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a goodpracticeguideGUIDANCE ON FIRST AID FOR SCHOOLS Crown Copyright 1998Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercialeducational purposes on condition that the source is acknowledged.Produced by the Department for Education and Employment.Printed in the United Kingdom 1998.3/31792/198/253.

CONTENTSParagraphsINTRODUCTION1-7FIRST AID IN SCHOOLS - WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?The EmployerThe Local Education AuthorityThe Governing BodyThe Head TeacherTeachers and other school staff8-1112-1314-151617-18WHAT ARE A FIRST AIDER’S MAIN DUTIES?19-20WHAT IS AN APPOINTED PERSON?21-23FIRST AID - WHAT DO SCHOOLS NEED TO DO?Assessment of needReassessment of first-aid provisionProviding informationInsurance24-27282930-3334-35RISK ASSESSMENT OF FIRST-AID NEEDS - WHAT SHOULD SCHOOLS CONSIDER?What size is the school and is it on split sites and/or levels?Location of schoolAre there any specific hazards or risks on the site?Specific needsAccident statisticsHow many first-aid personnel are required?Selection of first aidersContacting first-aid personnelIs it sufficient only to have an appointed person?36-37383940414243-46474849-50QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAINING51-54FIRST-AID MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND FIRST-AID FACILITIESHow many first-aid containers should a school have?Contents of a first-aid containerTravelling first-aid containersPublic service vehiclesFirst-aid N CONTROL64

REPORTING ACCIDENTS AND RECORD KEEPINGStatutory requirementsWhat accidents to employees do LEAs and/or schools need to report?How should schools report them?What about pupils and other people who are not at work?How do I decide whether an accident "arises out of or in connection with work"?Record keepingStatutory accident recordsSchool's central record6565-6667-697071-7273747576-79OTHER USEFUL GUIDANCEANNEX AUSEFUL CONTACTSANNEX B

INTRODUCTION001 First aid can save lives and prevent minor injuries007 First-aid provision must be available at allbecoming major ones. Under health and safetylegislation employers have to ensure that there areadequate and appropriate equipment and facilitiesfor providing first aid in the workplace.times while people are on school premises,and also off the premises whilst on schoolvisits.002 It is for schools and Local Education Authorities(LEAs) to develop their own policies andprocedures, based on an assessment of localneed. Most schools will already have first-aidarrangements in place, and this guidance drawson existing good practice. It provides advice forschools on drawing up first-aid policies andensuring that they are meeting their statutoryduties. In particular, it includes a checklist ofissues which schools may find helpful whenundertaking a risk assessment, and also lists theitems which should be in a standard first-aid kit.FIRST AID IN SCHOOLS WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?The Employer008 Health and safety legislation places duties onemployers for the health and safety of theiremployees and anyone else on the premises. Inschools this includes responsibility for the headteacher and teachers, non-teaching staff, pupilsand visitors (including contractors). Who theemployer is depends on the type of school. Forexample:003 The guidance reflects extensive consultation withthe teacher unions, LEAs, health services andvoluntary organisations. We greatly appreciate theassistance of all those who contributed to theconsultation.004 The guidance does not constitute an authoritative0 the LEA is the employer in county, controlledand special agreement schools, and in pupilreferral units;0 the governing body is the employer in citytechnology colleges, voluntary-aided, nonmaintained special, grant-maintained and grantmaintained special schools;0 the owner or the trustees are the employers insome independent interpretation of the provisions of anyenactments or regulations or the Common Law;that is exclusively a matter for the Courts.005 The minimum first-aid provision is:0 a suitably stocked first-aid container (seeparagraphs 56 - 59);0 an appointed person to take charge of first-aidarrangements (see paragraphs 21 - 23 );0 information for employees on first-aidarrangements (see paragraphs 30 - 33).009 The employer is responsible, under the Health andSafety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSWA), for makingsure that a school has a health and safety policy.This should include arrangements for first aid,based on a risk assessment of the school, andshould cover:0 numbers of first aiders/appointed persons;0 numbers and locations of first-aid containers;006 This minimum provision must besupplemented with a risk assessment todetermine any additional provision.3

