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SUSTAINABLEGOAT BREEDINGAND GOAT FARMINGIN CENTRAL ANDEASTERN EUROPEANCOUNTRIESEuropean Regional Conference on Goats7–13 April 2014

SUSTAINABLEGOAT BREEDING ANDGOAT FARMING INCENTRAL AND EASTERNEUROPEAN COUNTRIESEuropean Regional Conference on Goats7–13 April 2014Edited bySándor Kukovics, Hungarian Sheep and Goat Dairying Public Utility AssociationHerceghalom, HungaryFOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONSRome, 2016

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do notimply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country,territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers orboundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or notthese have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended byFAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO.ISBN 978-92-5-109123-4 FAO, 2016FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this informationproduct. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printedfor private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products orservices, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyrightholder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not impliedin any way.All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial userights should be made via www.fao.org/contact-us/licence-request or addressed to [email protected] information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/publications) andcan be purchased through [email protected]

TABLE OF CONTENTS173137435157677175819199105ENVIRONMENTS AND GOATS AROUND THE WORLD: IMPORTANCE OFGENETIC AND MANAGEMENT FACTORSJuan CapoteSUSTAINABLE GOAT FARMING IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAND HUNGARYSándor Kukovics, Péter Horn, Gábor Baranyai, Péter Tóth, Kristaq Kume, Navine Babayan, Lasha Avaliani, Doytcho Dimov, Mioč Boro, Vera Matlova, Evangelia N. Sossidou, Christina Ligda, Stela Zamfirescu, Ivan Pihler, Milan Margetín, Jarmila Dubravska, Drago Kompan, Bozidarka Markovic, Milan Markovic and Vladimir DzabirskiORGANIZATION AND SHIFTS IN THE GENETIC SELECTION AND BREEDING OFGOATS TO ADDRESS CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN LIVESTOCKACTIVITIESJean-Paul DubeufGOAT BREEDING IN ROMANIAHoria GrosuGOAT BREEDS AND BREEDING PROGRAMMES IN HUNGARYSándor Kukovics and Gábor BaranyaiGOAT INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN ARMENIANarine BabayanCURRENT STATUS OF THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE BREEDING OFLOCAL AND INDIGENOUS GOAT BREEDS IN ALBANIAKume Kristaq, Papa Lumturi and Kipi ArbenRELATIONSHIPS OF GOAT BREEDING AND FARMING WITH ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION AND CONSERVATIONIvan Kyssa, Anna Shulga, Dmitry Krylov and Tatiana SergieniaGEORGIAN LOCAL GOAT BREEDS AND BRUCELLOSIS INFECTIONAvaliani LashaTHE DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK RESOURCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA:GOAT AND SHEEP BREEDSTatiana NistoricaGOAT BREEDING IN MONTENEGRO – CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECTSMilan Marković and Bozidarka MarkovićGOAT BREEDING IN POLANDEmilia Bagnicka, Jacek Sikora, Jarosław Kaba and Tomasz M. GruszeckiCURRENT STATUS OF AND PROSPECTS FOR GOAT FARMINGIN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATIONO. Osadchaya, V. Bagirov, N. Zinovieva and A. HolmanovGOAT PRODUCTION IN VOJVODINA, SERBIAI. Pihler, J. Ćirić, N. Maksimović, N. Stanišić and M. Žujovićiii

ESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DOMESTIC BALKAN GOAT ECOTYPESIN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIAVladimir Dzabirski, Koco Porcu, Dragoslav Kocevski, Mirjana Jankulovska and GoranTrajkovskiGOAT BREEDING IN UKRAINEYuriy Vdovychenko, Pavlo Zharuk, Andriy Masliuk and Andriy GetyaPOPULATION STRUCTURE OF SOUTH AFRICAN COMMERCIAL DAIRY GOATSL. Bosman, E. van Marle-Köster and C. VisserEVALUATION OF BODY MORPHOLOGY AND PRODUCTION TRAITS OFGOAT BREEDS IN HUNGARYTímea Németh and Sándor KukovicsGENETIC VARIABILITY OF LIPOGENIC ENZYMES (DGAT2, SCD) AND GLYCOPROTEIN (BTN1A1) IN THE DAIRY GOAT POPULATION OF THE CZECH REPUBLICZuzana Sztankoova, Jitka Kyselová, Jana Rychtářová, Klára Michnová, Milena Fantováand Lenka NohejlováGENETIC BACKGROUND OF MILK PROTEIN ALLERGYSzilvia Kusza,András Jávor41 and Sándor KukovicsRECENT PERSPECTIVES ON GOAT PRODUCTION IN TURKEYIrfan Daskiran and Nazan KolumanGENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF HONAMLI GOATS UNDER BREEDER CONDITIONSIN ANTALYA, TURKEYÖzkan Elmaz and Mustafa SaatcıMILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION TRAITS OF HAIR GOATS UNDER EXTENSIVECONDITIONS IN THE CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION OF TURKEYHakan ErduranGROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF HONAMLIGOAT KIDS AS A NATIVE ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCE UNDER BREEDERCONDITIONS IN TURKEYGök Bekir, Aktaş Ahmet Hamdi, Dursun Şükrü, Halıcı İbrahim and Baş HüseyinCHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES AND DRAWBACKS IN INTENSIFYING GOATFEEDING SYSTEMS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURESylvie Giger-Reverdin and Daniel SauvantSHORT WATER RESTRICTION EPISODE IN LACTATING ALPINE ANDSAANEN GOATSLina S. Jaber, Christine Duvaux-Ponter, Shadi K. Hamadeh and Sylvie Giger-ReverdinCHALLENGES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RURAL GOAT INDUSTRYIN SOUTH AFRICACarina Visser and Esté van Marle-KösterDATA ON THE IMPORTANCE OF GOAT MILK AND MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITIONJános Seregi and Ágnes KovácsBODY CONDITION AND MILK PRODUCTION ON FIVE SAANEN GOAT FARMSIN HUNGARYMyrtill Gráff, András Jávor and Sándor Kukovics

