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13/11/2014Styles of learning and teachingImplications for teacher developmentand evidence-informed educationa tale of metrics, myths & money!Adrian StokesDirectorCPD CentreEvidence and educational practice EPPI-Centre http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute ofEducation, University of London Campbell Collaboration http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/ BEME Collaboration http://www.bemecollaboration.org/Best Evidence Medical and Health Professional Education1

13/11/2014BEME CollaborationBEME rejects the legacy of medical education inwhich decisions have been made based onpseudoscience, anecdotes, and flawed comparisongroups rather than empirical evidence. The BEMEapproach contends that in no other scientific field arepersonal experiences relied on to make policychoices, and in no other field is the research base solimited.http://www.bemecollaboration.org/About BEME/Learning f-assessments/learning-styles.shtml2

13/11/2014What is a learning style?The term ‘learning styles’ is used as a descriptionof the attitudes and behaviours that determineour preferred way of learning. Most people areunaware of their learning style preferences, theyjust know vaguely that they feel morecomfortable with – and learn more from – someactivities than others.Honey and Mumford, ‘Introduction to learning and learning styles’,The Learning Styles Questionnaire: 80 item versionhttp://www.peterhoney.com/ Definition: Broadly defined as one of the three primary waysin which a person can learn. Those include visual (sight),auditory (sound), and kinesthetic (actions/touch). Anindividual's preferred or best process by which they will learnis typically through one or a combination of these styles. In amore general sense, learning styles can include elements ofthe environment including their optimal time of day, lightingin the room, temperature of the room, etc. They also includea person's own emotionality, physical needs, and sociologicalneeds. These are often discovered through a learning styleinventory which is a short questionnaire often provided bythe classroom teacher that allows them an avenue to morereadily meet and [sic] individual student's g-Styles.htm3

13/11/2014ExamplesExperiential learningDavid Kolb, Peter Honey & Alan yles.htmVisual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic ttp://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p introduction ‘You have a mild Aural learning preference.’ ‘Based on your input you are a(n): auditory learner.’Approaches to studyApproaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students /ASSIST.pdfSutliff & Baldwin (2001)4

13/11/2014Should we be using learning styles?What research has to say to practiceFrank Coffield, David Moseley, Elaine Hall, Kathryn Ecclestone2004Criteria:1. Internal consistency2. Test-retest reliability3. Construct validity4. Predictive validityMust be independently verifiedCritical issues Psychometric weaknessesThe unwarranted faith placed in simple inventoriesNo clear implications for pedagogyDecontextualised and depoliticised views of learningand learners Lack of communication between different researchperspectivesCoffield et al (2004)5

4/may/04/furthereducation.uk1“This field suffers from serious conceptualconfusion and a lack of accumulated theoreticalknowledge,” says Coffield. “It’s deeply confusingeven for psychologists attempting to make senseof y/04/furthereducation.uk16

13/11/2014Comment from student"I learned that I was a low auditory, kinaestheticlearner. So there's no point me reading a bookor listening to anyone for more than a fewminutes furthereducation.uk1Comment from studentI'm a pragmatist and a bit of something or other activist.What do you reckon that tells you about yourlearning style, then?Well, I'm gobby and like talking a lot and I don'tlike all that boring stuff in books, or whenlecturers waffle on and it's not relevant urthereducation.uk17

13/11/2014Coffield comment:“The commercial gains for creators of successfullearning styles instruments are so large thatcritical engagement with the theoretical andempirical bases of their claims tends to n/2004/may/04/furthereducation.uk1 1000 challenge!Will Thalheimer's Learning Styles Instructional-DesignChallengeI will give 1000 (US dollars) to the first person or groupwho can prove that taking learning styles into account indesigning instruction can produce meaningful ng.com/2006/08/learning styles.html8

13/11/2014Getting everything working togetherWhat do you want thelearners to be able to do?Constructive alignmentWhat teaching methodsand learning activities aresuitable?How will you find outwhat has been learnt?John Biggs (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University (SRHE and Open University Press, Buckingham)9

