TAMIL Through English / Hindi

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TAMILThrough English / HindiVolume Iwith my novel scientific way of making ‘your own’ Tamil sentences.This book walks you holding your fingerComplete in Tamil, Transliteration and Devanagari Scaripts.If you know Tamil, you may learn Hindi with it.Tamil Level IRatnakar Naraleர னாகநராேலPUSTAK BHARATI - BOOKS INDIAbooks-india.com

Learn Tamil Through English / HindiINDEXFour Test PapersxiLesson 1The Tamil Alphabet2Lesson 2Speaking Tamil Characters4Lesson 3Reading and Writing Tamil Consonants10Lesson 4Reading and Writing Tamil Vowels30Lesson 5The Basic Tamil Numerals49Lesson 6How to Make Your Own Tamil Sentences50Lesson 7Using Pre-Made Tamil Sentences, Part I71Lesson 8Tamil Pictorial Dictionary74Lesson 9Tamil Imperative and Negative Sentences86Lesson 10 Making Complex Tamil Sentences92Lesson 11 Using Pre-Made Tamil Sentences, Part II109Lesson 12 Adjectives, Adverbs and Participles112Lesson 13 Compounding of letters and words119books-india.com

LIST OF TABLESTABLEPAGETABLE 1 :TABLE 2 :TABLE 3 :TABLE 4 :TABLE 5 :TABLE 6 :TABLE 7 :TABLE 8 :TABLE 9 :TABLE 10 :Tamil - Sanskrit inherent interrelationshipThe Devanagari Class Consonants and Nasals in relation to the Tamil NasalsThe Devanagari - Tamil Nasals NasalsTamil CHARACTER PRONUNCIATION GUIDESUMMARY OF CONSONANT MODIFICATIONS (sa iZa)SUMMARY OF CONSONANT PRONUNCIATIONVowels and their SignsGENDER M. F. N. TAMIL TERMINATIONSBASIC TAMIL PRONOUNSSOME COMMON TAMIL INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS3788262745505556TABLE 11 :TABLE 12 :TABLE 13 :TABLE 14 :TABLE 15 :TABLE 16 :TABLE 17 :TABLE 18 :TABLE 19 :TABLE 20 :TERMINATIONS of RESPECT / PLURAL, for PRONOUNSSpeaking Present EventsVERB LIST 1Speaking Past EventsPRESENT, PAST and FUTURE Tense SUFFIXESADVANCED CONSONANT-CONSONANT COMPOUNDINGSpeaking Future EventsFUTURE Tense SUFFIXESTAMIL PICTORIAL DICTIONARYIMPERATIVE Request or ORDER60616364686768697486TABLE 21 :TABLE 22 :TABLE 23 :TABLE 24 :TABLE 25 :TABLE 26 :TABLE 27 :TABLE 28 :TABLE 29 :TABLE 30-ATABLE 30-BVERB LIST 2INFINITIVES or VERBAL NOUNSNegative VerbProhibitivePolite ImperativeCase IdentificationThe GENERAL CASE SUFFIXES for Nouns and PronounsEXAMPLE of Cases of the first type of nounsEXAMPLE of Cases of the 2nd type of nounsFIRST EXAMPLE of Cases of the 3rd type of nounsSECOND EXAMPLE of Cases of the 3rd type of nouns8889909191939495979899TABLE 31 :TABLE 32 :TABLE 33-ATABLE 33-BTABLE 33-CTABLE 34 :TABLE 35 :EXAMPLE of Cases of the 4th type of nounsCASE SUFFIXES COMMON FOR ALL FOUR GROUPSCASE SUFFIXES FOR PRONOUNS in TAMIL ScriptCASE SUFFIXES FOR PRONOUNS in English TransliterationCASE SUFFIXES FOR PRONOUNS in Hindi ScriptNOUNS - ADJECTIVESNOUNS - ADVERBS100101102104106112113books-india.com

