crude Oil Only*Combined Carriers of Crude Oil Only6.49 5.52 3.62 3.08 3.25 2.77 1.40 1.19 1.40 1.19 1.21 1.032*Tankes of Petroleum Products*Combined Carriers carryingpetroleum products*Combined Carriers carryingmore than one kind of cargo6.75 5.52 3.77 3.08 3.43 2.77 1.93 1.19 1.93 1.19 1.93 1.033*Dry Bulk Carriers*Combined Carriers carryingdry bulk cargo only7.21 6.13 4.14 3.52 2.97 2.53 1.05 0.90 1.00 0.85 1.00 0.854*Other Bulk Liquid Carriers*LNG Carriers*Chemical Carriers (1)*Combined Carriers carryingother bulk liquid7.50 6.38 4.14 3.56 3.81 3.24 2.68 2.28 2.68 2.28 2.68 2.285*Liquified Petroleum Gas LPG Carriers6.75 5.75 3.77 3.21 3.43 2.92 2.42 2.06 2.42 2.06 2.42 2.066*Containerships*Vehicle Carriers7.21 6.13 4.10 3.49 3.37 2.87 2.42 2.06 2.42 2.06 1.83 1.567*Special Floating Units7.218*Other Vessels7.21 6.13 4.14 3.52 3.77 3.21 2.63 2.24 2.63 2.24 2.63 2.24-4.14-3.77-2.63-2.63-2.63-(1) If in ballast, chemical/oil tankers are to be charged at the same rate of oil tankers.Source) SCA CircularExemption of dues may be given for the following vessels:- Vessels belonging to the Egyptian Government, on condition that it did not carryany cargo or passenger.- Vessels belonging to United Nations, Multi- National Troops.- Vessels under 300 tons SCGT in following condition:- She is not carrying any passengers or cargo.- She is not replacing any ship or any small craft subject to Canal dues.5-1

- Motor boats belonging to Canal shipping agents, on condition that she is notcarrying passengers.A reduc tion of a quarter, half or three quarters of the tolls is allowed to vessels using onlythree quarters, half or one quarter of the Canal.Additional tolls are levied on slow vessels as shown in Table 5.1.2Table 5.1.2 Additional Tolls on Slow VesselsShip’s speed is less than the speedAdditional Tollsof the vessels of her group in theconvoy, by not more than1 Km/H10 % of the tolls2 Km/H20 % of the tolls3 Km/H30 % of the tolls4 Km/H40 % of the tolls5 Km/H80 % of the tolls6 Km/H or more160 % of the tollsSource) Rules of Navigation, 1995, SCAA surcharge of 25% of the tolls is to be applied for Navy and Auxiliary ships belonging tothe Navy of different countries.A surcharge of tolls is to be applied for container vessels or lash vessels carryingcontainers or lashes over weather deck based on SCA circular No.6/1993 as follows:6%: up to 3 tiers of containers or lashes8%: 4 tiers of containers or lashes10%: 5 tiers of containers14%: more than 5 tiers of containersTolls are to be revised and announced with SCA circular each year, while those have beenremained almost unchanged since 1994. Prime Minister approves transit dues drafted bythe Economic Unit and agreed by the tolls committee and board of directors within SCA.5-2

5.1.2Tolls reduction(1) Rebates offered to long haul tripsSCA circular: Long haul tolls rebate circular of Apr. 1987amended by No.4/1998Content:Rebate is equal to surplus (and small incentive) of shipping costthrough the Canal (including transit dues) deducted by that of viaalternative routesObjective:To provide individual competitive price against via alternativeroutes for all vessel types except Container Ships(2) Reduction for VLCC in ballast coming from America to Arabian GulfSCA circular: No. 435615 (Dec. 1992)Content:45%: for VLCC coming from Gulf of Mexico (loop range)55%: for VLCC coming from Caribbean zoneand the north coast of South AmericaObjectives: To provide competitive price against via Cape route in order toattract VLCC in ballast of 200,000 DWT and above(3) SBT reductionSCA circular: No. 6/1993Content:4%: for Segregated Ballast Tankers2%: for Double Hull TankersObjectives: To favor environment friendly tankers(4) Tolls for tankers that lighten part of crude oil in SUMED terminal at SukhnaSCA circular: No.8/1995, amended by No7./1998Content:Tolls of US 0.63 will be levied on each metric ton of crude oil.Minimum transit dues are US 90,000.SCA is to bear the charges of escorting tugboats.Objective:To provide competitive price against the Cape(5) Volume incentives for crude oil tankersSCA circular: No.9/1995, amended by No.7/1996 and N0.3/1997Content: Discount will apply on the round trip of the same tanker if crude oilquantities transported by one individual client during one year.5%: 1 million 2 million10%: 2 million 3 million30%: 3 million After the reductions have been effected, maximum payment for theround trip shall stand at SDR 330,0005-3

