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GlossaryCloud Certification Programwww.cloudcredential.orgReservation of Rights 2012 Cloud Credential Council. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, copied,reproduced, modified, distributed, displayed, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form byany means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) unless a clear referenceto the Cloud Credential Council is included. Reproduction and use of all, or portions of, this publicationare permitted but must include full attribution of the material’s source.The Cloud Credential CouncilThe Cloud Credential Council is the international industry representation body mandated todrive alignment and develop standards for the cloud computing domain, which is important fororganizational and individual training and certification. The Council is independent and vendorneutral, with membership that includes user organizations, vendors, professional associations, andinternational certification bodies from across the world. Its mission is briefly described as follows: Toengage in the development, adoption and use of a vendor-neutral, independent, globally accepted,industry-leading cloud computing and virtualization certification program for IT professionals. “TheCloud Credential Council brings together stakeholders in the cloud computing industry and sets astandard for professional certification through its Cloud Certification Program. The Cloud CredentialCouncil is open to everyone who wants to become a member and participate in the Cloud CertificationProgram.”Copyright 2016 1

Cloud Technology AssociateAcknowledgementsIn developing and creating the Glossary, the Cloud Credential Council acknowledges the invaluablecontribution of its Review Board and in particular, the Glossary Development Team currently consistingof: Brian Bourne, Principal, SmarTech, Canada Cazzy J. Jordan, Senior Developer Instructional, General Dynamics IT, USA Derek Cockerton - Director Converged Infrastructure EMEA - HP, UK Edward Newman - Global Practice Director, Private Cloud Services - EMC Corporation, USA Eric Charlesworth - Technical Solutions Architect - Cisco Systems, Inc., USA Hans Beers, Senior IT Architect – IBM, the Netherlands Jaap Bloem, Senior Analyst, Sogeti VINT, the Netherlands Laurent Renard, Consultant, Global Knowledge, France Peter Hanselman, Cloud Strategist, HMS, the Netherlands Peter HJ van Eijk, Cloud SME, ITpreneurs Tariq Y. Elsadik, Managing Director, Business IT ecoSystem Consulting, UAE Sudhakar, Cloud SME, ITpreneursThe Glossary has been created and designed to provide (IT) professionals involved in the “cloud”with standard definitions and an understanding of terms. The Glossary Development Team is awarethat the cloud domain is evolving rapidly and that, consequently, terms and definitions need to beupdated regularly. Members are invited to join to contribute and take part in updating and developingthe Glossary.Finally, the Cloud Credential Council acknowledges the sources listed below, which have beeninspirational in the creation and design of the Glossary: ITIL v3 Glossary v3.1.24, 11 May 2007 NIST-CC - Special Publication 800-145 (Draft), NIST-T Gartner – IT Definitions and Glossary http://www.gartner.com/technology/it-glossary/) ITpreneurs Cloud Computing Foundation Course Business Dictionary ilityUser identity, implying some contractual relationIn business, the capability of rapidly and efficiently adapting to changes; canbe applied to, for example, business, process, and technologySee application programming interfaceSee standard APIA preconfigured bundle of hardware and software integrated at the factory,created for a specific purpose, and typically packaged with services at time ofsale; metaphorically refers to electric apparatus as in ‘household appliance’APIAPI standardAppliance2 Copyright 2016

GlossaryApplicationApplicationProgrammingInterface (API)Application serviceproviderApplication onAvailabilityACIDSoftware that provides the functions that are required by an IT service; eachapplication may be part of more than one IT service and runs on one or moreservers or clientsA particular set of rules and specifications that software programs can followto communicate with each other; it serves as an interface between differentsoftware programs and facilitates their interaction, similar to the way the userinterface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.(This term is now superseded by ‘SaaS service provider,’ though not exactlyidentical) (ITIL phase: Service Design) An external service provider thatprovides IT services using applications running at the service provider’spremises; users access the applications by network connections to the serviceproviderA set of related/dependent software assets, for example, Web server plusdatabase and middlewareApplication virtualization is software technology that encapsulates applicationsoftware from the underlying operating system on which it is executed.(ITIL phase: Service Design) The structure of a system or IT service, includingthe relationships of components to each other and to the environment they arein; architecture also includes the standards and guidelines, which guide thedesign and evolution of the systemAsset: (ITIL phase: Service Strategy) Any resource or capability; assets ofa service provider include anything that could contribute to the delivery of aservice; assets can be one of the following types: Management, Organization,Process, Knowledge, People, Information, Applications, Infrastructure, andFinancial CapitalNot at the same time, as in service provisioning without blocking the requestorof the serviceFormal inspection and verification to check whether a standard or set ofguidelines is being followed, that records are accurate, or that efficiency andeffectiveness targets are being met; an audit may be carried out by internal orexternal groupsEstablishing the individual identity of a user or determining that the user hascertain attributes or is a member of a specified group; the user can be a realuser or can be a system or serviceThe process of determining a specific user’s eligibility to gain access to anapplication or function or to make use of a resource; a right or permission thatis granted to access a system resource; see also definition of authenticationReplacement of manual procedures by machines, including hardware andsoftware(ITIL phase: Service Design) Ability of a Configuration Item or IT serviceto perform its agreed function when required; availability is determined byreliability, maintainability, serviceability, performance, and security; availabilityis usually calculated as a percentage; this calculation is often based on agreedservice time and downtime; it is best practice to calculate availability usingmeasurements of the business output of the IT serviceAtomicity, Consistency, Isolation, DurabilityCopyright 2016 3