0 0 arrangements for off-site activities/trips;out of school hours arrangements eg lettings,parents evenings.010 The employer should also make sure that theirinsurance arrangements provide full cover forclaims arising from actions of staff acting within thescope of their employment. It is the employer'sresponsibility to make sure that the statutoryrequirements for provision of first aiders are met,that appropriate training is provided and thatcorrect procedures are followed. The employershould be satisfied that any training has given staffsufficient understanding, confidence andexpertise. (More information is given in the sectionon Insurance, see paragraphs 34-35.)011 For more information on health and safetylegislation, see Annex A which lists other relevantpublications/information sources.015 The governing body are required to developpolicies to cover their own school. This should bebased on a suitable and sufficient risk assessmentcarried out by a competent person. Thegoverning body has general responsibility for allthe school's policies, even when it is not theemployer. In county and controlled schools thegoverning body should follow the health andsafety policies and procedures produced by theLEA as the employer. In practice, most of the dayto day functions of managing health and safety aredelegated to the head teacher.The Head Teacher016 The head teacher is responsible for putting thegoverning body's policy into practice and fordeveloping detailed procedures. The headteacher should also make sure that parents areaware of the school's health and safety policy,including arrangements for first aid.The Local Education AuthorityTeachers and other school staff012 In county, controlled and special agreementschools the LEA, as the employer, is primarilyresponsible for health and safety matters, withmanagers and staff also having responsibilities.013 To comply with their health and safety obligations,the LEA should provide a policy statement andguidance on good practice to help county andcontrolled schools draw up their own health andsafety arrangements, including first aid. Countyand controlled schools should have regard to theLEA's policy and guidance.017 Teachers' conditions of employment do notinclude giving first aid, although any member ofstaff may volunteer to undertake these tasks.Teachers and other staff in charge of pupils areexpected to use their best endeavours at all times,particularly in emergencies, to secure the welfareof the pupils at the school in the same way thatparents might be expected to act towards theirchildren. In general, the consequences of takingno action are likely to be more serious than thoseof trying to assist in an emergency.018 The employer must arrange adequate andThe Governing Body014 Where the governing body is the employer it hasresponsibility for health and safety matters withinthe school, with managers and staff also havingresponsibilities.4appropriate training and guidance for staff whovolunteer to be first aiders/appointed persons.The employer must ensure that there are enoughtrained staff to meet the statutory requirementsand assessed needs, allowing for staff onannual/sick leave or off-site.

WHAT ARE A FIRST023 Emergency first-aid training should help anappointed person cope with an emergency andimprove their competence and confidence.AIDER’S MAIN DUTIES?019 First aiders must complete a training courseapproved by the Health and Safety Executive(HSE).FIRST AID - WHAT DOSCHOOLS NEED TO DO?020 At school, the main duties of a first aider are to:024 The Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations0 0 give immediate help to casualties with commoninjuries or illnesses and those arising from specifichazards at school;1981 set out what employers have to do.025 Employers must provide adequate andappropriate equipment, facilities and qualified firstaid personnel.when necessary, ensure that an ambulance orother professional medical help is called.026 The Regulations do not oblige employers toprovide first aid for anyone other than their ownstaff, but employers do have health and safetyresponsibilities towards non-employees. TheHealth and Safety Commission (HSC) guidancerecommends that organisations, such asschools, which provide a service for othersshould include them in their risk assessments andprovide for them. In the light of their legalresponsibilities for those in their care,schools should consider carefully the likelyrisks to pupils and visitors, and makeallowance for them when drawing uppolicies and deciding on the numbers offirst-aid personnel.WHAT IS AN APPOINTEDPERSON?021 An appointed person is someone who:0 takes charge when someone is injured orbecomes ill;0 looks after the first-aid equipment eg restockingthe first-aid container;0 ensures that an ambulance or other professionalmedical help is summoned when appropriate.027 Where first aid is provided for staff and pupils,022 Appointed persons are not first aiders. Theyshould not give first aid treatment for which theyhave not been trained. However, it is goodpractice to ensure that appointed persons haveemergency first aid training/refresher training, asappropriate. These courses do not require HSEapproval. They normally last four hours and coverthe following topics:0 0 0 0 what to do in an emergency;cardiopulmonary resuscitation;first aid for the unconscious casualty;first aid for the wounded or bleeding.schools should ensure that:0 provision for employees does not fall below therequired standard;0 provision for pupils and others complies with otherrelevant legislation and guidance.Assessment of need028 The Management of Health and Safety at WorkRegulations 1992 require employers to make asuitable and sufficient assessment of the risks tothe health and safety of their employees at work,5