209THE NORWEGIAN HEALTHIER GOATS PROJECTDag Lindheim and Liv Sølverød215 SOMATIC CELL COUNT OF MILK FROM DIFFERENT GOAT BREEDS IN HUNGARYJózsef Csanádi, József Fenyvessy and Sára Bohata223 A REVIEW OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM IN GOATSFROM ROMANIAVasile Cozma, Anamaria Balea, Anamaria Paştiu, Raluca Gavrea, Viorica Mircean andAdriana Györke227 PARASITE BURDENS IN CARPATHIAN GOATS IN ROMANIA AND ASSOCIATEDHAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERSOlimpia C. Iacob, Wael El-Deeb, Gheorghe Solcan and Geta Pavel237 EFFECT OF ORGANIC VERSUS INORGANIC SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ONTHE MILK PRODUCTION TRAITS OF POLISH DAIRY GOATSE. Bagnicka, J. Jarczak, J. Kaba, E.M. Kościuczuk, M. Czopowicz and J. Krzyżewski243 QUALITY OF MILK AND CHEESE FROM ITALIAN INDIGENOUS GOAT BREEDSFOR SAFEGUARDING BIODIVERSITY AND THE ENVIRONMENTLucia Sepe, Giuseppe Morone and Salvatore Claps251 TESTING OF NANO-SIZED ELEMENTAL SELENIUM-ENRICHED YOGHURTIN HUMAN TRIALSTimea Takác, Attila Sztrik, Beáta Babka, Edina Keresztesi, József Prokisch, Anikó Nagyand Zoltán Csiki257 OPTIMIZED TECHNOLOGY, STORAGE CHANGES IN MICROBIAL PARAMETERSAND FUNCTIONALITY OF GOAT MILK PRODUCTS AMENDED WITH INULIN OROMEGA-3 FATTY ACID CONTAINING OILE. Némedi, Z. Naár, L. Daróczi, S. Kukovics and A. Kiss265 A PROPOSAL FOR A NEW WELFARE ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL FORDAIRY GOATSAna Vieira, Monica Battini, Silvana Mattiello and George Stilwell271 LARGE-SCALE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC VALIDATION OF THE FLOCKREPROD AI PROTOCOLSGuido Bruni, Juraj Grizelj, Silvijo Vince, Pascal Boué,Mathilde Tuauden,Lisa Johnson, Karine Boissard, Sandrine Freret, Alice Fatet, Avdi Melpomeni,Apostolos Marantidis, Giorgio Zanatta, Basilio Floris, Andrea Branca,Gian Paolo Epifani, Mario Villa, Francisco Pereira, Fernando Pintor,Sandra Cavaco-Gonçalves, João Pedro Barbas, Maria da Conceição Baptista,Ramiro Mascarenhas, Stela Zamfirescu, Elena Matei Sogorescu,Anghel Andreea Hortase, Claudiu Anghelescu, Daniela Durbalau,Antonio López Sebastián, Miguel Ángel Coloma Eusebio, Julián Santiago Moreno,Adolfo Toledano, Juan Antonio Carrizosa Durán, Baltasar Urrutia López, Jorge Castilloand Maria-Teresa Pellicer277 APPLYING PROTOCOLS FOR HORMONE-FREE AI BASED ON USE OF THEMALE EFFECT FOR INDUCING AND SYNCHRONIZING OVULATIONS OUT OFTHE BREEDING SEASON IN CARPATHIAN GOATSStela Zamfirescu, Irina Topoleanu, Andreea Anghel, Dorina Nadolu and Nicolae Dobrinv