Cloud Technology AssociateAPTAWSBASEBYODBackupBandwidthBatch applicationBranch computingBrowserBusiness continuityBusiness continuitymanagementBusinessintelligenceBusiness modelBYODCalls (Web BIT4 Copyright 2016Advanced Persistent ThreatAmazon Web ServicesBasically Available, Soft State, Eventually ConsistencyBring Your Own Device(ITIL phase: Service Design) (ITIL phase: Service Operation) Copying data toprotect against loss of integrity or availability of the originalThe amount of data that can be transmitted per unit of time, for example,Gigabit/secondAn application with low response time requirements, in contrast to interactiveapplications, often with high volumes and run on a regular basisA way of operating IT, where every branch office has its own infrastructure andsupport (becoming obsolete)A software program to access content on the Internet, in particular the worldwide web of HTTP servers, addressed by a URLThe capability of a business to continue operating in the face of adverseconditions(ITIL phase: Service Design) The business process responsible for managingrisks that could seriously impact the business; BCM safeguards the interestsof key stakeholders, reputation, and brand and value-creating activities; theBCM process involves reducing risks to an acceptable level and planning forthe recovery of business processes should a disruption to the business occur;BCM sets the objectives, scope, and requirements for IT Service ContinuityManagementThe application of analytical techniques and processes to data to gain insightsand knowledge useful to the optimization of a business or business functionA blueprint/description of the way a company creates value, including the typesof products and their combined pricing structureThe practice of allowing the employees of an organization to use their owncomputers, smartphones, or other devices for work purposes.Atomic invocations that make up the use of Web servicesConsistency, Availability, Partition Tolerance(ITIL phase: Service Design) The maximum throughput that a ConfigurationItem or IT service can deliver while meeting agreed service level targets; forsome types of CIs, capacity may be the size or volume, for example, a diskdrive(ITIL phase: Service Design) The process responsible for ensuring thatthe capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure is able to deliveragreed service level targets in a cost-effective and timely manner; CapacityManagement considers all resources required to deliver the IT service andplans for short-, medium-, and long-term business requirementsCapital ExpenseControl Objectives for Information and Related Technology

GlossaryChange AdvisoryBoardChangeManagementChargebackChargingCIO - ChiefInformation OfficerClientCloud auditorCloud brokerCloud carrierCloud computingCloud customerCloud consumerCloud ecosystemCloud ManagementproviderCloud providerCloud serviceproviderCloud services(ITIL phase: Service Transition) A group of people that advises the ChangeManager in the assessment, prioritization, and scheduling of changes; thisboard is usually made up of representatives from all areas within the IT serviceprovider, the business, and third parties, such as suppliers(ITIL phase: Service Transition) The process responsible for controlling thelifecycle of all changes; the primary objective of Change Management is toenable beneficial changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT servicesThe charging (cost allocation) between units of the same company; similar tocross- charging(ITIL phase: Service Strategy) Requiring payment for IT services; charging forIT services is optional, and many organizations choose to treat their IT serviceprovider as a cost centerThe person responsible for an organizations’ IT strategy and servicesA computer that is used directly by a user, for example, a PC, handheldcomputer, or workstation; the part of a client/server application that the userdirectly interfaces with, for example, an e-mail clientA party that can conduct independent assessment of cloud services,information systems operations, performance, and security of the cloudimplementation.Cloud Broker – An entity that manages the use, performance and delivery ofcloud services, and negotiates relationships between Cloud Providers andCloud Consumers.The intermediary that provides connectivity and transport of cloud servicesfrom Cloud Providers to Cloud Consumers.Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demandnetwork access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (forexample, networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can berapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or serviceprovider interaction; this cloud model has five essential characteristics:on-demand self-service, broad network access; resource pooling, rapidelasticity, measured serviceCloud subscriber — a person or organization that has been authenticatedto a cloud and maintains a business relationship with a cloud (Source: NISTSAJACC)See cloud customerAn interrelated and interdependent set of providers of cloud services andproductsA Cloud Management provider provides all the service-related functions thatare necessary for the management and operations of those services requiredby or proposed to customersSee cloud service providerThe person, organization, or entity responsible for making a service availableto service consumersServices that are delivered by cloud providersCopyright 2016 5