13/11/2014Teaching anisations using the TPIAmerican Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons2nd Asia Pacific Medical Education ConferenceCanadian Society for Medical Laboratory ScienceForum, Hamilton ONDUC - Deakin / Calgary Universities (On-line &F2F Study)Duke - Graduate School PathwaysInstituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores deMonterreyJustice Institute of British ColumbiaKorean - Instructors and EducatorsNorth Michigan University Student TeachersNorth Michigan University Supervising TeachersOT Educators' National SurveyPankey Institute Dental Faculty (Florida)Pediatric Academic Societies - EducationalScholars ProgramProvincial Instructor Diploma Program (VCC)Pediatrics Department, Hershey Medical CenterRepublic Polytechnic, SingaporePSU-JFDP Junior Faculty Development ProgramSociety for Education in AnesthesiaSoTL - Multinational Teaching FellowsU21 - GlobalU of T - Toronto Teaching Scholars ProgramUBC - Certificate in Practice Education in HealthServicesUBC - Faculty SoTL Leadership ProgramUBC - Teacher Education Longitudinal StudyUC Davis - Teaching Scholars ProgramUNAP-TDI - Universidad Arturo PratUniversity of Southern QueenslandUTEC - UTHSCSA: San AntonioUUI - Kennslufraedi HI (University of Iceland)Vancouver Coastal Health: Educators' WorkshopWorldwide Universities Network US/UKAs at 6th September 201310

13/11/2014Review your TPI profile1.2.3.4.5.Review the Summary ParagraphsExamine Your Profile SheetNote the Height and Range of Your Overall ScoresCheck the Differentiation among Your PerspectivesIdentify Your Dominant, Back-Up, and RecessivePerspectives6. Check for Internal Consistency7. Examine any Internal Discrepancies8. Look for Consistency Across Perspectives9. Self-Corroboration10. Next Steps: Peer/Professional ValidationReview your TPI profileNext Steps: Peer/Professional Validation: Is it now clearer that there are multiple and legitimate viewson what constitutes 'good teaching'?11

13/11/2014SETSStaffordshire Evaluation of Teaching Styles1. The all-round flexible and adaptable teacher2. The student-centred, sensitive teacher3. The official curriculum teacher4. The straight facts no nonsense teacher5. The big conference teacher6. The one-off teacherMohanna et al (2008)Sutliff & Baldwin (2001)12

13/11/20141: the all roundflexible andadaptableteacherSETS Hexagon6: theone-offteacher5: the bigconferenceteacher2: the studentcentred, sensitiveteacher3: the officialcurriculumteacher4: the straightfacts, no-nonsenseteacherQuestions1. What inventories exist?2. What are their theoretical bases?3. How have they been validated?4. How have they been used?5. With what effects?6. Implications for faculty development?7. Possibilities for further research?13

13/11/2014Search strategy Database searches (SCOPUS, ERIC)– thesaurus– text string Hand searching Ancestry searching Grey literature– “Teaching styles questionnaire”: about 39,500 resultsStrategy did not attempt to find Learning style, cognitive style and personalityinventories (e.g. MBTI) Inventories on particular teaching roles or teacherbehaviour:– supervision, coaching, facilitation Inventories relating to specific aspects of teacherbehaviour– teacher confirmation Material in languages other than English14

13/11/2014Choosing search sing search elf assessmentinstrumentprofileform15

13/11/2014Search results 2,222 title abstracts checked 144 items for full text review Problems––––Publication in conference proceedings (8)Publication in books (11)No publication relating to development of instrumentWebsites [Google: “Teaching styles questionnaire”: about39,500 results]Instruments foundOverall total: 52 Excluding those which relate specifically to – teaching of children– fields of limited relevance to medical education (e.g.language teaching)– a particular form of teacher behaviour (e.g. ‘confirmation’)Sub-total: 3616

13/11/2014The 36 instruments ing Style Inventory x 3Teaching Style QuestionnaireTeaching Styles Inventory for PBLTeaching Styles QuizTeaching Styles Self EvaluationTeaching Styles Self-Assessment ToolSpectrum of Teaching StylesStaffordshire Evaluation of Teaching StylesThinking Styles in Teaching InventoryPreferred Thinking Styles in TeachingInventoryApproaches to Teaching InventoryUniversity Teaching Inventory [ATI selfefficacy]Teaching Perspective InventoryInstructional Perspectives InventoryInstructional Styles InventoryLecturers’ Conception of Teaching andLearning QuestionnairePhilosophies Held by Instructors ofLifelong-learnersPhilosophy of Adult Education .33.Preferred Teaching Approach InventoryPrinciples of Adult Learning ScaleTeacher Behavior Preferences SurveyTeaching Goals InventoryTeaching Methods InventoryTrainer Style InventoryTraining Style InventoryTrainer Type InventoryEffective Teacher InventoryClinical Teacher Characteristics InstrumentSupervisory Belief Inventory/Index1:1 Teaching Styles InventoryPerceptions of Teaching EnvironmentConstructivist Learning Environment SurveyQuestionnaire [untitled] x 2Where do the ‘styles’ come from? Can’t tell! ‘The body of theory and knowledge advanced in the literature’– e.g. Conti PALS Distillation from recognised ‘schools’ of philosophy Theory-driven (esp constructivist) Guiding metaphor – e.g. ‘mental self-government’ Pragmatic categorisation of methods/activities Analogy with learning style constructs Expert opinion and consensus exercises Cumulative research programme (qualitative quantitative)17