MODEL FORMAT FOR THE FIRST QUARTERLY TESTQUESTION 1 : Read and Write the Following Tamil words five times.1. பாரத ------2. நண க3. ---------4. ------------------------QUESTION 2 : Say it in Tamil.1. I am a student. ------------------------------------2. My name is xxxxxx. ---------------------------3. We drink milk . -----------------------------------4. They are going. --------------------------------5. You are speaking Tamil. ------------------------6. He is writing. ----------------------------------QUESTION 3 : Say and write it in Tamil.1. She was here. ---------------------------------------------- 2. I was there. --------------------------------------3. Anita is eating a mango. -------------------------------------------4. They run 10 km. ------------------------------------------ 5. You are a teacher. -------------------------------QUESTION 4 : Write the names of the verbs (action words) in Tamil :1. cry ---------2. go ---------3. eat --------4. come -------- 5. say --------6. sing ---------7. do --------8. become ------9. give ------10. take -------12. see --------13. learn --------- 14. drink --------- 15. read -------11. walk ------16. stand -------- 17. run --------- 18. begin ------QUESTION 5 : Say and write it in Tamil.1. She is fighting. --------------------------------------2. He falls. ------------------------------------------------3. She is writing. ---------------------------------------4. I am writing. -------------------------------------------5. I am going to India. --------------------------------6. He speaks Punjabi. ------------------------------------7. She takes flowers. ----------------------------------8. These are books. -------------------------------------9. I drink milk. ----------------------------------------10. Is that a parrot? -------------------------------------11. Is that a goat? --------------------------------------12. Hello! . Is your mothertongue Tamil ---------------------------------14. Say the following numbers in Tamil :5, 3,100,books-india.com10,4,2,7,20,9

MODEL FORMAT FOR THE SECOND QUARTERLY TESTQUESTION 1 : Write all vowels of Tamil Alphabet in proper order.QUESTION 2 : Write the Tamil names of following things :1. boy ---------2. girl ---------3. dog --------4. cat --------7. ear ---------8. nose --------9. hand ---------- 10. leg ----------5. letter --------- 6. tea --------11. egg --------- 12. tail ---------13. mango --------- 14. apple -------- 15. banana ------ 16. plate --------- 17. car --------- 18. knife --------19. fan ----------- 20. book -------- 21. ball --------- 22. chair --------- 23. key --------- 24. window ----QUESTION 3 : Say and write in Tamil :1. I drank milk. -------2. He walked 2 km. --3. She was reading a Hindi book. ------------------------------------4. She will take flowers. ------------------------------------------------5. She will go. ON 4 : Answer and write in Tamil :1. What is your name? -----------------------------------------------2. Where do you live. ------------------------------------------------3. How are you? ---QUESTION 5 : Say and write in Tamil :1. I sleep at 10.00 O’ Clock. -----------------------------------------2. You (all) will give money. ---------------------------------------3. I will eat fruits. ---QUESTION 6 : Say and write in Tamil :1. Ra@dha@ goes to school. ----------------------------------------2. S&ta@ will come to New York. ---------------------------------------3. Ra@jan reads a Tamil book. -----------------------------------------QUESTION 7 : Write Tamil consonants Alphabetical order.books-india.com

MODEL FORMAT FOR THE THIRD QUARTERLY TESTQUESTION 1 : Write the Tamil suffixes used for saying following expressions :1. to ---------2. by ----------------3. from ---------- 4. for ----------------- 5. in --------------------6. on --------7. near -------------8. together with ------------------------9. of ---------------------QUESTION 2 : Say and write in Tamil :1. The dog will eat the bone ---------------------------------------2. The bricks will fall -----------------------------------------------3. I am ok! ---------4. What is the news? . Don’t worry! -----6. Who is she? -------7. Where is the dog? --QUESTION 3 : Find the Intransitive and Transitive actions and say them in Tamil :1. to sing ---------------2. to fall ------------------- 3. to walk -------------------4. to buy ------------5. to see -----------------6. to hear --------------------7. to write ------------------8. to stand -----------QUESTION 4 : Say and write in Tamil :1. Yesterday monring. ------------------------------------------------2. You are welcome. 3. Where are you going? ----------------------------------------------4. I am going to Chennai. ON 5 : Say and Answer in Tamil :1. What’s your native language? -----------------------------------2. How are you? ----3. Do you want coffee? ----------------------------------------------4. Do you know Tamil? ----------------------------------------------5. What is your name? -----------------------------------------------6. Who is she? ------7. Who is he? ---------books-india.com

MODEL FORMAT FOR THE FOURTH QUARTERLY TESTQUESTION 1 : Say and write in Tamil :1. Please come in. -2. Please excuse me. . Open the door! ---4. Please be quite. -5. Hurry up! --------QUESTION 2 : Say and write in Tamil :1. to her ---------------2. to them ------------------- 3. for her -------------------4. to us ------------5. near him --------------- 6. from you ----------------- 7. by train ------------------8. from you --------9. for us --------------12. of our ----------10. by them ----------------- 11. in him ------------------QUESTION 3 : Say, answer and write in Tamil :1. What is her name? ---------------------------------------------2. Who is he? ----3. What is his mother tongue? ----------------------------------4. Is your mothertongue English? ------------------------------5.QUESTION 4 : Say and and write in Tamil :1. Please have a seat. ---------------------------------------------2. Please listen. --3. Please wait. ---4. Please come again. --------------------------------------------5. Say yes! -------6. Is your mothertongue Sanskrit? --------------------------------7. Please close the window. -------------------------------------8. A letter to my brother -----------------------------------------9. The bird on the tree. ------------------------------------------10. My house. ---books-india.com

