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Computer NetworkingShort Questions and AnswersSuresh KhanalKalanki, shed By:http://www.icttrends.comcontact:

Computer Networking: Short Questions and AnswersPublished byICT TrendsKalanki, KathmanduNepalwww.icttrends.comCopyright 2012 author.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise exceptfor personal and non-commercial use without the prior writtenpermission of the author.

About the AuthorSuresh Khanal is a native of Kathmandu, Nepal, where he works as afreelance developer, programmer and technical writer/editor. He hasbeen involved in teaching computers science since 1998 and over theyears has written several articles and tutorials on Office Applicationsand Web Programming. Khanal holds a Master's of Science Degree inInformation Technology Science.In his spare time, he enjoys travelling, browsing and play onlinegames.

Table of ContentsTransmission Media1What is transmission media?1What are the types of transmission media?1Describe bound transmission media.1Describe unbound transmission media.1Bound Transmission Media1Explain twisted pair cable.1Explain Co-axial cable.4Explain Fiber-Optics cable.5Match the following types of connectors with the cables towhich they are used.7Compare BNC with UTP CablesUnbound Transmission Media89Explain Radio Wave.9What is Microwave?10List the Advantages of microwaves.11What are the Disadvantages of Microwaves?11Describe Infra Red.11Computer Network12What is a computer network?12What are the advantages of Networking?12Explain Network Services13

What are the five major network services?13What is Network Server?13What is a client?13What is a dedicated server?14What is workstation?14What are dumb terminals?14Types of Computer Network15What is a LAN?15What is MAN?16What is WAN?16Clarify Enterprise WANs.16Clarify Global WANs.17What are the two types of LAN?17Protocols18What is a protocol?18What are the three major network protocols?18Match the following protocols and their functions19LAN Topologies20What are the two network connection types?20Explain Point-to-Point connection type.20Explain multipoint connection.21What are the basic LAN topologies?21Explain Bus Topology.21What are the advantages of bus topology?23

What are the disadvantages of bus topology?24What is Ring Topology?24Point out the major advantages of Ring Topology.25Point out the disadvantages of Ring Topology.25Explain Star Topology.25What are the benefits of Star Topology?26What are the disadvantages of Star Topology?26What are the popular topologies other than basic Topologies?27Network Standards27What is a Networking Standard?27What are the four major industry standards?27What is an Ethernet?28How an Ethernet Worked?28What is Medium Access Control of Ethernet?29Explain Ethernet Frame.29List some advantages of Ethernet.30What are the disadvantages of Ethernet Cabling?30What is ARCNet?31List the advantages of ARCNet.32What are the disadvantages of ARCNet?32How does a Token-Passing Protocol works?32Explain Logical Ring Physical Star topology for Token-PassingStandard.32List some most useful advantages of Token Ring.33

Point out the disadvantages of Token Ring.34What do you mean by Beaconing and Auto-Reconfiguration?34Network Architecture34What is Network Architecture?34What are the popular Network Architectures?35Explain ISO's OSI Architecture35Explain IBM's SNA Architecture36Networking Model37Explain Peer-to-Peer Networking Model.37Explain Client/Server Networking Model.37Network and Internet er40Switches41Transceivers42Gateway42Proxy Serer43Firewall43Node43Wireless Network43Internet45WWW45

lup Connection53IP Address53Domain Name54URL54Web Browsing or Surfing54Search Engine55Meta Search Engine57Internet Access57Extranet58Intranet58Web Index58Hypertext59Email59Email address59Inbox60Outbox60Trash61CC61

tte62Emoticons62ICT Trends Prepare! Gold Membership65

Table of FiguresFigure 1: UTP Cable2Figure 2: UTP Cable Connector2Figure 3: STP Cable3Figure 4: STP Cable Structure3Figure 5: Co-Axial Cable4Figure 6: Co-Axial Cable Structure4Figure 7: Co-Axial Cable Connectors5Figure 8: Fibre Optics Cable Structure6Figure 9: Fiber Optics Cable6Figure 10: AUI Connector7Figure 11: BNC Connector7Figure 12: RJ45 Connector8Figure 13: SC Connector8Figure 14: Comparison between Twisted Pairs and Co-Axial Cable9Figure 15: Radio Wave Transmission9Figure 16: Microwave Transmission10Figure 17: Microwave Transmitter, Receiver and Repeater10Figure 18: Infrared DeviceError! Bookmark not defined.Figure 19: Computer Network12Figure 20: Workstation14Figure 21: Dumb Terminal15Figure 22: Wide Area Network16Figure 23: Enterprise WAN17Figure 24: TCP/IP Structure18Figure 25: IPX/SPX Structure19Figure 26: Different LAN Topologies20Figure 27: Bus Topology21