yles.htmReasons for developing and using TSIs Faculty development and reflective practice Evaluation of faculty development Relationships between ––––––learning styles, teaching styles, learning context(trainee) teacher’s cognitive style and their teaching styleteacher self-reported ‘styles’ and teaching practiceteaching styles and student ratings (SEQs)teaching styles of different teacher groups (discipline/field)teaching styles of different teacher groups(international/cultural)– teaching styles and occupational stress To make money?18

apping the literatureTeacherLearnerContextTeaching styleLearning styleCognitive styleCognitive styleLearning style19

13/11/2014Some findingsTwo key dimensions Teacher-focused/information transfer Student-focused/conceptual changeStable or relational?‘Good teaching’?‘Matching hypothesis’– Some support for ‘matching hypothesis’ in relation tomentor/supervisor (preceptor/resident) relationshipsSome problems The psychometric issue The ‘style’ issue– analogy with ‘learning style’– highly variable constructs in the literature– technical vs ‘lay’ interpretations of the term The categorisation issue– rejection of the entire approach?– ‘labelling’20

13/11/2014 findings indicate that learning and study processesare proving incapable of description in terms of neat,conceptually simple, and low dimensionality models.Why should we assume teaching to be different?Should not teaching also be multifaceted anddifferentiated? Common sense and an expandingliterature on teaching dictate precisely such anexpectation.(Meyer and Eley, 2006, 647)Evidence on use in faculty development? ‘Tool to initiate critical analysis’ leading to ‘consciousknowledge of values and beliefs’ (Conti 2007) ‘values clarification’ exercise (Glickman 1985) ‘a useful trigger tool in “phenomenographicpedagogic” discussion.’ (Trigwell et al, 2005) ‘this foundational conceptualization provides a basefrom which nurse educators can (1) communicateacross differences of philosophical perspective andintent; and (2) critically reflect on their educationalpractices’ (Pratt et al, 2007) ‘instrumented learning’ (Blake & Mouton, 1972)21

13/11/2014Does it matter?Heuristics ‘In some cases, heuristics can be highly adaptive andbeneficial to the accumulation of knowledge. In others,they can distort judgments and bias learning.’(Holcomb et al, 2009)Considerations for use Framework for critical reflectionBrookfield’s (1995) Four lenses1. Autobiographical lens [e.g. TPI, SETS]2. Peer lens [e.g. ‘critical friend’, Dahlgren et al (2006)]3. Student lens [e.g. student feedback]4. Theoretical lens [inc best evidence]Developmental processNovice Expert22

13/11/2014Conclusions Some instruments are inappropriate for research or facultydevelopment The term ‘style’ is likely to be extremely confusing In selecting inventories for faculty development, it may beworth paying attention to – the point in the teacher’s development– how its use is integrated within a framework for reflection anddevelopment processes– how its use could be a catalyst for consideration of the relationshipsbetween evidence and values Need qualitative research on experiences/perceptions/uses ofinventories by medical teachers (novice expert)ReferencesAllinson, C. W. & Hayes, J. (1996) The cognitive style index: a measure of intuition-analysisfor organizational research, Journal of Management Studies, 33(1), 119-135.Blake, R. R. & Mouton, J. S. (1972) What is instrumented learning? Training andDevelopment Journal (January), 12-20.Brookfield, S. (1995) Becoming a critically reflective teacher (Wiley).Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E. & Ecclestone, K. (2004) Learning styles and pedagogy inpost-16 learning: a systematic and critical review (London, Learning and Skills ResearchCentre, Learning and Skills Development Agency).Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E. & Ecclestone, K. (2004) Should we be using learning styles?What research has to say to practice (London, Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learningand Skills Development Agency).Collins, J. B. & Pratt, D. D. (2011) The Teaching Perspectives Inventory at 10 years and100,000 respondents: reliability and validity of a teacher self-report inventory, AdultEducation Quarterly, 61(4), 358-375.Conti, G. J. (1990) Identifying your teaching style, in: M. W. Galbraith (Ed) Adult learningmethods: a guide to effective instruction (Malabar, FL, Krieger).Conti, G. J. (2007) Identifying your educational philosophy: development of the philosophiesheld by instructors of lifelong-learners (PHIL), MPAEA Journal of Adult Education, 36(1), 1935.23

