CLIMATE CHANGE & ENERGY

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TEACHER'S GuideonCLIMATE CHANGE & ENERGY

Concept:Janakraj MuraliFarida TampalText :Aruna MurthyVikram adityaIllustrations:Arnab RoyLayout Design:ColoursOur partners in this initiativeTetra Pak is a leading food processing and beverage carton manufacturing company belonging to the Tetra Laval Group, founded in the year 1943 by RubenRausing in Sweden and currently headquartered in Switzerland. Tetra Pak has innovated and pioneered the usage of aseptic technology in preservingperishable food materials since 1961. The technology helps in preserving food without the application of preservatives. Tetra Pak conducts its operations inan environmentally sustainable manner and adheres to the principles of Renewability, Recycling and Energy Conservation. Tetra Pak has partnered withWWF internationally in the WWF Global Forest and Trade Network and the Climate Savers programme by setting a unilateral 10% emission reduction targetby 2010. Following up on its commitment to substantially reducing emissions, Tetra Pak India has partnered with WWF-India to initiate the Young ClimateSavers programme across schools in India.

CONTENTSForewordAcknowledgementsAbout WWF-IndiaAcronymsPurpose of this moduleChapter 1: History and science of climate change1-17- Is the earth really getting heated up?2- History of Climate Change3- Activity - Climate then and now4- Classroom activity Word search8- Classroom Activity Earth's Climate10-Classroom Activity Quiz on Climate Change11- Classroom Activity Crossword on Climate Change15Chapter 2: Greenhouse effect and global warming18-30- Major greenhouse gases19- How do human activities contribute to Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Global Warming?21- Understanding the greenhouse effect23- Classroom activity Global warming skit25- Classroom Activity Bad Gas Word Puzzle27- Classroom Activity Changing For The Future Word Puzzle29Chapter 3: Impacts of climate change31-45- Extreme weather31- Agriculture33- Glacial retreat33- Sea level rise35- Scarcity of water resources?35- Threats to human health36- Ecosystems and species in peril36- Threats to marine life39- Activity experiment to understand the greenhouse effect40- Classroom activity Ice action word puzzle42- Classroom Activity Something in the Air Word Puzzle44

Chapter 4: Impacts of climate change in India46-60- A case study of Orissa50- A case study of Sunderbans51- Climate change witnesses52- Activity Judicious use of fossil fuels53- Classroom activity Traveling carbon56- Classroom activity Farming in the future word puzzle57Chapter 5: Finding solutions to climate change61-87- UNFCCC61- Kyoto Protocol62- Finding solutions to climate change65- How can we contribute to combating climate change66- How is India working to mitigate climate change68- The world wakes up to global warming70- Climate friendly business operations : A case study of Tetra Pak71- Activity Preparation of recycled paper73- Classroom activity Energy Audit75- Classroom activity Reduce, reuse and recycle paper77- Classroom activity Quiz on renewable energy78- Classroom activity Word puzzle82- Classroom activity Cool it word puzzle84Glossary88-94

FOREWORDHuman induced climate change is confronting our planet with its gravest peril ever,threatening widespread extinction of species and destruction of habitats. Ourinsatiable hunger for development, fueled by the extensive consumption of naturalresources such as forests, fossil fuels, rivers and land has discharged enormousquantities of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, causing a progressive rise intemperatures after the industrial period. This rise in temperature will continueunabated for centuries to come, even if we arrest all emissions immediately. Theimpacts of climate change are already being witnessed everywhere, and willgradually begin to worsen. Ironically, despite bearing witness to the variousindications of climate change such as rising sea levels, increase in frequency ofextreme weather events, and change in precipitation patterns, the world is still afair distance away from mitigating climate change. We are still continuing to emitincreasingly large quantities of greenhouse gases, exacerbating the impacts ofclimate change.WWF-India, the country's largest and oldest conservation organization, recognizesthe urgency of addressing climate change. WWF-India has pioneered efforts towardsdocumenting the various impacts of climate change in vulnerable habitats such asthe Himalayan high altitude glaciers and the Sunderbans deltaic region. WWF-Indiaaims to contain global warming below 2 degrees in order to prevent the mostdangerous impacts. WWF-India believes that imparting environmental educationamongst students will greatly help in not only reducing emissions in society, but willalso prepare them in adapting to and spearheading mitigation efforts in future.In realizing this vision, WWF-India has partnered with Tetra Pak in designing theYoung Climate Savers programme, aimed at imparting education on climate changein 200 schools across 10 cities in India through teacher training workshops andmainstreaming climate issues in the academic curriculum. It is hoped that thisproject will have a lasting impact on students, and through them, the larger society,changing mindsets of producers and consumers alike. This teacher's manual onclimate change is an essential step in this process. The manual provides latestinformation on the science, impacts and mitigation steps of climate change in aneasy to understand fashion, and also lists activities that can be carried out in schoolsto create a better understanding of issues related to climate change amongststudents.I sincerely hope that teachers will make use of the science and activities spelled outin this manual while teaching climate change in their schools. The combined effortsof us all will definitely have a cumulative effect in reducing emissions and ultimatelyin combating the impending peril of climate change.Ravi SinghSecretary General & CEO