Figure 28: Bus Topology Network connected with other network 22Figure 29: T Connector22Figure 30: Different Cable Terminators23Figure 31: Ring Topology24Figure 32: Star Topology25Figure 33: Star Topology26Figure 34: Tre TopologyError! Bookmark not defined.Figure 35: Mesh TopologyFigure 36: Ethernet Network29Figure 37: ARCNet Board and Card31Figure 38: Network with MSAU33Figure 39: ISO's OSI Architecture35Figure 40: OSI an SNA Comparision36Figure 41: LAN NIC Card38Figure 42: Hub39Figure 43: Bridge40Figure 44: Router41Figure 45: Switch41Figure 46: Transceiver42Figure 47: Gateway PC43Figure 48: Nework with Wireless Stations44Figure 49: Tim Berners Lee45Figure 50: Yahoo Chat46Figure 51: CU SeeMe47Figure 52: CU SeeMe Conferencing48Figure 53: Telnet Screen48Figure 54: Different Browsers Logo50Figure 55: Mozilla Firefox51Figure 56: Netscape Navigator51Figure 57: Internet Explorer52Figure 58: Google Chrome52

Figure 59: IP Address StructureFigure 60: IP Address and Subnet MaskFigure 61: Yahoo, Ask, MSN, Google Search EnginesFigure 62: Alta Vista Search EngineFigure 63: LycosFigure 64: Meta Search EngineFigure 65: Web IndexFigure 66: Hypertext and Hyper LinkFigure 67: Email Client InterfaceFigure 68: New Email MessageFigure 69: Emoticons5353555656575859606163

Computer NetworkingShort Questions and AnswersSuresh KhanalKalanki, hed By:http://www.icttrends.comcontact:

Computer NetworkingShort QuestionsandAnswers

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsTransmission MediaWhat is transmission media?Transmission media is a pathway through which data are transmittedin network. We use different types of cables or waves to transmitdata.What are the types of transmission media?There are two types of transmission media namely: boundtransmission media and unbound transmission media.Describe bound transmission media.Bound transmission media are the cables that are tangible or havephysical existence and are limited by the physical geography. Popularbound transmission media in use are twisted pair cable, co-axial cableand fiber optical cable.Describe unbound transmission media.Unbound transmission media are the ways of transmitting datawithout using any cables. These media are not bounded by physicalgeography. Microwave, Radio wave, Infra red are some of popularunbound transmission media.Bound Transmission MediaExplain twisted pair cable.A pair of wires twisted with each other is known as twisted pair cable.A set of four pairs of twisted wires are bundled to form cable. Theseare the most common medium for LAN. Wires are twisted with eachother so as to reduce the interference.http://www.psexam.comPage 1

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamFigure 1: UTP CableFigure 2: UTP Cable ConnectorPage 2

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsWe can find two types of twisted pair cables, namely: UnshieldedTwisted Pair Cable (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP). Thetwisted pair cable that is protected against electro-magneticinterference (EMI) is known as STP and the one which is not shieldedagainst EMI is called Unshielded Twisted Pair.Figure 3: STP Solid twisted pair5–Drain wireFigure 4: STP Cable Structurehttp://www.psexam.comPage 3

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamExplain Co-axial cable.A solid central conductor surrounded by insulating material and thenby a cylindrical shield woven from fine wires is known as co-axialcable. The shield is usually connected to electrical ground to reduceelectrical interference. Co-axial cables have broader bandwidth andthus suitable for audio, video data transmission.Figure 5: Co-Axial CableFigure 6: Co-Axial Cable StructurePage 4

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 7: Co-Axial Cable ConnectorsExplain Fiber-Optics cable.A cable with central glass tube covered with protective shield whichtransmit data using photons is fiber optics cable. These cablestransmit data via concentrated bursts of laser beams which arecarried through bundles of hair thin glass fibers. They haveadvantages over electronic cables in transmission speed and volume.This technology has revolutionized telecommunication applicationswhich used electronic cables. Fiber optics cables as free from electromagnetic interference as well as wire tapping.http://www.psexam.comPage 5

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamFigure 8: Fibre Optics Cable StructureFigure 9: Fiber Optics CablePage 6

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsMatch the following types of connectors with the cables towhich they are used.Cable: (a) Thick Coax (100 Base 5), (b) UTP (10 Base-T), (c) FiberOptics (10 Base-FL) (d) Thin Coax (100 Base 5)Connectors: (1) AUI, (2) BNC, (3) RJ45, (4) SC or ST TypeAnswer:- a - 1, b - 3, c - 4, d - 2Figure 10: AUI ConnectorFigure 11: BNC Connectorhttp://www.psexam.comPage 7

