Who Won?: Statistical Election Fraud Detection And Its .

23d ago
771.01 KB
48 Pages
Last View : 6d ago
Last Download : n/a
Upload by : Kelvin Chao

Who Won?: Statistical Election Fraud Detection and its LimitsEVT ’06Walter R. Mebane, Jr.Cornell University

accuracy, errors, fraud, transparency, legitimacy usability– ballots (FL butterfly, CA recall, Ohio ballot crawl) technologies– paper (Mexico 2006)– punchcards, optical DRE (OH 2004)– electronic (FL 2004) policy and practice– auditability (transaction logs, FL 2004)– allocation (Franklin County, OH, 2004)– provisionals (OH 2004)

usability– ballots in the 2000 presidential election in Florida

The Palm Beach County Butterfly Ballot

Jasper, SC35051015202530Palm Beach, FL 5Studentized Residual from Expected Vote for BuchananBoxplots of Studentized Residuals in U.S. Counties, by StateOrleans, LAAK AZFLIDKS MA MN MT NE NM OH PA TN VA WIAL CA GAILKY MD MO NC NH NV OK SC TX VT WVAR COIAINLA ME MS ND NJ NY OR SD UT WA WY

0.0150.0100.0000.005Palm Beach 0.005Election Day Minus Absentee Proportion for Buchanan2000 Election-Day Minus Absentee Ballot Support for Buchanan inFlorida Counties0100,000300,000500,000Total Number of Presidential Votes Cast

Votes and Allocated Overvotes in Florida, 2000 PresidentialElectionVote CountsBushGore2,912,7902,912,253Unambiguous Write-ins477732Ambiguous Write-ins220812Two-mark Overvotes15,23639,148Multiple-mark Overvotes8,35529,328All Allocated Overvotes24,28870,020Certified Results:Certified TotalUncounted Election-day Ballots:

Number of Allocated Ballots, 2000 Presidential Election, NORC DataTwo 9325,1031,2355,731Votomatic—Palm 21,4565,603Datavote—One Page2484073771,053Datavote—Two Pages385390317533Optical Central—One Column2625574419081,9962,9981,1953,096Optical Precinct5109424361,120Opt. Prec.—Columbia, Escambia3391,0935281,72319184762Optical Central—Two ColumnsHand (Union)

Ratio of Allocated Ballots to Certified Vote CountsTwo 0070.0160.0040.017Votomatic—Palm 080.0010.005Datavote—One Page0.0110.0230.0170.060Datavote—Two Pages0.0190.0380.0150.052Optical Central—One Column0.0050.0150.0090.025Optical Central—Two Columns0.0210.0390.0130.040Optical Precinct0.0010.0010.0000.001Opt. Prec.—Columbia, Escambia0.0040.0230.0060.036Hand (Union)0.0080.0130.0200.044

Estimated True Votes Among the Overvotes, NORC DataTwo e Page712842060391887Datavote—Two Pages225283106385331668Opt Central—One Col1854853147094991,194Opt Central—Two Col6532,3311802,2098334,541Optical Precinct285807928933781,701Columbia, 2610,93946,465Total

usability– ballots in the 2003 California governor recall election

-----PERFThis stub shall be removedby the Election Officer andhanded to the voter BEFOREplacing the ballot into thevoting device.OFFICIAL BALLOT /STATEWIDE SPECIAL ELECTION /CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO /TUESDAY, OCTOBER 7, 2003 / 2003 107-----PERFOFFICIAL BALLOT /STATEWIDE SPECIAL ELECTION /CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO /TUESDAY, OCTOBER 7, 2003 / 2003 10 7VERSION: 610308251134ASSEMBLY DISTRICT 12INSTRUCTIONS TO VOTERS: COMPLETE THE ARROW POINTING TO YOUR CHOICE LIKE THIS:TO VOTE FOR A QUALIFIED WRITE-IN CANDIDATE, WRITE THE PERSON'S NAME ON THE BLANK LINEPROVIDED AND COMPLETE THE ARROW.ArtistARIANNA HUFFINGTONLEMIKE MCNEILLYSTATE -RepublicanAuthor/Columnist/Mother/Shall GRAY DAVIS be recalled(removed) from the office ofGovernor?MIKE P. MCCARTHYUsed Car DealerPIndependentIndependent/ART BROWNFilm Writer/DirectorDemocratic/GRAY DAVIS()BOB MCCLAINCivil EngineerYES/TOM MCCLINTOCKState SenatorNO/IndependentRepublicanJOEL BRITTONRetired Meat PackerAUDIE BOCKEducator/Small BusinesswomanIndependentDemocratic/Candidates to succeed GRAYDAVIS as Governor if he isrecalled:.JONATHAN MILLERSmall Business OwnerBusinessmanA.Vote for One/MICHAEL J. WOZNIAKRetired Police OfficerJBusiness ExecutiveADemocraticCollege StudentGreen/Radio Producer/BusinessmanNATHAN WHITECLOUD WALTONIndependentFinancial PlannerGreenWJAMES M. VANDEVENTER, JR.Business Intelligence essmanRepublicanDemocraticIndependent/VIP N W. BEARDBusinessmanWRepublicanRepublicanED BEYERChief Operations OfficerRepublican/PAUL W. VANNCHUCK WALKER/BADI BADIOZAMANI/VAN VOReal Estate nesswomanDANIEL WATTSMAURICE WALKERS/SCOTT A. MEDNICKDORENE MUSILLIStudentBusinessman/Father/Entrepreneur/CARL A. MEHRGRAY DAVISDemocraticVIK S. BAJWAM/RepublicanRepublicanJOHN CHRISTOPHER BURTONCivil Rights LawyerCRUZ M. BUSTAMANTELieutenant GovernorMIndependentDemocraticFold

