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SUMMARY OF THE ACCOUNTING TECHNICIANS DIPLOMA (ATD) EXAMINATIONREVISED SYLLABUSLEVEL IPaper No. 1Introduction to Financial AccountingPaper No. 2Commercial LawPaper No. 3Entrepreneurship and CommunicationPaper No. 4Information Communication TechnologyLEVEL IIPaper No. 5Financial AccountingPaper No. 6Principles of ManagementPaper No. 7Business Mathematics and StatisticsPaper No. 8Fundamentals of FinanceLEVEL IIIPaper No. 9Principles of EconomicsPaper No. 10Fundamentals of Management AccountingPaper No. 11Principles of Public Finance and TaxationPaper No. 12Auditing

LEVEL IPAPER NO.1: INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTINGGENERAL OBJECTIVEThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that willenable him/her to account for various basic financial transactions and prepare financialstatements1.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to: Apply accounting concepts in preparation of financial statements Apply the double entry aspects of accounting Account for assets and liabilities Prepare financial statements of a sole trader, partnership and companyCONTENT1.1Introduction to accounting-1.2Double entry bookkeeping and books of original entry including manual andcomputerised systems-1.3Nature and purpose of accountingObjectives of accountingUsers of accounting information and their information needsQualities of useful accounting informationAccounting concepts/principlesAccounting standards and their importanceThe accounting equationSource documentsBooks of original entryThe double entry system and the ledgerThe trial balance and basic financial statementsComputerised accounting systems- Role of computers, application andaccounting softwares in the accounting process, benefits and challenges ofoperating computerised accounting systemsAccounting for assets and liabilities-Accrued expenses and prepaid expensesAccounting for revenue including accrued income and prepaid incomeAccounting for accounts receivables, bad debts and allowance for doubtfuldebtsProperty plant and equipment including capital revenue and expenditure,depreciation, acquisition and disposalInventory – recognition, measurement and valuation using specific costmethod (FIFO and weighted average cost only)Accounting for cash and cash equivalents, bank reconciliationAccounting for accounts payable including control accountAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-1-

1.4Correction of accounting errors and the suspense account1.5Financial statements of a sole trader-1.6Partnership accounts-1.7Contents of a partnership agreementDistinction between current and capital accountsAppropriation statement and partners current and capital accountsStatement of financial position and income statement(Excluding changes in partnerships)Company accounts-1.8Income statementStatement of financial positionTypes of share capital – ordinary shares and preference sharesTypes of reserves – share premium, revaluation reserve, general reservesand retained profitsIssue of shares (exclude issue by instalment and forfeiture)Rights issues and bonusIncome tax -Accounting treatment and presentation (exclude computation)Income statementStatement of financial positionEmerging issues and trendsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-2-

PAPER NO. 2 COMMERCIAL LAWGENERAL OBJECTIVEThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that willenable him/her to apply the principles and provisions of commercial law in various businessenvironments2.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to: Apply general principles of commercial law in business Identify the various dispute resolution mechanisms Demonstrate knowledge of legal personality Describe the different types of property Apply the law of contract in various scenariosCONTENT2.1Introduction to Law2.1.1Nature, purpose and classification of law- Meaning, nature and purpose of law- Classification of law- Law and morality2.1.2Sources of law- The Constitution- Legislation- Substance of common law and doctrines of equity- African customary law- Islamic law- Judicial precedent- General rules of international law and ratified treaties2.1.3Administrative law- Meaning- Doctrine of separation of powers- Natural justice- Judicial control of the Executive2.1.4The court system- Structure, composition and jurisdiction of courts- Magistrate courts- Courts martial- Kadhis courtsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-3-