13/11/2014Dahlgren, L. O., Eriksson, B. E., Gyllenhammar, H., Korkeila, M., Saaf-Rothoff, A., Wernerson,A. & Seeberger, A. (2006) To be and to have a critical friend in medical teaching, MedicalEducation, 40(1), 72-78.Dupin-Bryant, P. A. (2004) Variables related to interactive television teaching style: in searchof learner centered teaching style, International Journal of Instructional Technology andDistance Learning.Glickman, C. D. (1985) Supervision and instruction: a developmental approach (Boston, MA,Allyn & Bacon).Holcomb, T. R., Ireland, R. D., Holmes Jr, R. M. & Hitt, M. A. (2009) Architecture ofentrepreneurial learning: exploring the link among heuristics, knowledge, and action,Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 33(1), 167-192.Illing, J. (2007) Thinking about research: frameworks, ethics and scholarship (Edinburgh,Association for the Study of Medical Education).Jones, R. (2011) Key tools and techniques in management and leadership of the allied healthprofessions (London, Radcliffe Publishing).Meyer, J. H. F. & Eley, M. G. (2006) The approaches to teaching inventory: a critique of itsdevelopment and applicability, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 633-649.Mitchell, D. P. (1994) Learning style: a critical analysis of the concept and its assessment, in:R. Hoey (Ed) Design for learning: aspects of educational technology (London, Kogan Page).Mohanna, K., Chambers, R. & Wall, D. (2007) Developing your teaching style: increasingeffectiveness in healthcare teaching, Postgraduate Medical Journal, 83(977), 145-147.Mohanna, K., Chambers, R. & Wall, D. (2008) Your teaching style: a practical guide tounderstanding, developing and improving (Abingdon, Radcliffe).Mohanna, K., Cottrell, E., Wall, D. & Chambers, R. (2011) Developing your teaching style andtechniques, in: R. Jones & F. Jenkins (Eds) Key tools and techniques in management andleadership of the allied health professions (London, Radcliffe Publishing), 119-128.Pratt, D. D., Arseneau, R. & Collins, J. B. (2001) Reconsidering ‘good teaching’ across thecontinuum of medical education, Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions,21(2), 70-81.Pratt, D. D. & associates (1998) Five perspectives on teaching in adult and higher education(Malabar, Florida, Krieger Publishing Company).Pratt, D. D., Boll, S. L. & Collins, J. B. (2007) Towards a plurality of perspectives for nurseeducators, Nursing Philosophy, 8(1), 49-59.Steinert, Y., Mann, K., Centeno, A., Dolmans, D., Spencer, J., Gelula, M. & Prideaux, D. (2006)A systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teachingeffectiveness in medical education: BEME Guide No. 8, Medical Teacher, 28(6), 497.Sutliff, R. I. & Baldwin, V. (2001) Learning styles: teaching technology subjects can be moreeffective, Journal of Technology Studies, 27(1), 22-27.Trigwell, K. & Prosser, M. (2004) Development and use of the approaches to teachinginventory, Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 409-424.Trigwell, K., Prosser, M. & Ginns, P. (2005) Phenomenographic pedagogy and a revisedApproaches to teaching inventory, Higher Education Research and Development, 24(4), 349360.24

13/11/2014Vaughn, L. M. & Baker, R. C. (2008) Do different pairings of teaching styles and learningstyles make a difference? Preceptor and resident perceptions, Teaching and Learning inMedicine, 20(3), 239-247.Vollers, J. M. (2008) Teaching and learning styles, International Anesthesiology Clinics, 46(4),27-40.Wall, D. (2007) Evaluation: improving practice, influencing policy (Edinburgh, Association forthe Study of Medical Education).25

19.Preferred Teaching Approach Inventory 20.Principles of Adult Learning Scale 21.Teacher BehaviorPreferences Survey 22.Teaching Goals Inventory 23.Teaching Methods Inventory 24.Trainer Style Inventory 25.Training Style Inventory 26.Trainer Type Inventory 27.Effective Teacher Inventory 28.Clinical Teacher Characteristics Instrument 29 .

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