Objective:To increase the number of vessels transiting the Canal(6) Rebate to ships carrying wheat and heading to Aqaba harbourSCA circular: No.5/1996Content:10% for ballast and loaded carrierObjective:To provide competitive price against land-bridge transport(7) LNG ReductionSCA circular: No.7/1996, amended by No. 3/1997Content:35% regardless of destination for ballast and loaded carrierObjective: To maintain competit ive price of Arabian LNG in EU market(8) Volume incentives for LNGSCA circular: No.1/1999Content:Discount will apply on the round trip of the same carrier if gasquantities transported by one individual client during one year.5%: 0.5 million 1 million10%: 1 million 2 million15%: 2 million Objective: To increase the number of vessels transiting the Canal(9) Tolls for supertanker (mother) with Suez- max (daughter)SCA circular: No3.1999Content:Tolls of US 0.10/barrel for total volume of cargo by the two shipsObjective: To encourage the passage of supertankers that currently do not usethe Canal and simultaneously to provide competitive price againstSUMED5-4

5.1.3Historical changes of toll structure and ratesThe historical changes of toll structure and rates for laden tankers as an example are shownin Table 5.1.3 and Table 5.1.4. Classification of laden vessels or vessels in ballast havebeen made since 1956.Table 5.1.3 Historical Changes of Toll StructureYear1956-19651975Vessel typeNo difference1. Tankers, Bulk carriers, Combined carriers2. Other ships1. Tankers, Bulk carriers, Combined carriersVessel sizeNo differenceNo differenceFirst1000, Next4000, RestFirst5000, Next15000, Rest19862. Other Ships4 types-Tankers of crude oil, -Bulk carriers-Combined carriers, -Other vessels5 types-Tankers of crude oil, Tankers of petroleumproducts, -Bulk carriers, -Combined carriers-Other vesselsDitto1987Ditto1989Ditto1990DittoFirst5000, Next15000, Next20000,Next45000, RestFirst5000, Nex15000, Next10000,Next20000, Next45000, RestFirst5000, Next5000, Next10000,Next20000, Next30000, RestDitto19791981198519927 types-Tankers of crude o il, -Tankers of petroleumproducts, -Bulk carriers, -Combined carriers-Container vessels & Car carriers,-Con-Bulker, -Other vessels19948 typesadding Other bulk liquid, LPG&LNG carriers19969 types with minor revising19978 types with minor revising19988 types with minor revising19998 types with minor revisingSource) SCA Circulars5-5No differenceDittoFirst5000, Next15000, Next65000, RestDittoDittoDittoDittoDitto

Table 5.1.4 Historical Changes of Toll Rates for Laden TankersYear Unitoverup of Transit Dues per SCNT5,000 10,000 20,000 40,000 70,00010,000 20,000 40,000 70,000 00.3400.3400.3400.3400.3400.3400.42449 0.42449 0.42449 0.42449 0.424490.42874 0.42874 0.42874 0.42874 0.428740.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.437300.43730 0.43730 0.43730 0.43730 le ofTransit 350SDR189,350SDR189,350

5.1.4 Toll revenue by vessel typeTable 5.1.5 shows toll revenue by vessel type in 1998 and 1999. Total toll revenue is 1,813million US or 1,325 million SDR in 1999.Main vessel types are Container Ships (revenue:884 million US , share:49%), BulkCarriers (revenue:292 million US , share:16%), Tankers (revenue:223 million US ,share:12%), Car Carriers (revenue:190 million US , share:10%) and General Cargo Ships(revenue:142 million US , share:8%), and the shares of other vessel types are 1% or belowin 1999.Table 5.1.5 Toll Revenue by Vessel TypeVessel TypeTankersBulk CarriersCombined CarriersGeneral Cargo ShipsContainer ShipsLASHRoRoCar CarriersPassenger ShipsWar ShipsOther VesselsTotal (US )Daily AverageTotal (SDR)SDR Rate (US )(1000 US )99/98Jan.-Dec. 611%22,3231%1,749,570100%4,793Jan.-Dec. 0991.3679Source) 03%