-----PERFThis stub shall be removedby the Election Officer andhanded to the voter BEFOREplacing the ballot into thevoting device.OFFICIAL BALLOT / BALOTA OFICIALSTATEWIDE SPECIAL ELECTION / ELECCIÓN ESTATAL ESPECIALCITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO / CIUDAD Y CONDADO DE SAN FRANCISCOTUESDAY, OCTOBER 7, 2003 / MARTES, 7 DE OCTUBRE, 2003-----PERFOFFICIAL BALLOT / BALOTA OFICIALSTATEWIDE SPECIAL ELECTION / ELECCIÓN ESTATAL ESPECIALCITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO / CIUDAD Y CONDADO DE SAN FRANCISCOTUESDAY, OCTOBER 7, 2003 / MARTES, 7 DE OCTUBRE, 2003VERSION: 690308251102ASSEMBLY DISTRICT 12MIKE MCNEILLYSTATE - ESTADOArtistArtistaShall GRAY DAVIS be recalled(removed) from the office ofGovernor?¿Debería ser GRAY DAVISdestituido (removido) del cargode Gobernador?YES/SÍMIKE P. MCCARTHYUsed Car DealerVendedor de automóviles usadosBOB MCCLAINCivil EngineerIngeniero civilTOM MCCLINTOCKNOCandidates to succeed GRAYDAVIS as Governor if he isrecalled:Los candidatos a suceder aGRAY DAVIS como Gobernadoren caso de quesea destituido:Vote for One / Vote por UnoMICHAEL J. WOZNIAKRetired Police OfficerOficial de policía jubiladoDemocraticDemócrataDANIEL WATTSCollege StudentEstudiante universitarioGreenVerdeNATHAN WHITECLOUD WALTONStudentEstudianteMAURICE WALKERReal Estate AppraiserTasador inmobiliarioCHUCK WALKERBusiness Intelligence AnalystAnalista de inteligencia licanRepublicanoState SenatorSenador estatalJONATHAN MILLERSmall Business OwnerPropietario de pequeña empresaCARL A. MEHRBusinessmanHombre de negociosSCOTT A. MEDNICKBusiness ExecutiveEjecutivo de empresaDORENE a/mujer de negociosLEINSTRUCTIONS TO VOTERS: COMPLETE THE ARROW POINTING TO YOUR CHOICE LIKE THIS:TO VOTE FOR A QUALIFIED WRITE-IN CANDIDATE, WRITE THE PERSON'S NAME ON THE BLANK LINEPROVIDED AND COMPLETE THE ARROW.INSTRUCCIONES PARA VOTANTES: COMPLETE LA FLECHA QUE SEÑALA SU SELECCIÓN, DE ESTE MODO:PARA VOTAR POR UN CANDIDATO NO LISTADO CALIFICADO, ESCRIBA EL NOMBRE DE LA PERSONA ENLA LÍNEA EN BLANCO PROVISTA Y COMPLETE LA FLECHA.ARIANNA HUFFINGTONRepublicanRepublicanoPAUL W. VANNFinancial PlannerPlanificador financieroJAMES M. VANDEVENTER, JR.Salesman/BusinessmanVendedor/hombre de negociosIndependentIndependienteART BROWNIndependentIndependienteFilm Writer/DirectorGuionista y director de cineDemocraticDemócrataJOEL BRITTONIndependentIndependienteRetired Meat PackerEmpacador de carne jubiladoIndependentIndependienteAUDIE BOCKRepublicanRepublicanoEducator/Small BusinesswomanDemocraticEducadora/propietaria de pequeña empresa DemócrataVIK S. reneurHombre de negocios/padre/empresarioDemocraticDemócrataBADI taRepublicanRepublicanoVAN VORadio Producer/BusinessmanProductor de radio/hombre de ritor/ejecutivoVIP BHOLAAttorney/BusinessownerAbogado/propietario de empresaJOHN W. BEARDBusinessmanHombre de anoRepublicanRepublicanoED ublicanRepublicanoChief Operations OfficerFuncionario principal de operacionesJOHN CHRISTOPHER BURTONCivil Rights LawyerAbogado de derechos civilesCRUZ M. BUSTAMANTELieutenant dentIndependienteDemocraticDemócrataFold