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWWF-India had taken upon itself the responsibility of communicating the complex andmultidisciplinary science of climate change in a coherent and convincing manner. This manualis the realization of this endeavour. Mr. Ravi Singh, CEO and SG of WWF-India has beeninstrumental in motivating and providing ideas that helped immensely in the creation of thismanual. Ms. Madhur Das, Head, Business Development Division, WWF-India has played asignificant role in the initial conception and early development of this unique project, andcontinues to provide timely support and encouragement. We deeply appreciate hercommitment, support and continued involvement. Ms. Sejal Worah, Programme Director,WWF-India, has at every step given her inputs for keeping the Young Climate Savers initiativeon the right track.This teacher's manual on climate change has materialized due to the untiring efforts ofseveral dedicated individuals. We acknowledge the support and inputs of Mr. Peter HaneWeijman, Managing Director, Tetra Pak India, Mr. Amit Deep Singh, Head Environment, TetraPak India and Mr. Jaideep Gokhale, Programme Manager, Tetra Pak India. His commentary onthe experiences of Tetra Pak in reducing emissions by incorporating energy efficienttechnologies and measures have proved invaluable in the development of this text. Mr.Sinchai Thiensiri of Tetra Pak Thailand has also provided significant inputs on his experienceswith energy efficiency and recycling in Tetra Pak.Mr. Shirish Sinha, Head; Dr. Prakash Rao, Senior Coordinator; Ms. Shruti Shukla, Coordinatorand Mr. Rajneesh Sareen, Programme Officer, Climate Change and Energy Division, WWF-Indiahave provided valuable technical support and guidance during the preparation of this guidebook, and have ensured that the facts represented in this book are in strict accordance withthe latest internationally accepted science. Their guidance and supervision during thepreparatory phase of the guide book is deeply appreciated.This book was envisaged as a teacher friendly manual that translated the issue of climatechange at a level that could be easily comprehended by schoolteachers and their studentsalike. Our external reviewer, Prof. Valli Manickam of the Institute of Energy, Ecology andEnvironment at the Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad, has spent her valuabletime in reviewing and providing constructive criticism, and has helped us immensely inimproving the text of this manual. We extend our deepest gratitude to her and look forward toher future engagement in our initiatives.Mr. Arnab Roy has industriously designed the artwork and illustrations used in this manual. Weextend our gratitude to him and appreciate his efforts.Our heartfelt gratitude to those who have not been named here, but their contributions andmoral support remain immense. We thank one and all.