5.2 Other dues and charges5.2.1Towage dues(1) Vessels towed or escorted in the CanalTransit dues are to be calculated for vessels that transit under their own power. Extra duesof 100% are to be levied in case of engine and/or steering failure or in case of scrapvessels. Dues on scrap vessels are to be calculated on the basis of SCGT.(2) Towed large floating unitsTransit dues are collected on the basis of SCNT (SCGT for unmanned or scrapped vessels).The tug of the unit will be treated as conventional ship regarding dues. Towage dues arecollected on the towed manned unit at a rate of 25 US Cent per SCNT (SCGT forunmanned or scrapped vessels). Other extra charges may be levied case by case.5.2.2 Berthing duesVessels not intending to transit the Canal and anchoring or mooring in Port Said Harbour,Timsah Lake, GBL anchorage, have to pay berthing dues as follows:1 st day till 10th.11th day till 20th.21st day till 30th.Over 30 days.5 US Cent /Net Ton /Day10 US Cent /Net Ton /Day20 US Cent /Net Ton /Day30 US Cent /Net Ton /DayBerthing dues are not payable by transiting vessels for the first 24 hours in harbor ofarrival. If during the Canal transit, the vessel stops in any of the anchorages of Bitter Lake,Timsah Lake or the port of Port Said for reasons from the vessel herself, berthing dues willbe paid as mentioned in above.As for changing berths, pilotage dues as mentioned below will be levied. Changing berthon SCA's request is free of tug charge.5.2.3 Pilotage duesPilotage dues are not payable by vessels transiting the Canal.For vessels not transiting the Canal, pilotage is compulsory for vessels from AnchorageArea to Port of Port Said or from Port of Port Said to sea. The dues are shown in Table5.2.1.For vessels not transiting the Canal, pilotage is compulsory from Waiting Area to Port ofSuez anchorages, from Port of Suez anchorage to Basins, also from Basins to Anchorageareas or sea. The dues are as per port of Suez Tariff.For changing berth at Port Said, the pilotage rate mentioned in Table 5.2.1 is doubled, in5-8

addition, the vessel will have to pay almost half of Day Pilotage mentioned in same Table.Table 5.2.1 Pilotage Dues at Port Said(US )Vessel SCTDay PilotageNight PilotageUp to 2,500 tonUp to 5,000 tonUp to 10,000 tonUp to 20,000 tonUp to 30,000 tonUp to 50,000 tonOver 50,000 ton609011515017520023090130175220260300350Source) Rules of Navigation, SCAIn case of having an extra pilot on board, the vessel shall pay extra due of 300 US perCanal Pilot and 150 US per Roads Pilot. In case of bad view vessels, they will pay thedues for extra pilots.5.2.4Charges for SCA TugboatsA unified Canal passage rate of 6,600 SDR is to be paid for each escorting tug in thefollowing cases (by SCA Circular No.8/1996):- Loaded vessels less than 70,000 SCNT will be escorted by one tug if fortechnical reasons SCA find it necessary or when the vessels draught is morethan 47 feet.- Loaded vessels from 70,000 SCNT to 90,000 SCNT will be escorted by one tug.- Loaded vessels over 90,000 SCNT will be escorted by two tugs.- Vessels in ballast over 130,000 SCNT will be escorted by one tug.- LPG and LNG over 25,000 SCNT (except GF) will be escorted by one tug.- Vessels in ballast with beam over 218 ft up to 233 ft will be escorting by onetug.- Vessels in ballast with beam over 233 ft will be escorted by two tugs.- Towed scrapped vessels in ballast 80,000 SCNT and over will be escorted byone tug.As for harbor tugs applied at Port Said Harbor, vessels not intending to transit the Canalare payable for mooring or getting underway according to the last circular to be issued bySCA, while vessels transiting the Canal are free of charge.5.2.5 Trial chargesFor the safety of navigation, trials may be requested by SCA before entering the Canal orresuming the transit. A pilot will supervise the trials. A charge of 170 US is to be paid bythe vessel for each pilot or Canal expert for each trial. If trials are made outside Canal5-9

