A Practical Guide To SAP S/4HANA Financial Accounting

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A Practical Guide toSAP S/4HANA FinancialAccountingOona Flanagan

Table of ContentsTable of ContentsPreface1234569Introducing SAP S/4HANA and SAP S/4HANA Cloud131.11.21.31.41.51316172021SAP S/4HANA backgroundSAP ActivateSAP Best PracticesInitial configuration and setupExtensibility in the cloudSAP Fiori basics232.12.22326The SAP Fiori launchpadSAP Fiori appsOrganizational structure313.13.23134Organizational structureLedgers and currenciesMaster data374.14.24.3375254General ledger master dataMaterial master dataBusiness partnersGeneral ledger635.15.25.35.45.55.6636979889091Introduction to the general ledgerGeneral journalsClearing, resetting, and reversingPetty cash or cash journalIntercompany journalsDisplay general ledger informationAccounts payable6.16.26.3Purchase-to-pay processInvoices without purchase ordersCredit note without PO93931111125

Table of Contents6.46.56.66.77896One-time vendor functionalityPaymentsAccounts payable closing tasksViewing supplier information113115129134Accounts 43148155156158162The order-to-cash processInvoice with sales order (billing)Invoice without sales orderIncoming paymentsCredit managementDispute managementCollections managementCustomer communicationsDisplay customer informationBanking and cash management1678.18.2167171Bank master dataCash managementAsset accounting and uction to asset accountingStructure and methodolgyDifferent methods of asset acquisitionAsset master recordAsset acquisitionsRetirements with customerAsset value adjustmentsReverse asset postingAsset transfersDepreciation and closing tasksAsset drill down and reportingAsset year-end closingAsset migration

Table of Contents10 Reporting10.110.210.310.4Multidimentional reporting appsGeneral ledger reportingAccounts payable/receivable reportsOverhead cost reports22322323023824911 ed definitionsPeriod-end closingClosing cockpitYear-end closingSummaryA The Author276B Index277C Disclaimer2817

2 SAP Fiori basicsThis chapter introduces the new SAP user experience called SAPFiori, with its launchpad and apps, designed to reduce complexity andmake working with SAP S/4HANA easier and faster than with the traditional SAP GUI.2.1The SAP Fiori launchpadUsing the classic SAP GUI was not easy. Menu paths were complicated,the screen old-fashioned, and transactions only accessible on a desktopor laptop. You needed extensive training and often had to scroll throughmultiple screens to action a single item.SAP has replaced the traditional menu and graphical user interface (GUI)with a consumer-grade user experience called SAP Fiori. SAP Fiori is webbased and consists of a dashboard or launchpad with a number of tileswhich contain only the apps relevant to each user. The tiles are simpler,more intuitive to use than the GUI menu, more in line with apps on a Smartphone or tablet, and can be used on any device.Apps can be transactional, analytical, or factsheets, and many of the analytical apps show key figures on the face of the tile itself. For example, appsfor approving purchase orders or staff leave may contain the number ofoutstanding approvals on the face of the tile; bank apps may show the bankbalance; and bank statement monitors may show the number of successfuland unsuccessful bank statements processed. There are some examplesof these smart apps shown in Figure 2.1.In many apps, you see an overview screen showing all customers, suppliers, or other items and you can then either drill down to display or edit thedetails, or create new items.23

SAP Fiori basicsFigure 2.1: Smart SAP Fiori apps on the SAP Fiori launchpadYou can tailor the launchpad and arrange your apps into groups, or minidashboards, perhaps with the most-used apps at the top. In the top left ofthe screen (above the apps), there is a small button, , which takes you tothe ME area where you can change settings, edit your home page, or signout. If you select the App Finder, the apps are listed by catalog and you canalso search for them by name. Click onat the bottom of an app in theapp finder to create a new group or add the app to an existing group.Load one group to home pageIf you have a lot of apps and it is taking a long time to loadyour home page, you can go to Settings Home page andchoose Show One group at a Time. See Figure 2.2.Also, under Settings, you can change various settings such as the color ofthe screen, and set defaults, which we will explain later. Edit Home Page allows you to rearrange the tiles and create your own groups. See Figure 2.2.If you have used an app recently, you can see it in Recent Activities whenyou click on the ME button. There is also a neat search option at the topright of the launchpad, the enterprise search, where you can specify whereto search, as well as what to search for. For example, if you have a reference but are not sure what it refers to (e.g., a document or master data),you can search using All, which will return every location the reference24