WORLD WIDE FUND FOR NATUREEver since its inception in 1962, WWF has grown into the world's largest and mostrespected conservation organization with nature conservation as its prime concern. Withalmost five million supporters in five continents, WWF has a global network active in over90 countries and occupies a major position in the evolution of the internationalconservation movement. Since 1985, WWF has invested over US 1,165 million in morethan 11,000 projects in 130 countries. With this vast support and taking strength from itsmission, "The promotion of nature conservation and environmental protection as thebasis for sustainable and equitable development.", WWF has been attempting to protectnature through its conservation and environmental awareness programmes world wide,including India, the most noteworthy being the declaration of the Eco-regions and theGlobal Conservation Programmes.Working in India as a charitable trust since 1969, WWF has done considerable pioneeringwork to save species such as the Great Indian Bustard, Asiatic Lion, Himalayan Newt, RedPanda and the Mountain Quail amongst others. It has been engaging with the governmentin tiger conservation through Project Tiger and the prevention of wildlife trade throughthe 'TRAFFIC' programme, which assists enforcement agencies to curb illegal wildlifetrade. WWF also actively engages in combating climate change through proposingpragmatic policy responses towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, documentingthe impacts of climate change on fragile ecosystems and imparting climate awareness inschools across the country.Today, WWF-India is not only the country's largest conservation organization, havingtaken on diverse activities from education and capacity building, enviro-legal action,policy research and advocacy and field conservation projects, but has also grown into anationwide network. WWF's work is channeled through its five national initiativesSpecies Conservation Initiative dedicated to priority species conservation, Freshwaterand Wetlands Initiative working towards sustainable management of freshwaterresources, Forests Conservation Initiative directed towards effective forestmanagement, Climate Change and Energy Initiative addressing the issue of climatechange and energy efficiency, and the Oceans and Coasts Initiative having theconservation of marine life as its mandate. In addition to these initiatives, WWF-Indiaalso operates a vast environment education programme, the Center for EnvironmentalLaw, and the Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Center. WWF-India in AndhraPradesh has been working with school students through its Nature Clubs of India (NCIs)programme which allows students to interact with and appreciate nature.WWF believes that schools are the torchbearers for addressing environmental prioritieslike mitigating climate change, adopting renewable and efficient energies and ensuringthe sustainable usage of natural resources in India. Schools participating in the YoungClimate Savers programme will be trendsetters for other schools to emulate. Throughparticipation, schools will be able to inculcate increased sensitivity amongst students onclimate change and energy issues. Through this unique partnership, WWF envisions afuture in which educational institutions become a center of learning for addressingclimate change and make a positive contribution to the well-being of the planet.

ACRONYMSBEEBureau of Energy EfficiencyCCSCarbon Capture and StorageCDMClean Development MechanismCERCertified Emission ReductionsCFLCompact Fluorescent LampCOP/MOPConference of parties serving as meeting of parties to the ProtocolCNGCombustible Natural GasCSIROCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganizationENSOEl Nino - Southern OscillationESPElectrostatic PrecipitatorGCMGeneral Circulation ModelGHGGreenhouse GasesGLOFGlacial Lake Outburst FloodIPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIREDAIndian Renewable Energy Development AgencyKWhKilowatt hourLPGLiquified Petroleum GasMOCMeridional Overturning CirculationMWMegawattNTPCNational Thermal Power CorporationPPBvParts per billion by volumePPMvParts per million by volumeUNCEDUnited Nations Conference on Environment and DevelopmentUNEPUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeUNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeWMOWorld Meteorological OrganizationWWFWorld Wide Fund for Nature