and others who may be affected by theirundertaking, to identify what measures they needto take to prevent or control these risks.Reassessment of first-aid provision029 The governing body and/or head teacher shouldregularly review the school's first-aid needs (atleast annually), and particularly after any changes,to ensure the provision is adequate. Whereminimum numbers of trained first aiders are set,these should be monitored to ensure that thesestandards are being met.the employee. Employers should make sure thattheir insurance arrangements provide full cover forclaims arising from actions of staff acting within thescope of their employment. Some LEAs provideexplicit reassurance to staff that those in countyand controlled schools who volunteer to assistwith any form of medical procedure are actingwithin the scope of their employment and areindemnified.035 County and controlled schools should consulttheir LEA about insurance arrangements.RISK ASSESSMENT OFProviding informationFIRST-AID NEEDS - WHATSHOULD SCHOOLS CONSIDER?030 The employer or the manager with the delegatedfunction (usually the head teacher) must inform allstaff (including those with reading and languagedifficulties) of the first-aid arrangements. Thisshould include the location of equipment, facilitiesand first-aid personnel, and the procedures formonitoring and reviewing the school's first-aidneeds.031 A simple method of keeping staff and pupilsinformed is by displaying first-aid notices instaff/common rooms. The information should beclear and easily understood.032 Notices must be displayed in a prominent place,preferably at least one in each building if theschool is on several sites.033 Including first-aid information in inductionprogrammes will help ensure that new staff andpupils are told about the first-aid arrangements. Itis good practice to include such information in astaff handbook.036 Schools normally include staff, pupils andvisitors when carrying out risk assessmentsfor first-aid needs.037 County and controlled schools should check theirLEA's procedures.Points to consider:What size is the school and is it on splitsites and/or levels?038 The governing body/head teacher need toconsider additional first aid provision if there ismore than one building. They should considerhow many first-aid personnel are needed toprovide adequate cover on each floor on a splitlevel site and outlying buildings, and on each siteof a split-site school.Location of schoolInsurance034 In the event of a claim alleging negligence bya member of the school staff, action is likelyto be taken against the employer rather than6039 Is it remote from emergency services? It is goodpractice to inform the local emergency services, inwriting, of the school's location (giving OrdinanceSurvey grid references, if necessary) and any

particular circumstances that may affect access tothe school. If the school has more than oneentrance, emergency services should be givenclear instructions on where or to whom theyshould report.when drawing up policies and deciding onthe numbers of first-aid personnel.044 County and controlled schools should have regardto their LEA's policy and advice.045 The HSC provide guidance on numbers of first-aidAre there any specific hazards or risks onthe site?040 For example, hazardous substances, dangeroustools and machinery. Temporary hazards, such asbuilding or maintenance work, should also beconsidered and suitable short-term measures putin place.personnel based on employee numbers. As ageneral guide, they recommend that:0 a lower risk place of work (eg shops, of

First aiders must complete a training course approved by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 20 At school, the main duties of a first aider are to: give immediate help to casualties with common injuries or illnesses and those arising from specific hazards at school; when necessary, ensure that an ambulance or other professional medical help is called. PERSON? WHAT IS AN APPOINTED . 21 An .

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