Waters, the charge will be 340 US .5.2.6 Additional duesSCA sets in Rules of Navigation various additional dues including:boat drill, booking for transit alteration of date or cancellation, changing berths oranchorages without authorization, erroneous declaration, change in paymentcurrency, embarking or disembarking persons without authorization, firing shots,picking objects from water without authorization, throwing wastes, rivetingwithout authorization.5.2.7Average paymentAverage payment for transiting the Canal other than toll is said to be as follows;(Average payment) (Port dues) (Agency fee, etc.) (Escort tug charge)(Port dues) 0.13 US /SCNT(Agency fee, etc.) 4,500 US (Escort tug charge) 6,600 SDR/tug5 - 10

Chapter and Operation of the Suez CanalOrganizationGeneral functionsThe Suez Canal is managed and operated by the Suez Canal Authority.According to the SCA Act, SCA is a public organization having an independent legal statusand its own budget as follows. Most of the regulations of the Government which areapplicable to public enterprises and private business firms do not apply to SCA, however,SCA's annual budget must undergo the examination of the Ministry of Finance and theMinistry of Planning and be approved as prescribed by Presidential Decree.SCA has its head office in Ismailia, liaison offices in Cairo and Alexandria and branches inPort Said and Port Tewfik (Suez) for handling field works.Law No. 30/1975: Regulation of the Suez Canal AuthorityArticle 1The Suez Canal Authority is to be in charge of the Suez Canal, its management, utilization,maintenance and development. This authorization, however, covers the Canal proper withthe status prevailing upon the issuance of law No. 285/1956 regarding the nationalizationof the Suez Canal International Maritime Company. The SCA has the right to establishwhatever projects that are deemed necessary to the Canal, and/or participate in suchprojects and promote them.Article 2The SCA is a public authority that enjoys an independent legal status subject to theprovisions of this specific law, and not the provisions of law No. 60/1971 pertaining topublic organizations.Article 3The SCA should have a Board of Directors that is appointed by decree from the Presidentof the Republic, who may appoint the Chairman and the members of the Board, dismissthem, and specify their wages and bonuses.Article 4The SCA should adopt proper management and utilization systems as in commercialventures, regardless of government regulations.Article 5The SCA should have an independent budget arranged in the manner adopted by othercommercial ventures, with no violation to the control of the Central Agency for Accountsover the SCA final account.The fiscal year at the SCA starts on the first of January and ends at the end of December of6-1

each year, whereas the budget and the final account of the SCA are to be duly approved bydecree from the president.Article 6It is solely the task of the SCA to issue regulations related to navigation, and otherregulations related to the smooth operation of the Suez Canal.Article 7The SCA manages Port Said Harbor as an integral part of the Suez Canal, and SCA is tosupervise all maritime operations therein.Article 8The SCA imposes the relevant transit dues, as well as pilotage, towing and berthingcharges as per the relevant rules and regulationsArticle 9The SCA has all the necessary power to fulfil its obligations. It has the authority to ownland and buildings in any possible way including expropriation for the common weal. Ithas the right to lease its lands and owned properties or rent land and properties from otherseither to achieve its objectives or for the welfare of its employees. It may also do so for itsprojects and facilities such as power stations, water plants, roads, and etc. to ensuresmooth operation.Article 10SCA possessions (assets and properties) are to be considered private.Article 11To enable the SCA to honor its commitments and maintain quality performance, all thefacilities and equipment that are imported by the SCA are exempted from regularprocedures required by valid customs regulations, and are also exempted from requiredpermits.The President of the Republic issues a decree regulating the estimation and method ofpayment for the customs duty, and the relation between the SCA and the CustomsDepartment.Article 12All SCA valid regulations, as well as financial, accounting and administrative rules are toremain unchanged provided they do not contradict with the provisions of this law, untileither modified, cancelled or substituted.Article 13Within the scope of urgent requirement, the Board of Directors, or whoever delegated bythe Board, has the necessary authority to recruit technical and administrative staffmembers, select them and determine their seniority and payment as well as assign them todifferent departments, sections and offices until personnel regulations have been duly6-2

