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Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateWORLD CLIMATEWhat is Climate?We saw in Grade 5 that climate is the average weather over a 30year period for a specific region. It is the average pattern ofweather for that region. Weather and climate is not the same thing.Weather is the short term state of the atmosphere and includes things such as temperature,precipitation (rain, hail and snow), air pressure and cloud cover.When we study the features of the types of climate that occur in different places, we can seethat large areas experience the same average conditions and so a type of climatic region isformed.Through the ages, people have often been influenced by the climate when deciding wherethey want to settle. Large parts of the Earth are either too cold, or too dry or too hot forpeople to live.Very Cold Climate - GreenlandVery Hot Climate –Sahara Desert, LibyaVery Dry Climate –The Australian OutbackVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20131

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateThe availability of resources also influences a person's choice of where to live. That is whythe approximate 7 billion people on Earth occupy only 15% of its surface.World Climate ZonesThere are differences in climate in different places in the world. These have been groupedinto climate zones.There are 5 main climate zones, each with a number of sub-climate zones, as shown in themap and described in the table below.World Climate ZonesWikimedia Creative CommonsAttribution Share-Alike: Waitak/SplettVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20132

Geography: Grade 6Climate ZoneClimate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateSub ZoneDescriptionLocationTropical WetHot and rainyall year. Nodry season.Within 5 north andsouth of the equator.TropicalTropical rainforests.At least 60 mmaverageExamples:precipitationBelem, Brazilper month.SingaporeCosta RicaSingaporeTropical Wet and DryHot with bothwet and dryseasons.Examples:Mumbai, IndiaRio de Janeiro,BrazilLagos, NigeriaMumbai, IndiaAridDryVery little tono rain.Very hot days.Examples:Dubai, UAECairo, EgyptTucson, ArizonaLargetemperaturefluctuationsbetween dayand night.Cairo, EgyptVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20133

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateSub ZoneDescriptionLocationSemi AridSlightly morerainfall thanarid climatezoneExamples:The AustralianOutback.Areas of India andPakistan.West coast of Northand South America.The Australian OutbackMediterraneanModerateHot and drysummersSouthwest coast ofUSA and theMediterranean.Mild wintersExamples:Perth, AustraliaCape Town, SouthAfricaAthens, GreeceAthens, GreeceHumid SubtropicalHot humidsummers withthunderstorms.Mild to coolwinters.South east sides ofcontinents, betweenlatitudes 25 and 40 north and south.Examples:Venice, ItalyDurban, SouthAfricaNew York, USAVenice, ItalyVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20134

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateSub ZoneDescriptionLocationMarine West CoastMild and rainythroughout theyear.On west coasts ofmid latitude ofcontinents.Pacific north west ofUSA and much ofEurope.Example:London, EnglandLondon, EnglandHumid ContinentalContinentalWarmsummers.Cold, snowywinters.Large seasonaltemperaturevariation.Found in areas above40 N latitude.Inland north easternUSA, Europe andAsia.Examples:Chicago, USAMoscow, RussiaMoscow, RussiaSubarcticShortsummers.Long, snowywinters.Anchorage, AlaskaFound on largelandmasses, usuallyat 50 N to 70 Nlatitude.China, Russia, NorthAmerica, the Alpsand the Pyreneesmountain ranges inEurope.Examples:Anchorage, AlaskaMohe, ChinaSamedan,SwitzerlandVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20135

Geography: Grade 6Climate ZoneClimate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateSub ZoneDescriptionLocationTundraAlways coldand dry.Examples:AntarcticaShort, coldsummers.CanadaPolarAlaskaCovered bypermafrost.TundraIcecapsFreezingtemperaturesall year.Examples:AntarcticaGreenlandLittle daylightin winter.AntarcticaHighlandsTemperaturesvary widelyaccording tolatitude andelevation.Examples:Mountain rangessuch as the RockyMountains, Andes,Himalayas, TibetanPlateau, EastHighlands of AfricaHimalayasVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20136

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateWorld TemperatureThe temperature of certain places can be described as shown in the table below:DescriptionExcessively coldSeverely coldVery coldColdCoolMildWarmHotVery hotSeverely hotMonthly AverageTemperaturesLess than -40 C-39,9 C to -25 C-24,9 C to -10 C-9,9 C to 0 C0,1 C to 9,9 C10 C to 17,9 C18 C to 22,9 C23 C to 27,9 C28 C to 34,9 Cmore than 35 CThe hottest climates are usually found in places closest to theequator. The further we move from the equator, the colder itbecomes. At 12:00 midday, the sun is directly overhead theequator. The rays of the sun are more concentrated and thetemperatures are higher.Further north and south, the rays of the sun fall at an angle andare spread over a larger area by the Earth’s round shape.At the poles, the sun is lower on the horizon, which is whythe sun’s rays are less concentrated and as a result thetemperatures are much colder.Version 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 2013At Midday, the Sun is Directlyover the Equator7