Shocking Evidences of Climate ChangeWith the increase in concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since the pre-industrialperiod, the planet has warmed by about 0.76 C. The eleven hottest years in the past 6,50,000 yearshave occurred between 1991 and 2006. The hottest year on record was 2004 and the second hottestyear on record was 2005. It is projected that the warming will continue to occur and by the end ofthis century the planet will warm by a further 1.4 to 5.8 C.Thanks to global warming, glaciers and ice packs all over the world are shrinking much fasterin the last three decades than they did in the past. We have already lost the magnificent 'Snows ofKilimanjaro', the glaciers straddling Africa's highest mountain peak. Even the Arctic sea ice hasreduced by 40% since 1950, and the Arctic ocean may very soon become ice free. The highly unstableWest Antarctic ice sheet and Greenland ice sheet are also projected to disappear if there is a furtherincrease in temperatures by 1.2 C above pre- industrial levels of 1850.With the melting of glaciers and polar ice sheets and due to the heating up of oceans (thermalexpansion as liquids expand with rise in temperature), the average sea level is predicted to risesharply. Over the last 150 years, global sea level has risen by about 20 cm. A further rise of up to 59cm is projected by 2100 due to global warming. This would mean that as many as 90 million peoplearound the world could have their homes flooded every year!Over four million square kilometres of vegetation is projected to die back within the next 100 yearswhich is practically equivalent to the whole of the Brazilian Amazon leading to a massive venting ofcarbon into the atmosphere, as much as one billion tonnes of carbon within a century!Nearly 16 million tonnes of carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere each day. If worldwideCO2 emissions continue to double every 30 years, it will exceed 1,000 parts per million by volume(ppmv) of CO2 in the atmosphere by the end of the century which is about four times the preindustrial levels, and nearly three times higher than the present CO2 levels!As a result of erratic climatic conditions such as heavier rainfall, longer periods of drought andincreased frequency and intensity of storms and hurricanes, crop production would be severelyaffected especially in regions like Asia and Africa. This could result in more frequent and severefamines. It is predicted that agricultural production could drop by 25% this century. Coupled with arising population and decreasing land area available for agriculture, this itself could spell doom forthe human population.In many countries the amount of rainfall received may change drastically. Consequently, about 3billion people would suffer and have problems getting the water that they need for drinking,cooking, washing and for watering their crops.Higher temperatures are expected to expand the range of some dangerous "vector-borne" diseases,such as malaria, which kills 1 million people annually, most of them children.This could all happen within a century from now if we do nothing to curb our growing emissions.Such a future would be catastrophic! We have no more time to waste. A delay of five to ten years incutting greenhouse gas emissions could make stabilization of the atmosphere almost impossible. Ifthat were to happen, the planet would soon become a Human-free Zone!!!

Purpose of the ManualAn overwhelming body of scientific evidence now clearly indicates that climate change is a serious &urgent issue. The Earth's climate is rapidly changing, mainly as a result of increase in greenhouse gasescaused by human activities. Climate change is a very complex issue with numerous social, environmental& economic parameters & implications, & is thus often difficult to comprehend fully.Today we may be witnessing one of the most profound climatic changes in the Earth's history. Certainly,larger changes in global climate have occurred in the past, but over much longer time periods. The dangerfacing the global society today is that anthropogenic global warming may be too fast to allow humans, &other species, to adapt to its detrimental impacts. In addition, through enhanced greenhouse forcing, wemay be pushing the climate system towards a bifurcation point, where climatic responses may becomehighly non-linear through complex feedback processes, driving the system to a completely different, &most probably, inhospitable state for humankind.The challenge for scientists is to understand the climate system, & ultimately predict changes in globalclimate. To this end, greater collaboration is required between modellers, empiricists & policy makers.Ultimately, the climate system may be too complex to simulate reliably, & the study of global climatechange will remain an imprecise science. In light of this, the precautionary approach to mitigate thethreats of anthropogenic global climate change must be fully recognized & adopted by the internationalcommunity. In addition, increased emphasis will need to focus on the study & modelling of the impacts offuture global warming. Greater integration between scientific & policy scenarios will be beneficial for themanagement & control of future impacts to society. Greater emphasis on impact scenarios at the regionallevel is also needed, if society is truly to “think globally” & “act locally”. Indeed, the challenge for societyas a whole is to respond to current dangers regarding global warming, & ultimately to “manage” theclimate system in a sustainable & responsible manner.The purpose of this module on climate change is to furnish sufficient information on climate change toteachers who have different levels of understanding of this issue. This module provides detailed yet easyto-understand information on various aspects of climate change. The larger aim of this module is togenerate awareness amongst children on the issue & to achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gasemissions. To facilitate this, a number of activities have been designed to provide knowledge on climatechange. These activities can be incorporated into different subjects in the school curriculum (Science,Geography, Social Studies, Language Arts, & Environmental Education), or may be carried out separately.This manual is geared towards students & teachers of Class 6 9.The key to understanding global climate change is to first understand what global climate is, & how itoperates. This is the purpose of chapter 1, which reviews the history & science of climate Change. Chapter2 forms the basis for understanding the Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming & identifies the humanactivities that contribute to global warming. Chapter 3 discusses the global impacts of climate change &global warming while chapter 4 reviews the impacts of climate change in India. Finally, chapter 5 isconcerned with finding solutions to Climate Change & reviews the global initiatives to minimize climatechange. It also provides tips to combat climate change at an individual level.This guide represents an up-to-date review of climate change. Throughout, the focus has essentially beenon global climate change, although reference to regional scale climatic change has been made wherevernecessary. On its own, each chapter is a broadly self-contained discussion of a specific sub-issue ofimportance. Although it is not a complete guide, but it serves to review & illustrate the key factors ofclimate change over time & space. It contains an extensive list of references which the student is urged toconsult. The authors recognize that the study of global climate change is a rapidly developing discipline, &recent empirical evidence of climate change & modelling evidence of the causes of climate change mayhave been omitted. In this sense, the guide represents a snapshot in time of the current understanding ofclimate change, which is open to future development. The opportunity therefore exists for readers of thisguide to comment upon its content, both regarding improvements to the existing material & new ideas foradditional entries. Comments & responses regarding the Global Climate Change Student Guide should besent to the address provided on the front cover page.- The Authors