2.1.5TribunalsThe High CourtEnvironment and Land CourtIndustrial CourtCourt of AppealSupreme CourtLaw of persons- Types of persons: natural person, artificial person- Nationality, citizenship and domicile- Unincorporated associations- Corporations- Co-operative societies2.2 Law of tort- Nature of tort- Vicarious liability- Strict Liability- Negligence- Nuisance- Trespass- Defamation- Occupiers liability- General defences in the law of tort- Limitation of actions2.3 Law of contract- Definition and nature of a contract- Classification of contracts- Formation of a contract- Terms of a contract- Vitiating factors- Illegal contracts- Discharge of contract- Remedies for breach of a contract- Limitation of actions2.4 Sale of goods- Nature of the contract- Formation of the contract- Terms of the contract- Transfer of property and title in goods- Rights and duties of the partiesAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-4-

-Auction salesInternational contracts of sale: FAS, FOB, CIF, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP,DDP, CFR, DAF, DES, DDU, Ex-works and Ex-ship2.5 General principles of consumer credit- Nature of the hire purchase contract- Difference between hire purchase and conditional sale/credit sale- Formation of the hire purchase contract- Terms of the hire purchase contract- Rights and duties of the parties- Termination and completion of the hire purchase contract2.6 Indemnity and Guarantees- Nature of the contracts- Rights and duties of the parties- Advantages and disadvantages of guarantee as security- Termination of contract of guarantee2.7 Partnership- Nature of partnership- Relations of partners to persons dealing with them- Relations of partners to one another- Rights, duties and liabilities of existing, incoming, outgoing and minor partners- Dissolution of partnership and its consequences2.8 Insurance- Nature of the contract- Formation of the contract- Principles of insurance- Types of insurance2.9 Agency- Meaning, nature and creation of agency- Types of agents- Rights and duties of the parties- Authority of an agent- Termination of agency2.10 Negotiable instruments- Nature and characteristics- Negotiability and transferability- Types: cheques, promissory notes, bills of exchange- Rights and obligations of the partiesAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-5-

2.11 The law of property- Definition of property- Classification of property (real and personal, movable and immovable, tangibleand intangible)- Property in land: Private, Public and Community land- Interests in land: estates, servitudes and encumbrances- Intellectual property: plant breeder’s patents, trademarks, copyrights andindustrial designs2.12 Resolving commercial disputes- Nature and problems associated with commercial litigation- Arbitration- Mediation- Negotiation2.13 Emerging issues and trendsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-6-

PAPER NO.3 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONGENERAL OBJECTIVEThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that willenable him/her to apply entrepreneurial and communication skills in business and otherenvironments3.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to: Identify and screen viable business opportunitiesDevelop a business planDemonstrate entrepreneurial orientationCommunicate effectively in a business environmentApply entrepreneurial competencies in response to the emerging trends in thebusiness environmentCONTENT3.1Introduction to entrepreneurshipDefinition of entrepreneurshipRationale for entrepreneurshipEntrepreneurial decision processEntrepreneurial developmentContribution to economic development3.2Entrepreneurship orientationIndependence and need for achievementIndividual characteristics of entrepreneursCreativity and innovationDecision makingRisk managementTime managementCoping with competition3.3Entrepreneurial opportunity and developmentMethods of generating ideasQualities of good business opportunitiesEvaluating business opportunitiesFeasibility analysisBusiness incubationIntellectual properties, copyrights trademarks and patents3.4Business planPurposeFormatDescription of the businessThe market and marketing planOperations and production planThe human resources planThe financial planLaunching the new ventureAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-7-

3.5Strategies for enterprise growthPenetration strategyMarket development strategyProduct development strategyFranchisingJoint venturesMergers and acquisitionsGoing public3.6Entrepreneurship and technologyInternet and e-commerceThe enterprise websiteGlobalisationBusiness outsourcingTechpreneursElectronic and mobile money transfersBusiness networkingCrowd funding and crowd sourcing3.7Nature of business communicationMeaning of communicationPurposes of business communicationInternal and external communicationThe communication processMethods of communicationCommunication systems and networksPrinciples of effective communicationBarriers to effective communication3.8Written communicationRules of effective writingBusiness correspondenceReportsMemorandumProposal writingForms and questionnaire designCirculars and newslettersNotices and advertisementsPublicity materialsPress releasesGraphic communication3.9Oral and non-verbal communicationOral communication in businessEffective listeningInterviewsNon-verbal communicationInterpersonal relationshipsPresentations skills3.10MeetingsNoticeAgendaRole of the chairpersonRole of the secretaryAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-8-