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateThe highest temperatures are found in the tropics, i.e., the area between the Tropic of Cancerand the Tropic of Capricorn. These areas have the most direct sunlight.Above and below the tropics, temperatures fall as you travel towards the poles. The otherfactor that affects temperature, apart from latitude, is elevation, or height above sea level.Generally, temperature drops by around 6,5 C for every 1000 m above sea level.The Earth absorbs the sun’s rays, converts them to heat and radiates them again. The closerwe are to the source of radiation, the hotter it is, and the further we are from the source, forexample, on top of a mountain, the colder it becomes.It is always cold on top of high mountains. The highest mountain peaks on the earth arealways covered with snow.Temperature Fallsat Higher AltitudesVersion 2: January 2014Mount Everest –The Highest Mountain in the World Copyright My Cyberwall 20138

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateThe coldest areas on earth are found in Greenland and the Antarctic as they have a highlatitude and a high elevation.Wikimedia Creative CommonsAttribution-Share Alike: Robert A. Rohde for Global Warming ArtMonthly Average TemperatureWikimedia Creative CommonsAttribution-Share Alike: PZ MapsTo see the monthly average temperature per month, go to the raphy/grade-6/world-climateVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 20139

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateThe Influence of OceansThe temperatures of the oceans influences land temperatures.Winds blow the hot or cold air over the hot or cold oceans, towards the land, which increasesor reduces the land temperatures. Winds also blow north and southwards from the Polarregions, bringing cold air onto the land.Water has a larger heat retention capacity than the land has. Water, however, takes longer toheat during the day. Therefore land reaches higher day temperatures than water. The sea has a“cool” influence from the sea to the land. During the night the land cools down much fasterthan the water, which then causes a “warm” influence from the sea to the land.The result is that places along the coast or by large water masses, experience a moderatetemperature. The margin between maximum and minimum is not very large. Hot waterevaporates faster than cold water. There is more evaporation above a warm sea current. Thisresults in higher precipitation in areas that border on warm sea currents, such as Durban,which is influenced by the warm Mozambican current.Highest and Lowest TemperaturesThe highest temperature ever recorded on earth was at Tripolitania in Libya in 1922 at 58,8 C. The highest annual average temperature recorded was 34,4 C at Dallol in Ethiopia.Dallol, EthiopiaThe lowest temperature ever recorded on earth was at Vostok, Russia in 1983 at -88,8 C.The lowest annual average temperature recorded was -50,55 C at the Amundsen-Scottstation in Antarctica (very close to the South Pole). CopyrightMy Cyberwall2013MonthlyAverageTemperature(Source: Wikimedia Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike PZ Maps)Version 2: January 201410

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateWorld PrecipitationPrecipitation is the release of water from the atmosphere to theearth’s surface as a solid or a liquid. It includes the following:RainThis is formed when warm, moist air rises up from the ground andoceans, then cools down. Droplets of water then join together inclouds and then fall back to earth as rain when the clouds becometoo heavy.RainfallSnowSnow falls when the temperature is at or close to 0 C. The air needs to be freezing for thereto be snow. Snow is formed in the same way as rain.HailSmall balls of ice are known as hailstones. They can damage crops, gardens, cars and evenhouses.SnowfallHailstonesWe have seen areas are classified into climate zones, depending on the amount of annualprecipitation that they receive. Areas are classified as dry (arid), semi-dry or wet.The map below shows the monthly average world rainfall.Version 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 201311

Geography: Grade 6Climate and Vegetation Regions of the World: World ClimateMonthly Average PrecipitationWikimedia Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike: PZ MapsTo see the monthly average precipitation per month, go to the raphy/grade-6/world-climateThe lowest annual average precipitation recorded over 39 years was at WadiHalfa, Sudan atless than 2 cm per year. The highest annual average precipitation recorded was at Lloro,Colombia, South America at 1328 cm per year, recorded over a 29 year period.Climate ChangeClimate change is the variation in global or regional climates over time. These changes canbe due to internal forces in the Earth or more recently, human activities. The rise in averagesurface temperature is known as global warming.Polar Bear on Ice BlockThe Result of Global WarmingGo to the module on Global Warming in Save Your Planet for more -planet/climate-change/global-warmingVersion 2: January 2014 Copyright My Cyberwall 201312

At 12:00 midday, the sun is directly overhead the equator. The rays of the sun are more concentrated and the temperatures are higher. Further north and south, the rays of the sun fall at an angle and are spread over a larger area by the Earth’s round shape. At the poles, the sun is lower on the horizon, which is why the sun’s rays are less concentrated and as a result the temperatures are .

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