LESSON 1THE TAMIL ALPHABETTamil Vowels :அஆஇஈஉஊஎஏஐஒஓஔ AAa}} qQ]]â]eAaeAae AaEASa aa@i&uu@ee@aioo@auakhIn this row of 12 vowels, vowel number 2, 4, 6, 8 and 11 are extended sounds of the short vowel number 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10.Tamil Full Consonants :கஙசஞடணk, gaGca, saØa@, DNaka, gan[gacha, san yat a, d an aதநபமயரta, dnapa, bamayarta, danapa, bamayaraலவழளறனLava [ r nalava. wala}l aranaஷஸஹoa, PasahxajaOaRIs{a, s asahaks hajashr&.ஜbooks-india.com.

Tamil Half ConsonantsTamil Consonants without their inherant vowel ‘a’k‘, ga G ca , sa Øa @ , D Na k, gn[gch, sn yt , d n ta , d na pa , ba ma ya r t, dnp, bmyrLa va [ r na lv. wl}l r noa , Pa sa h s{, s shbooks-india.com.

Tamil and Devanagari Sanskrit Alphabet ChartsSide by Side ComparisonTABLE 1 : Tamil - Sanskrit inherent interrelationshipTamil Vs Devanagari ]எe ]âஏகkதtca C ja Javaoa, Paநnவpavsh sasaபpmamaள [l Qமu@QAaEn yAh ட@mt Na@ # D NaயryayyaழஊAaE ஔ au ASa akhØapa f ba Ba vaஷo Aae ஓ o@Gலoa, PaஒAaeuqGnaLaaiஉq} CONSONANTSங n[g ca ச ch Øa ஞnalஐ&]eAaeAae Tamil Vs Devanagari Sanskritta Ya d ZaLa}e@ ]e]âk Sa ga zataa@Aa]kஆVOWELS} இ i} ஈl}r:ணரn rrறrna னn *ஸshஹhhxaxaks hjajaஜjThese five areadoptedGranthaksharamcharacters ---.NOTES : (i) Quite contrary to the common belief that Tamil language is totally independent andunrelated to Sanskrit, the above vowel consonant tables (as well as the following lessons and rules onSandhi, Samasa etc. in Tamil grammar) clearly exhibit that the relationship between these two ancientlanguages is beyond just a coincidence. These two languages may have been developed separately, buttheir millenniums of common inheritance on the Indian subcontinent clearly reveals their commonimprint. One language may or may not have come from or influenced the other, but there is a commonthread for sure.* (ii) Some Hindi speaking people may think that letter is not a Devanagri or Sanskrit character. Eventhough it did not reach Hindi, the Sanskrit has it. Letter appears in the very first verse of the Rigveda(Aignaima e pauraeihta). You can also hear their sounds in Tamil, Telugu, Kannad, Malyalam, Marathi andGujrati languages. Same is true for the letters ]â and Aaâ. In Hindi, vowels ]e and Aae are used in theirplace. See the language charts in the Appendix.books-india.com