3.113.12Conduct of meetingsMinutesInformation technology and communicationThe internetTeleconferencingWireless technologiesElectronic postal servicesEthics and integrity in business communicationConcept of ethics and integritySignificance of ethical communicationFactors influencing ethical communicationEthical dilemmas in communicationGuidelines to handle communication ethics dilemmasBusiness ethics in communication3.13 Emerging issues and trendsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-9-

PAPER NO. 4 INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYGENERAL OBJECTIVEThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that willenable him/her to apply fundamental information communication technology (ICT) skills inbusiness4.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to: Demonstrate knowledge of computer systemsSelect appropriate computer hardware and softwareUse various computer application packagesSelect various types of information systemsUse computer networks and the InternetCONTENT4.1Introduction to ICTICT overviewTypes of ICTsInformation centresUses of ICT in businessImpact of ICT in society4.2Computer systemsOverview of a computer systemEvolution of computersElements of a computer system4.3Computer hardwareOverviewInput devicesOutput devicesProcessing devicesStorage devicesCommunication devicesFactors that determine the processing power of a computerSelection and acquisition of computer hardware4.4Computer softwareOverview of computer softwareSystem softwareApplication softwareOther utility softwareComputer programming languagesSelection and acquisition of computer software4.5Introduction to operating systemsOverview of an operating systemFunctions of an operating systemTypes of operating systemsComputer bootingSelection and acquisition of operating systemsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-10- filesElements of a computer fileTypes of computer filesBasic file design and storageFile organisationFile access methodsAn overview of application packages-Word processing Features of word processor Formatting and editing text Creating and formatting tables-Spreadsheets Features of a spreadsheet program Formatting and editing spreadsheet Formulas and functions Charts and graphs-Presentation software Features of presentation program Typing and formatting text in slide Slide show-Computerised accounting software Capturing data Features of accounting softwareOverview of information systems-Systems overviewInformation systemsComponents of an information systemRole of information systems in an organisationClassification of information systemsTypes of information systemsOverview of information systems security and controls4.9Computer networksComputer networks conceptsComputer network hardware and softwareData transmission mediaTypes of computer networksAdvantages and limitations of networking4.10 The InternetApplications of Internet Using search engines E-mails Electronic communicationIntroduction to the InternetInternet services – e –mails, www, instant messagingSearching for information on the InternetInternet service providers (ISPs)Applications of internetImpact of internet on society4.11 Emerging issues and trendsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-11-

LEVEL IIPAPER NO. 5 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTINGGENERAL OBJECTIVESThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that willenable him/her to prepare financial statements for different entities5.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to:Prepare books of original entry and basic ledger accounts under double entrysystemPrepare basic financial statements of sole traders, partnerships, companiesand manufacturing entities and not for profit organisationsComply with the regulatory framework in the accounting fieldAccount for assets and liabilitiesAnalyse financial statements by use of ratios and statement of cash flows CONTENT5.1Introduction to accountingThe accounting frameworkSources of regulations at national and global levels; the law (Companies Act),professional bodies, global regulatory bodiesAccounting standards (IASs/IFRSs) (their importance and limitations)Professional ethics5.2Accounting for assets and liabilities5.2.1AssetsProperty, plant and equipment – recognition, capital and revenueexpenditure, measurement (depreciation and revaluation), disposaland disclosures – property, plant and equipment scheduleIntangible assets – recognition, measurement (amortisation,impairment and revaluation), disposals and disclosuresFinancial assets – examples and categories only5. – Accounting treatment of repayment of principal and interestFinancial statements of a sole traderIncome statementStatement of financial positionPreparation of financial statements under incomplete informationFinancial statements of a partnershipIncome statementStatement of financial positionChanges in partnership – admission of a new partner, retirement and changein profit sharing ratioAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-12-