usability– ballots in the 2000 presidential election in Ohio

The Palm Beach County Butterfly Ballot

technologies– paper: Mexico 2006

Frequency of Digits according to Benford’s 85second

Mexico 2006 Presidential Vote Second-digit Benford’s Law 109.01254.816.6Baja 115.35.644.612.8Distrito 23.710.6Nuevo 919.8Veracruz4,73614.09.519.175.228.7All


Votos Nulos Residuals in the 2006 Mexican Presidential Election6040200 20votos nulos studentized residual80100Distrito FederalDISTRITO FEDERAL 1DISTRITO FEDERAL 18DISTRITO FEDERAL 26

Votos Nulos Residuals in the 2006 Mexican Presidential Election4003002001000votos nulos studentized residual500MexicoMEXICO 1MEXICO 16MEXICO 22MEXICO 29MEXICO 35MEXICO 5

technologies– Ohio 2004 vote rate0.40.5Residual Vote Rate in Ohio 2004 Precincts by Machine cardCuyahogaPunchcardHamilton

Median Residual Vote Rates Among the Residual Vote Outliers,Ohio 2004 PrecinctsMedian RateTechnologyOutliersRestDRE0.02900.0094Optical Central0.04090.0099Optical Precinct0.02400.0067Punchcard0.05930.0159

Ohio, 2004, Kerry versus Bush: 2002 Gubernatorial Vote .0058977.5Logit(Democratic Vote in Intercept)0.640.022428.6Logit(Democratic Vote in 2002)1.040.026639.1t-ratioNotes: Robust (tanh) overdispersed binomial regression estimates.For each precinct or ward, the dependent variable counts thenumber of votes for Kerry versus the number of votes for Bush.Precincts: LQD σ 2.98; tanh σ 2.87; n 5,384; 17 outliers.Wards: LQD σ 9.09; tanh σ 8.91; n 357; no outliers.

Outliers: Vote for Kerry versus Bush: 2002 Gubernatorial VoteRegressorCountyCodeSResCountyCodeSResButlerAFD 4.55HamiltonAQM4.18CuyahogaABE 91.59CuyahogaCQY 4.79LickingACV4.75CuyahogaCRG 6.56LickingACY6.55CuyahogaCRY4.28LorainAKV 4.07CuyahogaCWY 4.22MiamiAAN 8.28GreeneAHJ4.52TuscarawasAAX 4.82HamiltonAPT4.37

technologies– electronic: Florida 2004

Florida Constitutional Amendments on the Ballot in 2004YesNo1Parental Notification of a Minor’s Termination ofPregnancy4,639,6352,534,9102Constitutional Amendments Proposed by Initiative4,574,3612,109,0133The Medical Liability Claimant’s CompensationAmendment4,583,1642,622,1434Authorizes Voters to Approve Slot Machines inParimutuel Facilities3,631,2613,512,1815Florida Minimum Wage Amendment5,198,5142,097,1516Repeal of High Speed Rail Amendment4,519,4232,573,2807Patients’ Right to Know About Adverse Medical Incidents5,849,1251,358,1838Public Protection from Repeated Medical Malpractice5,121,8412,083,864

Miami-Dade Election Day Second-digit Benford’s Law .equalAm. 4 Yes3.39.014.4Am. 4 No5.715.48.910.8Am. 5 Yes17.919.612.012.8Am. 5 No5.823.3Am. 1 Yes2.58.0Am. 6 Yes4.310.2Am. 1 No5.515.5Am. 6 No9.111.3Am. 2 Yes16.723.6Am. 7 Yes17.116.0Am. 2 No7.216.4Am. 7 No8.416.5Am. 3 Yes3.38.5Am. 8 Yes12.725.3Am. 3 No12.912.7Am. 8 No6.510.6CastoritemNote: n 757 precincts. Pearson chi-squared statistics, 9 df.