issued.Article 14The SCA is not authorized to take any action contrary to the provisions of October 29,1988 Agreement regarding the unrestricted use of the Suez Canal.It has no right to grant any ship or person any privileges or advantages not usually grantedto others. It is not authorized to provide any sort of preferential treatment to certain usersor deprive some of the advantages given to others.Article 15This law does not, in anyway, jeopardize the rights or commitments of the Arab Republicof Egypt based on the Constantinople Agreement of October 29. 1888.Article 16Law No 146/1957 regarding the SCA Regulation is to be cancelled.Article 17This law is to be published in the official paper, and takes effect as soon as published.Law No. 4/1988: Modification of some provisions of Law No. 30/1975 on theRegulation of the Suez Canal AuthorityArticle oneThe following new paragraphs are to be added to Articles 2 and 3 of the Law No 30/1975regarding the regulation of the Suez Canal Authority.Article 2 (paragraph 2)“and the Suez Canal Authority reports to the Prime Minister”Article 3 (paragraph 2)“and decisions taken by the SCA Board of Directors are to be reported to the PrimeMinister for due approval and implementation. However, if there is no response from thePrime Minister the decisions are to be implemented after 15 days of notification.Article twoThe sentence reading “including expropriation for the commonweal” is to be cancelledfrom Article 9 of Law No 31/1975.Article threeThis law is to be published in the official paper, and takes effect as soon as published.6-3

6.1.2Organization and personnelFigure 6.1.1 shows the organization of SCA. SCA is managed by a Board of Directorsconsisting of a Chairman and Directors.Chairman concurrently assumes the managing directorship, assisted by thirteen directors ofthe various service and operational departments, and is responsible for day to daymanagement and operations.The organization of SCA consists of the following 13 departments which are directlyresponsible to the Chairman. At present, there are about 14,500 employees and workerswith the SCA.The duties of each department as of November 2000 are as follows.(1) Management DepartmentManagement Dept. consists of one director, four deputy directors and four sub-directors.The department inspects all that is submitted to SCA Chairman from different departments,and acts as the general secretariat that receives all issues from other SCA departments.The Director of management is in charge of all the consultative activities such as activitiesof the technical office, public relations and security, follow up and control andorganization, administration and training as follows.The Technical Office is in charge of the following,1) Receipt and preparation of the subjects that are to be submitted to SCA Chairman.2) Preparation and data collection for special cases and studies as directed by SCAChairman.3) Preparation of administrative decrees initiated by SCA Chairman and circulation of suchdecrees with due follow up so that they get implemented.4) Preparation of issues that will be submitted to the Board of Directors.5) Preparation and distribution of the minutes of the Board meeting with due follow up ofthe implementation of the Board’s decrees and recommendations.6) Receipt of requests given by Board Members for issues to be submitted to SCAChairman.7) Preparation of the Board meeting agenda.8) Addressing the relevant agenda.9) Informing the concerned departments of the Board’s decrees with due follow up ofimplementation.10) Performing administrative procedures such as the formation of technical committeeswhether at the request of the Board or SCA Chairman.11) Conducting studies and performing technical follow up for various subjects asrequested by SCA Chairman.12) Filing for documents related to the Board meetings.6-4

13) Translation of all foreign correspondences related to SCA Chairman.14) Translation of various articles to be sent to concerned departments as recommended bythe Chairman.15) Receipt and investigation of complaints that are sent to the Chairman. By request fromSCA Chairman such complaints are duly discussed and investigated with concerneddepartments and replies are sent in due course.16) Analysis of complaints and reporting the results to SCA Chairman forrecommendations.17) Summarizing the correspondence coming to the office prior to submitting such issuesto the chairman for due instructions.18) Registration and distribution of in-coming correspondence as per directions from SCAChairman.19) Filing copies of out-going correspondence.20) Performing secretarial works related to the Chairman.21) Maintaining a personnel unit that acts in accordance with laws and regulations of thePersonnel Dept.22) Keeping administrative files for the staff related to the Chairman’s office.23) Preparation of Pay rolls for staff related to the Chairman’s office.24) Performing periodical statistics as requested by the Personnel Dept.The Public Relations and Security Section are in charge of the following:1) Disseminating knowledge of the role played by the SCA, as well as explaining the SCAobjectives to the public. By providing accurate information the Public Relations staff canillustrate the importance of the Suez Canal to the world economy and can explain how theCanal is run with due consideration to the future Canal projects. Such targets can beachieved through the distribution of periodicals, documentary films, local newspapers andmagazines and international exhibitions.2) Providing good care for SCA staff through social and sports clubs and activities andrecreational facilities.3) The strategic location of the Suez Canal and the importance of the role it plays call forincreased security procedures. Therefore plans are always set forth to protect the SCAinstallations in the 3 Canal Cities against sabotage.4) The Public Relations Section is in fact a link between top management and SCA staff.The Follow Up and Control Section is involved in the following,1) Technical follow up and control on SCA projects during implementation.2) Follow up of workshops operation and preparation of progress reports.3) Follow up of technical operation budgets and preparation of relevant reports.4) Follow up of logistics for all SCA sites.5) Follow up of SCA assets.6) Registration of supplies, equipment etc. and reporting on any violations.7) Coordination with other departments on financial and administrative work in common.8) Administrative and financial follow up for SCA projects and presentation of evaluationreports.The Organization, Administration and Training Section is in charge of the following,6-6