Cloud Technology AssociateCloudscapeCMDBCommunity ringConnectivityContent deliverynetworkContent distributionnetworkContingency planController (in thecontext of privacy)Corruption (of data)Cost per seatCPUCredentialCross-chargingCSACSSCustom Web site6 Copyright 2016Short for cloud landscape; the entirety of assets, services, vendors, andservice contractsConfiguration Management Database (ITIL phase: Service Transition) Adatabase used to store configuration records throughout their lifecycle; theConfiguration Management System maintains one or more CMDBs, and eachCMDB stores attributes of CIs and the relationships with other CIsCommunity cloud — a cloud infrastructure that is shared by severalorganizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns(for example, mission, security requirements, policy, and complianceconsiderations); it may be managed by the organizations or a third party andmay exist on premise or off premise (Source: NIST CC Definition)Ensuring that a standard or set of guidelines is followed or that appropriate,consistent accounting or other practices are being employedThe security goal that generates the requirement for protection from intentionalor accidental attempts to perform unauthorized data reads; confidentialitycovers data in storage, during processing, and in transit (ITIL phase: ServiceDesign); a security principle that requires that data should only be accessed byauthorized people(ITIL phase: Service Transition) A generic term used to describe a groupof Configuration Items that work together to deliver an IT service or arecognizable part of an IT service; configuration is also used to describe theparameter settings for one or more CIsThe process of developing and deploying a configuration (see configuration)As in Internet connectivity: the capability of making connections to, forexample, servers on the InternetA network of geographically distributed servers that replicate data (content) tousers and otherwise improve the content and its delivery for usersA synonym for a content delivery networkA plan of which the execution is conditional upon a specific (typically negative)eventBroadly: A person or organization determining what happens with data; seealso EU data protection directiveChanges to data that reduce its integrity or usefulness, typically as a result ofhardware/ software failureTotal cost divided by maximum number of simultaneous users or alternatively,the number of registered usersThe component of a computer system that controls the interpretation andexecution of instructionsProof of identity issued by a trusted identity providerThe way one organizational unit compensates another unit of the sameorganizationCloud Security AllianceCascading Style SheetsA Web site specifically built for a particular purpose, as opposed to being aninstance of a generic service (for example, a blog)

GlossaryCustomerCustomerRelationshipManagement (CRM)systemData centerData formatDASDDoSDeploymentDesktopproductivity (tools)Developer,developmentDigital identitiesDisk driveDownloadDowntimeDREcosystemEdge xit processSomeone who buys goods or Services; the customer of an IT service provideris the person or group who defines and agrees the service level targets; theterm customers is also sometimes informally used to mean users, for example,“this is a customer-focused organization”An information system to record data about customers and interactions withcustomersA physical building with a substantial number of servers, storage, and networkconnectionsThe type of encoding of dataDirect Attached StorageDistributed Denial of Service(ITIL phase: Service Transition) The activity responsible for movement ofnew or changed hardware, software, documentation, processes, and so onto the live environment; deployment is part of the Release and DeploymentManagement processAn application category including word processing, typically operating on auser’s personal dataDevelopment: (ITIL phase: Service Design) The process responsible forcreating or modifying an IT service or application; also used to mean the roleor group that carries out development workThe digital representation of an identityA class of nonvolatile storage devices; traditionally magnetic or optical, butoften used as a generic term for randomly accessible permanent storageTransfer of data, typically from a server to a user(ITIL phase: Service Design) (ITIL phase: Service Operation) The time when aConfiguration Item or IT service is not available during its agreed service time;the availability of an IT service is often calculated from agreed service time anddowntimeDisaster RecoverySee cloud ecosystemOn a content delivery network, a server that is nearest to the final destinationEnterprise Mobility ManagementIn the context of cloud computing, being able to grow and shrinkTransliteration of information into a specific set of symbolsEuropean Union Agency for Network and Information Security(ITIL phase: Service Transition) A subset of the IT infrastructure that is usedfor a particular purpose; for example, live environment, test environment, andbuild environment.Here: Follow/effect instructionsThe process through which a supplier relation is terminated and relevantassets and services are prepared for transferal to a new supplierCopyright 2016 7