Miami-Dade Election Day Second-digit Benford’s Law emBenf.equalAm. 4 Yes43.514.413.1Am. 4 No25.415.311.529.2Am. 5 Yes57.62.9Castor12.743.5Am. 5 No25.6135.6Am. 1 Yes43.612.6Am. 6 Yes29.716.3Am. 1 No19.831.9Am. 6 No15.330.8Am. 2 Yes38.727.3Am. 7 Yes53.221.1Am. 2 No11.948.8Am. 7 No136.7318.7Am. 3 Yes78.05.5Am. 8 Yes54.28.3Am. 3 No25.726.8Am. 8 No23.229.1Note: n 5, 326 precinct-machines. Chi-squared statistics, 9 df.

Miami-Dade Machine Randomization False Discovery Rate TestsElection DayCandidateEarly 763Am. 1 yes74314,06861,30216,3180Am. 1 no73714,02041,27216,0780Am. 2 yes74214,06261,29516,2884Am. 2 no73714,01811,22815,8022Am. 3 yes74014,03881,29016,1561Am. 3 no74114,05401,29016,1440

Miami-Dade Machine Randomization False Discovery Rate TestsCandidateElection Dayprecincts items rejectsEarly Votingsite-days items rejectsAm. 4 yes74114,05221,31316,4180Am. 4 no73914,03401,29716,2720Am. 5 yes73613,98801,16815,1741Am. 5 no72713,85601,08214,2780Am. 6 yes74214,06211,30816,3940Am. 6 no74214,06201,27116,1220Am. 7 yes73213,96601,14415,0440Am. 7 no72013,81201,01813,8121Am. 8 yes73914,03401,27216,0860Am. 8 no73514,00001,21915,6782

Broward Machine Randomization False Discovery Rate TestsElection DayCandidateEarly rry76510,5780302200Castor76410,5725302200Am. 1 yes76710,5860302200Am. 1 no76610,5800302200Am. 2 yes76410,5720302200Am. 2 no76310,5660302200Am. 3 yes76510,5762302200Am. 3 no76510,5765302200

Broward Machine Randomization False Discovery Rate TestsCandidateElection Dayprecincts items rejectsEarly Votingsite-days items rejectsAm. 4 yes76610,5846302200Am. 4 no76610,5841302200Am. 5 yes75710,5327302201Am. 5 no75610,5261302201Am. 6 yes76410,5741302200Am. 6 no76410,5740302200Am. 7 yes75910,5444302201Am. 7 no75710,5320302206Am. 8 yes76110,5561302200Am. 8 no76010,5503302200

policy and practice– auditability: Florida 2004

Times When Votes Were Cast on Machines in Selected Precincts onElection Day, Miami-Dade County14precinct 109nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nn nn nn nnnnnnn nn n nprecinct 233n nn n nnn nn niiiii iiiii i iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii iiii iii iiiiiii ii iiiiiiiii i i iiii iiiiiiiii iiiiiiii iii i i ii iiiik kk8khhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhggggggggggggg ggggg gggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg gggggggggggggggggggggghhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhh hhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhh h hh hhhhh hhhh hhhhiiiiiiii iiiiiiii ii iii ii i iii i i i ii ii ii ii ii ii i ilj j jj j jj j ji i i ii i i ii i i i i ii ii i igggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg gggggg ggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggg ggffffffffffffffffffffff ffff fff fff f ffff fff fff ff fffff f f fff f f fff ff fff ff f f ff fff f ff f f ff ffffff fffffff f fff fffffffffffffffffffff ffff fff6kllll l l l10kl8kkkkkkkkkkll ljjjjjjjj jjjjjjj jjjjjj j jj jjj jjjj jj j j jj jj j j jj jj j jjj j j j j j j6machineskkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkk kleeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee e4lll l llllllll llll l ll l l ll l lll l l lll lll l l lmachines12mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm dddddd4eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eddddddddddddddddddddddd ddddd ddddd d ddd d d dd ddcccccccdddaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaa aa aaaaa aaa aa a8152bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbbbbbbb b bbbb bbb bbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbbbbbbbbb1012aa aaa a a aa aaaaaa a141618814161820precinct 322precinct 326ppppppppp pppp pppppppppppppppppppqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqp pppppp p p pp ppppppppppooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooof fff ffffffff ffffffff fffff fff f fffffffff ffff f f fffffffffffff f ff ffffffff ffffff ffffff ff ff fff eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee10i i i i ii i ii i iiiiii ii i i i iii iiiiiiiii i iiiiii i iiiiiii iiii i ii iiii iiiiii iiiiii ii i i i ii i i iiii iihhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhgggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggoooooooooooo nnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn lllllll ll l l ll llllll l l ll ll l llllll lllllll lllll l l l lll l ll l ll ll lllll ll lll l lllllll lllll lkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkk kkk kk kkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkk kj jjjjjjjjjj jj jjj j jjjjjj j jjj j j j j j j j j jjjjjj jj jjj jjjjjjj jjj j jjjjj jjjj jj jjjjjjjj jjjj jj jjj jji iiii iiiiiiiii ii iiiiiiiiiiiii iii iiiii ii i i iiiii ii i iiiiiiii i i i iii ii ii i ii iiii ii i iii i i i iiihhhhhh gggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggg5kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kk kkkk kkkkkkkkk kkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkjjjj j j jjjjjj j jjj jj jjjjj jjjjj jjjj jj jjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj j jjjjj j jj j j j jjjj j jjjjj j j j jj jjjjj j j j jjjjjj jmachineslll ll l lll lllll l lllll ll l lll ll ll llll ll ll llll lll lll l l l l l llll llllll lllll l llll llll l llll l l lll l1012timesnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn machinesbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb aaaaaaaaaaaa152ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccc c ccc c cccc c cc c c c cc ccc ccccccc c cfffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffff fff ff ff fff fff fffffffffffffff ff ff ffffffffff fff ffffffff ffff fff feeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeddddddddd dddddddddd dddddddd ddddddddddddddddddddddd ccccc ccccccc cccccc cccc ccccccccccccccccccccccc cccdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd dddddddddddddcccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccc ccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccc aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bb aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 20