CHAPTER - IHistory and Science of Climate Change1.1ObjectivesUnderstanding the concept of climate changeAppreciating the fact that although Earth has experiencedclimate change during the past, the present climate change ismore human-induced than natural.1.2KeywordsClimate, Weather, Climate Change.1.3ContentWeather is the state of the atmosphere at a specific time andplace. For instance, how much sunlight and rainfall it gets,how windy it is, and so on. Climate is the pattern of weatheror the average weather taken over a long time period for agiven place or region. Climate change is the long-termalteration in the average weather conditions for a particularlocation.Climate Change does notnecessarily mean thateverything around us will gethotter. Instead, there will bemore erratic & extremeweather conditions, which willresult in heavier rainfall, moresnow in some places, longerperiods of drought, morestorms and hurricanes, andmore frequent heat waves.The world's weather is entirely controlled by the Sun. TheEarth rotates on a tilted axis. As a result, all parts of theplanet do not get equal amount of heat. Different parts of ourplanet are heated by different amounts of Sun's energy atdifferent times of year, making some regions hotter thanothers and causing the seasonal changes. The temperature variations between one part of the worldand another gives rise to differences in air pressure, thereby producing winds and storms The Sun'sheat also warms up the seas unevenly, driving ocean currents from one place to another.Scientists believe that greater amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in theatmosphere and hotter temperatures on Earth will significantly change the climate across thewhole planet. Therefore, climate change refers to any significant change in the climate(temperature, rainfall, or wind) that lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change mayresult from:Natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity or slow changes in the Earth's orbit aroundthe sun;Natural processes within the climate system (e.g. changes in ocean circulation);Human activities that change the composition of gases in the atmosphere such as burning of fossilfuels, deforestation, industrialization, etc.1