SAP Fiori basicsappears. Alternatively, you can use the dropdown to restrict the search to aspecific area such as apps, specific master data, documents, etc.Figure 2.2: SAP Fiori settings for home page displayDropdownWhen we use the term dropdown, we refer to thebuttonon the right of a selection field. When you click on thisbutton, the system will either give you a list to choose from,or take you to another screen where you can enter searchterms or a condition to find what you are looking for. Thereis a calendarbutton for date fields.In Figure 2.3, we searched All for the number 12345, and the system returned journal entries with that reference, batch numbers of stock items,customers, and a number of other items to choose from. You can restrictthe search to billing documents, cost centers, employees, or a number ofother items in the dropdown list, and you can also restrict it to apps, anduse the search function instead of the app finder, or export the results to aspreadsheet. You have abutton at the top left of the results screen, (notshown in the figure), where you can filter further.25

SAP Fiori basicsFigure 2.3: SAP Fiori enterprise search2.2SAP Fiori appsSAP Fiori apps look and feel similar to each other and are consistent acrossdifferent platforms and devices. They are simple, intuitive, and role-basedso that users are not faced with a number or fields or screens that are notrelevant to them.Although you can still use the traditional GUI transactions, as well as orinstead of the SAP Fiori apps in SAP S/4HANA on-premise, the SAP Fioriapps are the only way for users to access the transactions in SAP S/4HANACloud. In some cases, the apps are based on (or similar to), the GUI transaction and the fields that need to be filled in will be similar (if not the same),although many apps are completely new or have been rewritten with additional functionality. If we describe an app as based on a GUI transaction, itmeans that we will probably use the app in associated figures, but everything applies equally whether you are using the app or the GUI transaction.As the apps are simple and intuitive, with plenty of onscreen help and tutorials available, this book concentrates more on the process itself, explainsmore about the key fields, and highlights the key features of mentionedapps. Often, the figures may not be identical to what you see in your systemas the functionality is changing so quickly. New functionality is usually available first in the cloud and later on-premise.26

SAP Fiori basicsSwitching on the help functionalityTo see the help functionality in SAP S/4HANA Cloud,you can click thebutton or (F1) key, which indicateswhere further help is available. See Figure 2.4. In the latestversions of SAP S/4HANA Cloud, you may see a pop-up toadvise you of new features and sometimes you can launcha video from the initial screen to see how to perform thetransaction and follow links to related topics.Figure 2.4: SAP Fiori help functionalityIn many apps, you can create your own layout variants to see the fieldsmost relevant to you, and you can save an app as a new tile containingthe specific range of accounts, banks, or company codes that you use themost.Not all apps are available in every release and descriptions sometimeschange, so, where possible, we will precede apps with their five- or six-digitcode beginning with F, which you can search for in the SAP Fiori app library,and compare with the app in your system.Many apps allow you to jump to other apps, for example, while in the F0731Manage G/L account master data app you can jump directly to the F3297 Define Financial Statements Items app. Some of overview apps contain quite abit of information on the first screen in the form of a number of larger cardswith graphical displays. See Figure 2.5, App F2769—Overview InventoryManagement.There are many types of financial overview page apps, such as G/L, accounts payable, accounts receivable, projects, and treasury. Best practicesscope item 2JB SAP Fiori Analytical Apps for Financial Accounting coversthe accounts payable and accounts receivable overviews in detail, but thescope item is only available in SAP S/4HANA Cloud at the moment.27

IndexB IndexAAccelerators 17Account group 41Accounting clerks 162Accounting principles 34Accounts approach 35Accounts payable 93Accounts receivable 139Accrual 267ACDOCA 31Acquisition and production costs(APC) 182Alternative chart of accounts 37App finder 24Asset accounting 181Asset acquisitions 190Asset classes 182Asset explorer 213Asset master record 185Asset migration 221Asset personal value list 196Asset revaluations 207Asset subnumber 185Assets under construction 196Asset transfers 208Asset under construction (AUC)184Asset value adjustments 202Asset year-end closing 219Automatic payment blocks 108Automatic payment program 116BBalance confirmations 130Bank hierarchies 170Bank identifier code (BIC) 167Banking process 172Bank key 167Bank master data 167Bank reconciliation 173Bank statements 175Best practices 17Best practices explorer 17Business area 32Business partners 54CCash journal 88Cash management 171Central Finance 16Chart of account 37Chart of depreciation 183Clearing 79Closing 251Closing cockpit 269Collections management 156Company code 32Configure your solution 20Controlling 32Controlling area 33Correspondence 160Cost center 46Cost element categories 43Cost object 46Credit case 153Credit control area 32Credit management 148Credit master data 150Credit notes 106Credit note without PO 112Credit profile 150Credit segments 152Cross company 90Currencies 35Customer factsheet 163Customer statements 160277