policy and practice– machine allocation: Ohio 2004

Franklin County, Ohio, 2004, Voting Machine Allocations byPrecinct Racial CompositionCounts per Voting cinct Racial CompositionVotersCastper HourNovemberLow Prop. African American26217013213Medium Prop. African American30517312226High Prop. African American32416411242

Franklin County, Ohio, 2004, Polls Open Elapsed Time GivenMachines per Registered Voter and Proportion African AmericanRegressorsVariable(Intercept)Log(Machines per Registered Voter)Proportion African AmericanCoef.SEt-ratio1.8188470.05377333.83 0.1413080.009480 14.900.0991890.00872511.37

Voter Turnout: Polls Open Elapsed Time, Machines per RegisteredVoter and Proportion African American RegressorsExpected Voter Turnout at Quartiles of theMachine RatioPolls Open TimeProp. African .4600.5060.5460.4900.5060.524

policy and practice– provisional ballots: Ohio 2004

Ohio 2004, challengers and provisionals:video the vote ohio 2.mov provisional ballot study

Provisional Ballots and Attributes Related to Residential sional( or –)Ever Voted in Ohio? Yes3.10.289.6Ever Voted in Ohio? No9.47.17.3Moved Since Last Voted in Ohio? Yes11.44.415.0aMoved Since Last Voted in Ohio? No1.70.284.2aVoted in Past at Polling Place1.70.277.711.23.919.4At Current Address: Up to Five Years9.12.728.2At Current Address: More than Five1.30.267.326.512. Vote in Past at Polling PlaceRegistered to Vote in 2004Already RegisteredNotes:aof VotersPercent of the 89.6% of voters previously voting in Ohio.

Provisional Ballots and Election ovisional( or –)Requested Absentee Ballot2.41.017.2No Absentee Ballot3.70.382.4Voted for Kerry4.20.651.4Voted for Bush4.11.423.3Party Identification: Democrat3.70.653.3Party Identification: Republican4.91.916.8Party Identification: Other2.51.016.619. QuestionedRegistration Not Questionedof Voters

Provisional Ballots and Personal visional( or –) 35-55 Years5.31.628.3Age: 55 Years or Older1.60.452.1White3.50.554.8African ucation: High School or Less3.40.743.5Education: Some College3.91.223.2Education: College Graduate4.41.518.6Education: Post-graduate2.91.89.3Age: 34 Years or Youngerof Voters

an assortment of statistical tools can help assess how voting“machines” affect voting accuracy, transparency, fraud, etc. voting “machines” need to be considered in the context ofother administrative decisions and practices how voters, candidates, election officials and others behaveaffects “machine” performance statistical assessments always depend on nonquantitativeknowledge and can only go so far

Radio Producer/Businessman Republican / PAUL W. VANN Financial Planner Republican W . STEPHEN L. KNAPP Engineer Republican L KELLY P. KIMBALL Business Executive Democratic P . CHARLES "