FOREWORDGoat breeding in Central and Eastern European countries traditionally had a major roleto play in the agriculture sector, providing livelihoods for the rural population. As thestructure of the sector is now changing, more focus is needed not only to avoid existingand potential problems, but also to take advantage of new opportunities.Breeding, nutrition, environment and production systems, animal and human health,animal welfare and new assisted reproduction technologies all contribute to sustainable agriculture, which can help the region to adapt to the new challenges. These topicswere discussed at the Workshop on Sustainable Goat Breeding and Goat Farming in theCentral and Eastern European Countries, which was held in Debrecen, Hungary, from7 to 13 April 2014 and contributed to the sharing and exchange of knowledge among184 participants from 29 countries.The year 2014 was the International Year of Family Farming. As goat breeding andproduction is a traditional part of family farming, at international year offered a greatopportunity to support collaboration among international experts on spreading innovative approaches and evaluating current and past tendencies.This publication provides a complete set of papers delivered during the workshop anda summary of a round table discussion conducted at the end of the workshop. I hopethat the brochure we present to you today will contribute to a better understandingand appreciation of the goat production in the region.Vladimir RakhmaninAssistant Director-GeneralRegional Representative for Europe and Central Asiavii

SUMMARY OF THECONFERENCE AND THEFAO WORKSHOPMain purposeThe aims of these scientific meetings were to evaluate the situation of goat breeding andfarming in Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries, and to increase theknowledge on sustainable goat breeding and goat farming, animal nutrition, environment protection and production systems, animal welfare, animal health and methodsfor improving reproduction, and the possible relationship between the consumptionof goat products and human health.Participants and papersThere were 184 participants from 29 countries: in Europe – Albania, Belarus, Croatia,the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Montenegro, Poland, Portugal, theRepublic of Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Spain, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine; from elsewhere in the region – Armenia andGeorgia; and from other parts of the world – Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Malaysia, , Mexico,Morocco, South Africa, Turkey and the United States of America.There were 92 oral and 18 poster presentations introduced during the conference.Because of space limitations, only the papers from the Plenary Session and the FAOworkshop (Session 1) are included in this book, along with selected papers from othersessions, the round table and the workshops on reproduction.The programmeThe Plenary Session addressed the main question of the conference and workshop:the environmental impact of goat farming and its integration into a sustainable system.In Session 1: Breeding, which also served as a FAO Workshop on Protection of LocalBreeds, other important questions were discussed: using local and indigenous goatbreeds to protect and conserve the environment; adoption of “international” and “exotic” breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Nubian, Boer, etc.) and its effects on local populations;and effects of selection on the production ability of goats.In Session 2: Nutrition, different levels of feed supply were discussed, including theimpacts of extensive versus intensive feeding systems – challenges and opportunities.Session 3: Environment and production systems, covered several subjects concerning goat keeping and farming in relation to the links between production and the environment: awareness of challenges for rural development, from lowland to upland(mountain); intensive versus extensive production systems (including technology); andensuring the welfare of goats in intensive and extensive systems.Session 4: Animal health, covered a very important topic: outbreaks of new diseases inix

Europe. Viral and bacterial diseases of exotic origin (such as bluetongue virus, caprinearthritis encephalitis virus and Schmallenberg virus) and their effects on local goat populations were among the main subjects of discussion. Internal and external parasites,diagnoses and treatment were another focus of this session.In Session 5: Human healths, two main groups of subjects were discussed: small scale/on-farm versus industrial milk processing; and the use of quality assurance and HazardAnalysis Critical Control Point protocols to ensure product safety, and functional foodsfrom goat milk and meat.The aims of the Goat Welfare Round Table, which linked Sessions 3 and 4, were todevelop a proposal for a new welfare assessment protocol for goats, concerning goatkeeping in general. It also aimed to study welfare issues during transportation.The Poster Session covered papers connected to the subjects of each session.Goat reproduction issues were discussed at three workshops connected to Session 4.Workshop 1, summarized recent advances in reproduction management, from artificialinsemination via embryo transfer to reproduction diseases. Workshop 2 discussed thepossibilities for and results of non-hormonal modification of reproduction in goats.Workshop 3 summarized details of the latest results in reproduction management ofintensive goat farming.AgendaThe FAO Workshop on Goat Breeding was organized within the Hungarian–RomanianEuropean Regional Cross-border Conference on Goats under the auspices of the International Goat Association in Debrecen (Hungary) and Oradea (Nagyvárad, Romania)between 8 and 11 April 2014.Farms and goat breedsOn 7 April 2014, participants visited one of the biggest goat farms in Hungary, where 500milking does belonging to different breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Hungarian Native and theircrosses) and their progeny are kept along with 200 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian). Themilk produced is processed in the farm’s own officially licensed dairy, and the severalkinds of cheese and other products made are sold in various shops.During the technical trip of the conference, on 8 April 2014, three goat farms with various herd sizes (of 35, 100 and 300 does, respectively) belonging to different breeds(local, exotic and their cross-breeds) were visited. Two of these farms had officiallylicensed dairies, in which various milk products were manufactured.In addition, participants visited the Hortobágy National Park and its special collectionof Hungarian ancient domesticated and indigenous breeds of various species (sheep,pig, poultry, goat, horse, cattle, pigeon, etc.). Special attention was given to HungarianGrey cattle, Hungarian Racka sheep (both of which have unusual horns), native goatsand Nónius horses.On 8 April 2014, the Fourth Hungarian National Goat and Sheep Milk Products Competition was organized, and nearly 60 kinds of milk product were introduced and tasted.After the conference, on 12 April 2014, participants visited a large Romanian goat farm(with 1 500 goats).Scientific conference daysxThe Plenary Session, the FAO workshop (Session 1) and Session 2 were held in Debrecen on9 April. Sessions 3 and 4, the round table and workshop 1 were held in Debrecen on 10 April.