1) Preparation of the necessary studies on the organization of work as well as thesimplification of procedures at SCA.2) Providing organizational and administrative opinions.3) Preparation of job descriptions.4) Planning the manpower requirements.5) Planning the policy of manpower training.6) Preparing studies for the development of work procedures and regulations as suggestedby various departments.(2) Legal DepartmentLegal Dept. consists of one director, one deputy director and two sub-directors and isinvolved in the following.1) Preparation of draft internal regulations and penalties, as well as other draft regulationsand decrees.2) Providing legal opinion to SCA companies.3) Looking after all cases filed by or against SCA.4) Follow up of procedures following a case won by SCA.5) Giving legal counsel to SCA departments on various issues.6) Conducting administrative investigations with SCA staff referred to the Legal Dept.7) Revising laws and regulations of SCA to make sure they do not contradict applicablepublic regulations.8) Designing the legal wording of adjudication and tenders and participation in relatedprocedures.9) Legal preparation of contracts and agreements between SCA and other parties.10) Registration of SCA belongings.(3) Financial DepartmentFinancial Dept. consists of one director, five deputy directors and ten sub-directors and isin charge of the following.1) Participation in setting the overall plan of the SCA and ways to achieve the set plan.2) Performing all jobs related to financial affairs (accounts, costs, statistics, revenues,expenses, banks and treasuries).3) Setting the finance policy of the SCA.4) Participating in the preparation of SCA projects plan as well as preparing the necessarystudies and find sources of finance in either local or hard currency.5) Preparing financial and monetary balance in relation to SCA current activities andfuture projects6) Preparing necessary financial and accounting studies to safeguard proper financial andaccounting performance at SCA, as well as study the existing financial and accountingsystems and develop them.7) Participating in setting categories for transit dues, berthing dues and service charges.8) Participating in specifying the hire value of SCA units.6-7

9) Participating in specifying categories for the rent of land and building.10) Participating in setting the policy for purchasing and storage.11) Implementing financial and accounting regulations and instructions.12) Setting programs for internal auditing and systems for internal control, as well asnecessary inspection for all SCA activities.(4) Personnel DepartmentPersonnel Dept. consists of one director, three deputy directors and six sub-directors and isin charge of the following.1) Setting administrative systems and programs, and supervising their implementation bySCA departments.2) Setting programs and instructions for the implementation of personnel affairsregulations and solving problems that may stand in the way.3) Specifying the manpower requirements at different levels in coordination with theconcerned departm

5.1.3 Historical changes of toll structure and rates The historical changes of toll structure and rates for laden tankers as an example are shown in Table 5.1.3 and Table 5.1.4. Classification of laden vessels or vessels in ballast have been made since 1956. Table 5.1.3 Historical Changes of Toll Structure Year Vessel typ e Vessel size

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Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 . Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 . THE ENDING OF TIME CHAPTER 1 1ST APRIL 1980 CONVERSATION WITH PROF. . it is a constant battle. DB: Yes. Can we go into that: why is it a constant battle? It is not a b

Jack Heifner is best known for his play Vanities, wh ich ran for fi ve years in New York and became one ofthe longest running plays in off-Broadway history. His is also the author ofPatio/Porch, Natural Disaster, Running on Empty, Bargains, Boys'Play, Home Fires, Heartbreak, Comfort andJoy, The Lemon Cookie, DwarfTossing and over thirty other plays produced in New York, Los Angeles and .