The Tamil Compound Lettersi. Remember that the dots placed above the Tamil Characters are NOT the Anusvara Nasal Dots. A dotabove any Tamil letter means the letter below that dot is MUTE, half or without the inherent vowel a(A). A Tamil letter with a dot over it is equivalent of the Sanskrit or Hindi half letter or a letter withthe Halant slash under it e.g.,, ma , ta , k‘ etc. Thus, அ ம (ma A ma) etc.ii. A consonant can not be pronounced without any vowel to it. Thus like Sanskrit or Hindi, vowel அ aA is considered inherent in each full consonant. Without it, the consonant is considered mute or half.iii. Unlike Sanskrit or Hindi, the Tamil letters of a compound characters are written one after another.They are not written with half letter attached to full letter. e.g.க,ப,ல Kk, ppa, pLa, etc.Thus, the Sanskrit (and Hindi) compound letters will be written in Tamil as shown below :F, Û, Ta, , %a, §, , , ª, &,த,ர,த,ட,ர,ர,ப,ய,த, , OaR,த,ம,ர,xa, Xa Œ,ஞ ஓ.The Devanagari Anusvara and Visarga in Tamil1. The Anusvara Nasal Dot :In Tamil writing there are no Anusva@ra Nasal dot like the Hindi writing has. But, like Sanskrit, forwriting nasal pronunciations in the words, the ‘Kindred’ or Class Nasal Consonants are used. Thefollowing chart of Devanagari Class Consonants helps understanding how the Nasals work in Tamil aswell as in Sanskrit, because both are exactly same (for detailed discussion on this aspect, please refer tomy “Learn Sanskrit through English Medium” Lesson 3.2).TABLE 2 : The Devanagari Class Consonants and Nasals in relation to the Tamil Nasals :Devanagari Class Sanskrit Class Characters Equivalent TamilKindered Nasalthat may come after theCharacter that may comeCharactersKindered Nasalafter the Kindered NasalSanskrit & TamilCharactersCharactersshown in the last colomn. shown in the last colomn.1 k Class k vaga : k (Sa ga za) k (kh g gh)க k ClassG ng ங2 ch Class ca vaga :ca (C ja Ja ) c (ch j jh)ச ch ClassØa n y ஞ3 t 4 t@ (# D )ட t Class (retroflex)Na n ணClass ta vaga :t (t h d d h)ta (Ya d Za) t (th d dh)த th Classna n5 pClass pa vaga :pa (f ba Ba) p (ph b bh)பpa m மya r La vaoa Pa sa h ய ர ல வyrlvs{h s h s hஷ ஸ ஹClass @ vaga :6 Non-classCharactersp ClassநA m ஙThis Table is developed by Sanskrit Hindi Research Institute for “Learn Tamil Through English/Hindi” by Ratnakar Narale.books-india.com

The above tables shows that the Tamil characters of Alphabet are in exactly same order as theSanskrit Alphabet. The words with nasal sounds will be written in Tamil and Sanskrit as shown inthe following Table :TABLE 3 : The Devanagari - Tamil Nasals Nasals :1கDevanagari Classk Class k vaga :2சch Class ca vaga 3ட t Class @ vaga :காடாமி(kaNDaimawgama )4தtClass ta vaga :த5பpClass pa vaga :க பள6Non-classTamil wordsபசசிSanskritoaG Sa, oaGÏHindioa SaEnglishConchpaØcamama pa camaFifthgaNDkma\gama ,gaND:gae DaRhino(k”ntaLa )kÖntaLakÖtä aLaHair(kmba ma )kmbaLama käbaLaBlanketisa hsa saarisa h, isa zasa saarLionWorld(caG kÖ, saG kÖ)சமக(paØcamama )க(isa gama )ஸ ஸார(sa saarma )This Table is developed by Sanskrit Hindi Research Institute for “Learn Tamil Through English/Hindi” by Ratnakar Narale.2. The Visarga Dots ஆ த(Aayatama ):i. In Tamil, in order to write some Tamil words with visarga sound or for the Sanskrit words withVisarga ( : ) , the ( ஃ akh) sign is used. This ஃ sign is called ஆ த a@ytham orளmubbul l i.ii. Although in Sanskrit words the visarga could come after any vowel, in Tamil words it usuallycomes after a short vowel and before a hard consonant. e.g. எஃதான ய(Zaanyama ) grains; அஃeh ku (Steel); அஃகம A:du (That). நமஃ namah nama: (Salute).TABLE 4 : CHARACTER PRONUNCIATION GUIDEHardCharacter.NasalSemiGutturalsக ஃஙPalatalsச றஞ னயCerebralsடணழ ளDentalsதநர ��ஆஎ ஏஇஈஐஉஊஒ ஓ ஔThis Table is developed by Sanskrit Hindi Research Institute for “Learn Tamil Through English/Hindi” by Ratnakar Narale.books-india.com

BEFORE YOU BEGIN, PLEASE KNOW THIS1. The Tamil alphabet is derived from the ancient Indian i

Learn Tamil Through English / Hindi INDEX Four Test Papers xi Lesson 1 The TamilAlphabet 2 Lesson 2 Speaking Tamil Characters 4 Lesson 3 Reading and Writing Tamil Consonants 10 Lesson 4 Reading and WritingTamil Vowels 30 Lesson 5 The Basic Tamil Numerals 49 Lesson 6 How to Make Your Own Tamil Sentences 50 Lesson 7 Using Pre-Made Tamil Sentences .

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