Session 5 and workshops 2 and 3 were held in Oradea on 11 April.Main conclusionsReflecting the wide range of subjects discussed during the conference programme, themain conclusions of the conference also cover different fields of goat farming:- In most of the countries goats are kept in small herds and the ratio of profitable specialized goat farms (with predominantly dairy herds) is low.- Local indigenous goat breeds are less appreciated than they should be given their lowprofitability.- Only a limited proportion of the goats kept are involved in nucleus breeding; theproduction ability of most goats is not known.- To increase the profitability of goat farming, exotic goat breeds are imported into everycountry, where they are used mainly to improve milk production as well as to developthe ability of meat production.- Exotic breeds are used in cross-breeding systems, but the use of pure-breeds is increasing rapidly.- The nucleus breeding of goats is not very profitable, and the preservation and protection of local breeds cannot be carried out without significant monetary support fromgovernments.- Goat farmers should improve their feeding systems, as the level of nutrition is closelyrelated to animals’ production ability and profitability.- Several feeding systems could be used, but the systems selected should follow theneeds of the breeds and the demands of the people concerned, as well as the availablefeed resources.- Numerous new diseases are appearing in Western Europe and some could reachEastern Europe. It is, therefore, necessary to follow a strong animal health protectionprotocol when importing foreign livestock.- Farms lose a significant ratio of their products because of internal and external parasites, but there are good methods for diagnosing and medicines for treating thesepests.- The environment has impacts on production systems, and goat farming is not anenemy of the environment. The production system used may be dangerous, but this isbecause of human rather than goat activity.- Each environment supports certain types of production system, but for profitable goatfarming (for milk production) only the intensive system is applicable.- There are tools for estimating the nutrition status of goats and the values of availablefeeds in different environments (body condition score). These could be used to prevent theanimals from becoming malnourished and to protect the environment from overgrazing.- To ensure healthier animals and better production, animal welfare standards shouldbe followed.- Serious attention should be given to the reproduction traits of goats; several newmethods can be used at the farm level (artificial insemination, embryo transfer, spermfreezing, oestrus synchronization, etc.), but hormonal treatment should not replacegood management and feeding.- Increased consumption of goat products could improve human health, but the pro-xi

duction of basic materials and processed products should be controlled effectively.- The milk and meat of goats can be used in functional foods, and are very good basicproducts for developing the functional values of foods for people.RecommendationsMost Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries need strong organizationsof goat breeders and farmers to help individual farmers survive. Frequent regionalmeetings should be organized in this part of the world to discuss the latest results anddevelop useful cooperation.The markets for goat milk products also need urgent help to reach the necessary levelof development, and a market for goat meat should be created in this part of Europe.Serious government support is needed in these countries to preserve and protect andto improve local indigenous goat breeds. Without adequate support, exotic breedsdominate goat farming and the old genetic values will slowly disappear.Goat farmers need basic and further education to benefit from new information anddevelopments that they can apply to their everyday management in order to build asustainable and prosperous future.Dr. Sándor KukovicsEditorxii

ENVIRONMENTS ANDGOATS AROUND THEWORLD: IMPORTANCEOF GENETIC ANDMANAGEMENT FACTORSJuan CapoteInstituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias, Spain, and International Goat AssociationAbstractCurrently there are nearly 1 billion goats around the world. More than 90 percent arelocated in Asia and Africa and only 1.8 percent in Europe. Over the past 50 years, thegoat pop

The year 2014 was the International Year of Family Farming. As goat breeding and production is a traditional part of family farming, at international year offered a great opportunity to support collaboration among international experts on spreading inno-vative approaches and evaluating current and past tendencies. This publication provides a complete set of papers delivered during the workshop ...