Is the Earth really getting heated up?During the past 150 years, the global average surface temperatures have increased by about 0.76 C. Inaddition to warming up of the Earth's surface, there have been increased incidences of heat waves;accelerated melting of continental glaciers and polar ice caps; rise in sea level of up to 20 cm; heavyrainfall in some regions, resulting in frequent floods; reduced rains in other regions of the world, resultingin severe drought. Some plants and animals have even changed their location or the timing of seasonalactivities. For instance, in the Alps, some plant species have been migrating upwards by 1 to 4 m everydecade in search of cooler climes. Sadly enough, some plant species that were previously found only onmountain tops have already disappeared and have possibly become extinct. Similarly, in Europe, themating and egg-laying of some bird species is occurring earlier every year when compared to the previousyear.The temperature change is not just measured using regular thermometers. There are several NaturalThermometers also that are sensitive to changes in our climate, and that have helped scientists learnmore about global warming. Examples of such natural thermometers are the tree rings and coral rings.TREE RINGS: The tree rings indicate how much a tree has grown each year, with each ring representing oneyear. In warmer, wetter years, the tree will grow more so the ring for that particular year will be widerthan the ring formed during a colder year. By studying the width of the tree rings, scientists can learnabout the changes in weather over the tree's lifetime.CORAL RINGS: Corals build up rings made of calcium carbonate as they grow. If the sea temperature iswarm the coral rings will grow faster than if the temperature is cold. So, warmer years will produce widergrowth rings and colder years will create thinner rings. By studying these rings we can get an idea of whatthe sea, and therefore the surface temperatures, were like each year.ICE CORES: Ice is formed during glaciationsthrough the process of continuous depositionand compaction of snow layers. Sincepermanent 'pack ice' rarely melts even insummer, it is a reliable indicator of climaticconditions in the earth's history, with the ageof deposition increasing with depth. A circularsample of such permanent ice drilled to studythe ice layers is called an 'ice core'. Greaterdensity in ice layers indicates coolertemperatures, and lower density, or thepresence of the heavier Oxygen 18 isotope,indicates warmer climates. In the past 50years, scientists have noticed that the growthrings in corals as well as the width of the treerings have been getting wider, which indicatesthat the global temperatures have beenincreasing.The graph here shows the trend oftemperature change since 1860. Notice howthe global temperatures have increasedduring the past 100 years. tpage1221cde0.aspx?pageID 268&rlID 796&pubID 63&ChptId 761)2

History of Climate ChangeClimatic shifts have been a regular occurrence in the earth's history. Though highly reliable instrumentrecords have only been maintained for the past 300 years, naturally occurring geological, cryogenic andstratigraphic evidences indicate dynamic shifts in the earth's surface climates over several thousandyears. These changes have been caused by various factors, such as variations in the earth's orbit aroundthe sun, tectonic movement, variations in solar output, eruption of volcanoes and meteorite impacts. Themost repetitive cause was change in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. All of thesefactors caused a significant cooling or warming of the earth's atmosphere, and resulted in massiveplanetary changes. The most well known of such phenomena are the infamous and intriguing ice ages.Ice ages that occurred in the past provide ample evidence of changing climates and phenomenonassociated with them. Ice is excellent at preserving occurrences over millions of years, and studying icereveals lots of information about conditions and events in the earth's history, especially during ice-ages.There have been four major ice ages in the earth's history, during which extensive ice cover was found onearth. Ice ages occur over millions of years, and are punctuated by glacial periods during which coldertemperatures occur and glaciers advance, and inter-glacial periods, during which warmer climes prevailand glaciers retreat.The present ice age began 40 million years ago with the growth of an ice sheet in Antarctica. It intensifiedduring the late Pliocene, around 3 million years ago, with the spread of ice sheets in the NorthernHemisphere. Since then, the world has seen cycles of glaciations with ice sheets advancing and retreatingon 40,000 and 100,000-year time scales. Glacial periods are also region specific, such as the Riss (180130,000 years ago) and Wurm (70,000-10,000 years ago), which occurred largely in the European Alps.Their end signaled the start of the Holocene inter-glacial period (10,000 years ago present day), which iscontinuing till date.The most recently documented period of an ice age was the LittleIce Age (LIA). Starting in the 13th century in Europe, the LIA was aminor event of global cooling that lasted for nearly 2 centuries,and serves as an encore for the immediate future. The effectswere primarily felt in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, withArctic ice packs and Greenland ice sheets advancing southwards& glaciers in the Swiss Alps engulfing entire villages.The winters in Europe were particularly harsh, with entirepopulations succumbing to food shortages and cold relateddeaths. Glaciers covered several mountain ranges in tropicallatitudes such as the Ethiopian highlands, and the famous 'snowsof Kilimanjaro' advanced rapidly during this period. Establishedevidence points towards natural causes. The LIA was caused by heightened volcanic activity, emitting ashclouds and blocking solar radiation, causing worldwide cooling and triggering a small ice age.However, it is virtually certain from the highly reliable Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)reports that present climatic shifts are human origin

WWF internationally in the WWF Global Forest and Trade Network and the Climate Savers programme by setting a unilateral 10% emission reduction target by 2010. Following up on its commitment to substantially reducing emissions, Tetra Pak India has partnered with WWF-India to initiate the Young C

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