5.5Financial statements of a company-5.6Financial statements of a manufacturing entity-5.7-Statement of cash flows (categories of cash, methods of preparing statementof cash flows and the importance)Financial ratios – definition, categories, analysis and interpretation, applicationand limitationsIntroduction to Public Sector Accounting-5.10FeaturesTypes of funds and their accounting treatmentIncome and expenditure accountStatement of financial positionAnalysing financial statements-5.9Features of a manufacturing entityClassification and apportioning costs between manufacturing and selling andadministrationFinancial statements – manufacturing account, income statement andstatement of financial positionFinancial statements of a not-for-profit making organisation-5.8Financial statements – income statement and statement of financial positionPublished financial statements (Describe a complete set of publishedfinancial statements but not preparation)Features of public sector entities (as compared to private sector)Structure of the public sector (National and county governments, statecorporations and other agencies)Regulatory structures and oversight [IPSASB, PSASB (establishment,mandate and functions), Director of Accounting Services, National Treasury,Parliamentary Committees, Accounting Officers at national and county levels)Objectives of public sector financial statementsObjectives of IPSASAccounting techniques in public sector (budgeting, cash, accrual, commitmentand fund)(Preparation of financial statements should be excluded)Emerging issues and trendsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-13-

PAPER NO. 6 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTGENERAL OBJECTIVEThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitude that will enable him/her toapply management principles in organisations6.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to: Demonstrate understanding of management principles and techniquesApply knowledge of management theories in organisationsManage small and medium size teams and groupsApply management competencies in response to emerging trends in managementCONTENT6.1Introduction to management-6.2Approach to the management thought-6.3Scientific approachGeneral administrative approachBehavioural approachPlanning function-6.4Definition of managementManagement as a science, an art or a professionPrinciples of management as advocated by Henery FayolImportance of managementLevels of managementQualities of a managerMeaning of planningImportance of planningTypes of planningPlanning processLimitations of planningEffective planningDecision making processOrganising function-Meaning of organisingImportance of organisingPrinciples of organisingProcess of organisingOrganisational structuresAuthority, responsibility and powerDelegationCoordinationAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-14-

6.5Directing functionMeaning and importance cation6.6Staffing function-6.7Control function-6.8Meaning of controlImportance of controlThe control processTypes of control systemsEffective control systemsCurrent trend in management-6.9Meaning of staffingImportance of staffingRole of human resource managerRecruitment and selectionTraining and developmentPerformance appraisalReward and compensationSeparationInformation technology and managementGlobalisationBusiness ethics and integrityCorporate Social responsibilityEmerging issues and trendsAccounting Technicians Diploma (ATD) Examination Syllabus-15-

PAPER NO. 7 BUSINESS MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICSGENERAL OBJECTIVEThis paper is intended to equip the candidate with knowledge, skills and attitudes that willenable him/her to apply mathematical and statistical skills in business transactions.7.0LEARNING OUTCOMESA candidate who passes this paper should be able to: Apply linear, quadratic and simultaneous equations to solve businessproblemsCompute simple and compound interestsSolve problems involving appreciation, depreciation, hire purchase andforeign exchangeSolve business problems using matrix algebraSolve business problems involving commercial mathematicsPresent data in form of tables, graphs and curvesCalculate measures of location, dispersion skewness and kurtosisCompute simple, general and weighted index numbers.CONTENT7.1Equations-Linear equations; solving and graphsQuadratic equations; solving and graphsDifferentiationSimultaneous equations; solvingBreak-even analysisTotal revenue, total cost and profit equations; application of errors7.2MatricesIntroduction: order, typesAddition, subtraction and multiplicationDetermin

- Computer network hardware and software - Data transmission media - Types of computer networks - Advantages and limitations of networking 4.10 The Internet - Applications of Internet Using search engines E-mails Electronic communication - Introduction to the Internet - Internet services – e –mails, www, instant messaging - Searching for information on the Internet - Internet .