Cloud Technology AssociateExit strategyExternalizingExtranetFabricFederated overnanceGrid computingGuest operatingsystemHAHostingHotfixesHTMLHTTPHybrid cloudIAMIDMIdentity8 Copyright 2016The planned set of actions to terminate the contract with a provider and moveassets and service usage to another provider; this could be for businessreasons or because the provider goes out of businessBringing assets and service owners outside the organization; similar tooutsourcingSecure network/IT assets, shared by autonomous organizations; this conceptis outdated and superseded by “community cloud”In the context of cloud computing, indicating a network of componentsAn identity accepted by a federationIn the context of IT, a set of organizations with some trust relation, in this casewith respect to member or user identitiesA function to restrict network access according to specific rulesFunction: An intended purpose of a Configuration Item, person, team, process,or IT service; for example, one function of an e-mail service may be to storeand forward outgoing mails while one function of a business process may be todispatch goods to customersGovernance: Ensuring that policies and strategy are actually implemented andthat required processes are correctly followed; governance includes definingroles and responsibilities, measuring and reporting, and taking actions toresolve any issues identifiedA term referring to the combination of computer resources from multipleadministrative domains to reach a common goal. Becoming an obsolete term.An operating system that is run on top of a virtualization layer (that is,hypervisor), not directly on the hardwareHigh AvailabilityProviding a server for an applicationA hotfix was originally the term applied to software patches that were appliedto live, that is, still running systems; lately the term has been more generallyused to denote rapid software updatesHyperText Markup LanguageHyperText Transfer ProtocolThe cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private,community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together bystandardized or proprietary technology that enables data and applicationportability (for example, cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds)(Source: NIST CC Definition)Identity and Access ManagementIdentity Management(ITIL phase: Service Operation) A unique name that is used to identify a user,person, or role; the identity is used to grant rights to that user, person, or role;for example, identities might be the user name SmithJ or the role “changemanager”

GlossaryIdentityManagementIdentity providerImage factoryInformationTechnology (IT)InfrastructureInfrastructure as nterconnectinfrastructureInterfacesISOISVIT infrastructureIT ServiceManagementIdentity Management (IdM) is a term related to how humans are identified andauthorized across computer networks; it covers issues such as how users aregiven an identity, the protection of that identity, and the technologies supportingthat protection (for example, network protocols, digital certificates, passwords,and so on); includes lifecycle management of these identitiesIssuer of identities, typically including the facility to authenticateA service to produce virtual machine images out of specified applicationcomponentsThe use of technology for the storage, communication, or processing ofinformation; the technology typically includes computers, telecommunications,applications, and other software; the information may include businessdata, voice, images, video, and so on; IT is often used to support businessprocesses through IT servicesAll the hardware, software, networks, facilities, and so on that are requiredto develop, test, deliver, monitor, control, or support IT services; the term ITinfrastructure includes all of the Information Technology but not the associatedpeople, processes, and documentationInfrastructure as a Service (IaaS) — the capability provided to the consumerto provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computingresources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software,which can include operating systems and applications; the consumer doesnot manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control overoperating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited controlover select networking components (for example, host firewalls) (Source: NISTCC Definition)Here: Bundling applications for use by end users while enabling meaningfuldata exchange between these applications(ITIL phase: Service Design) A security principle that ensures that data andConfiguration Items are only modified by authorized personnel and activities;integrity considers all possible causes of modification, including software andhardware failure, environmental events, and human interventionAllowing real-time interaction, as opposed to batch.Network infrastructure including hardware and security measuresMeans through which IT systems are accessed or connectedInternational Organization for StandardizationIndependent Software VendorAll the hardware, software, networks, facilities, and so on that are requiredto develop, test, deliver, monitor, control, or support IT services; the term ITinfrastructure includes all of the Information Technology but not the associatedpeople, processes, and documentationThe implementation and management of quality IT services that meet theneeds of the business; IT Service Management is performed by IT serviceproviders through an appropriate mix of people, processes, and InformationTechnologyCopyright 2016 9