IndexDDepreciation 211Depreciation areas 183Depreciation keys 183Direct capitalization 184Direct debits 143Discounts 115Dispute cases 156Dispute management 155Documented credit decision 153Document splitting 52Document type 64Down payments 127Dunning 158Dunning level 158Dunning procedure 158EEnterprise search 24Evaluation groups 189Exchange rates 66Expert configuration 20Extensibility 21FField status group 42Financial statement versions 37Financial Supply ChainManagement 148Fiori launchpad 23Fiscal year variant 251Flexible hierarchies 48Foreign currency revaluation 256FSCM 148Functional area 32GGeneral ledger 63General ledger reporting 230278Generally Accepted AccountingPrinciples (GAAP) 35G/L Account master 39G/L account type 40Goods receipt 94Goods received/invoices receivedaccount (GR/IR) 102graphical user interface (GUI) 23GR/IR account 102Group chart of accounts 38HHEC - HANA Enterprise Cloud 15Help functionality 27House bank 168House bank accounts 168IIn-app extensibility 21Incoming payments 143Integrated transactions 192Inter-company 90Inter-company asset transfers 210Internal orders 50International bank account number(IBAN) 169International Financial ReportingStandards (IFRS) 35Intracompany asset transfers 208Investment management 184JJournal entry 69Journal entry type 64LLeading ledger 35Ledger approach 35Ledger group 35Logistics invoice verification 94

IndexMManage your solution 20Manual outgoing payments 125Material master 52Multidimentional reporting 223Multi-tenanted edition (MTE) 14Multi-tenant public cloud 14NNet book value (NBV) 182New asset accounting 181New general ledger 34Non-integrated transactions 191Non-leading ledger 35OOne-time customers 114One-time vendor functionality 113Online analytical processing(OLAP) 14Online transaction processing(OLTP) 14On-premise 15Open-item management 80Operating chart of accounts 37Operating concern 33Order to cash flow 139Overhead cost reports 249PParked and held invoices 99Partial payment 147Partner functions 62Payment blocks 108Payments 115Period end closing 255Plant 34Plant maintenance 182Post capitalization 198Post currency adjustments 260Posting period 251Posting period variant 251Profitability analysis (CO-PA) 33Profit center 48Projects 51Purchase order 94purchase requisition 93Purchase to pay process 93Purchasing organization 34RReal posting 46Receivables and payables reporting238Reclassifications 132Reconciliation account 41Recurring journals 86Reporting 223Resetting 83Residual payment amount 147Retirements with customer 199Retirement without customer 206Reversals 84Reverse asset posting 207Risk class 150Roadmap viewer 19SSales organization 34SAP Activate 16SAP Cloud Platform 21SAP Fiori apps library 28SAP HANA database 14SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud (HEC)15SAP S/4HANA Background 13SAP S/4HANA Cloud 14SAP S/4HANA (on-premise) 15Scrapping 206Segment 51Settlement 196279

IndexSide-by-side extensibility 21Single tenant cloud (STE) 15SLT - SAP landscape transformation replication server 16Software as a service (SaaS) 14Sort key 42Special G/L indicator 128Standard hierarchy 48Statistical posting 46Supplier factsheet 135TTax category 41, 60Taxes 261Technical clearing account 193Three-way matching 94Trial balance 223UUnilateral postings 193Universal Journal 63Upload journal entries 74User settings 68VValuation areas 256VAT 261WWBS elements 51Work breakdown structure 51YYear-end closing 270280

A Practical Guide to SAP . 9.1 Introduction to asset accounting 181 9.2 Structure and methodolgy 183 9.3 Different methods of asset acquisition 184 9.4 Asset master record 185 9.5 Asset acquisitions 190 9.6 Retirements with customer 199 9.7 Asset value adjustments 202 9.8 Reverse asset posting 207 9.9 Asset transfers 208 9.10 Depreciation and closing tasks 211 9.11 Asset drill down and .

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