Cloud Technology AssociateIT strategyITIL processes (listof)JobJSONLandscape (IT., Cloud .)LANLDOMsLatencyLegacy applicationLibrary (application.)LicenseLoad balancerLocal ash-upsMaster nMitigationMonitoring-as-aService (MaaS)10 Copyright 2016A set of objective(s), principles, and tactics relating to the IT that theorganization usesInformation Technology Infrastructure Library: A framework that describes ITService Management processesA software task; as part of a batch processJavaScript Object NotationThe entirety of assets, services, vendors, and service contractsLocal Area NetworkLogical DomainsIn the context of data transmission, the time it takes for data to travel from oneplace to anotherAn application with a long history in the organization, often with a highoperational and exit costA set of reusable software assets, typically not directly for user use.A legal agreement to be granted the right to use of somethingA (virtual) server that distributes Web traffic over a number of serversA network related to a geographically confined space, characterized by havinglow latencies and high bandwidthTechnology dependence with a high migration costRecords of (system) activityLogical PartitionsLogical Unit NumberA user interface specifically for administratorsIn Web development, a mash-up is a Web page or application that uses andcombines data, presentation, or functionality from two or more sources tocreate new servicesData that is relatively stable, in contrast to transactional data; for example,catalog data and user identitiesMonitoring-as-a-ServiceMobile Device Management(ITIL phase: Service Design) Software that connects two or more softwarecomponents or applications; middleware is usually purchased from a supplier,rather than developed within the IT service providerSee also migrationChange of provider, supplier, or architecture while retaining some of the currentassetsWhen applied to risk: Reduction of harm or negative effectA service that continuously tracks certain states of applications, networks,systems, instances or any element within the cloud.

GlossaryMultitenantNASNetworkNetwork perimeterNetwork FunctionsVirtualization (NFV)NetworkVirtualizationNICNFVINFV M&ONISTNoSQLOAuthONFOnline portalOperating tPhysicalPIIPlatformA multitenant application has multiple customers sharing the sameinfrastructure, typically without sharing any dataNetwork Attached StorageThe technology through which data is transmittedTraditionally, the administrative border of the networkNetwork Functions Virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture concept thatproposes using IT virtualization related technologies to virtualize entire classesof network node functions into building blocks that may be connected, orchained, together to create communication services.In computing, network virtualization is the process of combining hardware andsoftware network resources and network functionality into a single,software-based administrative entity, a virtual network.Network Interface Card (hardware)Network Functions Virtualization InfrastructureNetwork Functions Virtualization - Management and Orchestration(US) National Institute of Standards and TechnologyNot Only SQLOpen AuthorizationOpen Networking FoundationA Web application that serves as a directory to a number of functionsAn abstract representation of how an organization works, including processes,organization, and technologyMaking sure the systems are operationalService owner: (ITIL phase: Continual Service Improvement) A role that isaccountable for the delivery of a specific IT serviceOperating ExpenseA service to automatically provision interrelated services and (virtual) serversOperating SystemOpen Systems InterconnectionContracting the services of outside suppliers instead of providing thoseservices with the company’s own staff and assets; (ITIL phase: ServiceStrategy) Using an external service provider to manage IT servicesA secret used to authenticate a user to an accountA patch is a change applied to a piece of software designed to fix problems(ITIL phase: Continual Service Improvement) The process responsiblefor day-to- day Capacity Management activities; these include monitoring,threshold detection, performance analysis and tuning, and implementingchanges related to performance and capacityIn the context of cloud computing and virtualization: Real, as opposed to virtualPersonally Identifiable InformationA technology to build software solutions on; typically, a combination ofhardware and softwareCopyright 2016 11

Cloud Technology AssociatePlatform as aServicePlug-inPKIPrivacyPrivate cloudProcess maturityProcessor (in thecontext of ProvisioningPublic cloudRDBMSRESTReal-timeRedundancyReference (local/remote)Relying partyReplicateReportingapplicationRequest fulfillment12 Copyright 2016Platform as a Service (PaaS) — the capability provided to the consumer is todeploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applicationscreated using programming languages and tools supported by the provider.The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructureincluding network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has controlover the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environmentconfigurations. (Source: NIST CC Definition)An additional piece of software, to add specific abilities to a larger softwareapplication, such as a browserPublic Key InfrastructureThe right of individuals to selectively disclose information about themselvesand restrict the further use of that information by any partyThe cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization; it may bemanaged by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or offpremise (Source: NIST CC definition)(ITIL phase: Continual Service Improvement) A measure of the reliability,efficie

the Glossary. Finally, the Cloud Credential Council acknowledges the sources listed below, which have been inspirational in the creation and design of the Glossary: ITIL v3 Glossary v3.1.24, 11 May 2007 NIST-CC - Special Publication 800-145 (Draft), NIST-T

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