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamFigure 12: RJ45 ConnectorFigure 13: SC ConnectorCompare BNC with UTP CablesBNCDerived from the thick EthernetCoaxial CableFlexibility of adding nodesLower price and no need of HubDifficult to locate faultsTerminators neededThe cabling is comparatively lessreliableSingle segment length (node tonode) up to 180 metersPage 8UTPDerived from telephone cableDecided by Hub portsNeeds HubsIntroduction of Hub makes faultfinding much easierTerminators not neededInherently much reliableSingle segment length up to 200meters

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 14: Comparison between Twisted Pairs and Co-Axial CableUnbound Transmission MediaUnbound transmission media extend beyond the limiting confines ofcabling. They provide an excellent communication alternative forWANS. The lack of physical restrictions provides larger bandwidth aswell as wide area capabilities. Unbound media typically operate atvery high frequencies. The three types of unbound transmissionmedia are: Radio wave, Micro wave, InfraredExplain Radio Wave.Although Radio waves are prevalent and well understood, we are justbeginning to realize their enormous potential as a networkingmedium. Radio waves can operate on a single or multiple frequencybands.Figure 15: Radio Wave Transmissionhttp://www.psexam.comPage 9

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamWhat is Microwave?Microwaves have been used in data communications for a long time.They have a higher frequency than radio waves and therefore canhandle larger amounts of data.Microwave transmission is line of sight transmission. The transmitstation must be in visible contact with the receive station. This sets alimit on the distance between stations depending on the localgeography. Typically the line of sight due to the Earth's curvature isonly 50 km to the horizon! Repeater stations must be placed so thedata signal can hop, skip and jump across the country.Figure 16: Microwave TransmissionFigure 17: Microwave Transmitter, Receiver and RepeaterPage 10

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsMicrowaves operate at high operating frequencies of 3 to 10 GHz.This allows them to carry large quantities of data due to their largebandwidth.List the Advantages of microwaves.a. They require no right of way acquisition between towers.b. They can carry high quantities of information due to their highoperating frequencies.c. Low cost land purchase: each tower occupies only a small area.d. High frequency/short wavelength signals require small antennae.What are the Disadvantages of Microwaves?a. Attenuation by solid objects: birds, rain, snow and fog.b. Reflected from flat surfaces like water and metal.c. Diffracted (split) around solid objects.d. Refracted by atmosphere, thus causing beam to be projectedaway from receiver.Describe Infra Red.Infrared offers a great unbound photonic solution. Like fiber-opticcabling, infrared communications use light, so they are not bound bythe limitations of electricity.Figure 18: Infrared Devicehttp://www.psexam.comPage 11

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamComputer NetworkWhat is a computer network?Computer Network is a collection of distributed intelligent machinesthat are connected with each other with transmission media for thepurpose of data sharing, communication and sharing of computerresources.Figure 19: Computer NetworkWhat are the advantages of Networking?The following are the distinct notes in favor of computer networking.a. The computers, staff and information can be well managedb. A network provides the means to exchange data among thecomputers and to make programs and data available topeoplec. It permits the sharing of the resources of the machined. Networking also provides the function of back-up.e. Networking provides a flexible networking environment.Employees can work at home by using through networks tiesthrough networks into the computer at office.Page 12

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsExplain Network ServicesNetwork services are the thing that a network can do. The majornetworking services are File Services: This includes file transfer, storage, datamigration, file update, synchronization and achieving.Printing Services: This service produces shared access tovaluable printing devices.Message Services: This service facilitates email, voice mailsand coordinate object oriented applications.Application Services: This services allows to centralize highprofile applications to increase performance and scalabilityDatabase Services: This involves coordination of distributeddata and replication.What are the five major network services?Major Network Services are:a.b.c.d.e.File ServicesPrint ServicesMessage ServicesApplication ServicesDatabase ServicesWhat is Network Server?Network Server is a computer in Network that is designated toprovide one or more network service. For example file server,database server etc.What is a client?A computer in network that connects to the server and uses thenetwork services to perform user's tasks is a client.http://www.psexam.comPage 13

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamWhat is a dedicated server?A network server designated to provide one particular service isknown as dedicated server. For example if a computer is assigned fordatabase service only then that computer is known as dedicateddatabase server.What is workstation?A workstation is a node in network that is more powerful and canhandle local information processing or graphics processing. Aworkstation usually has an inexpensive, small hard disk to carry outlocal tasks.Figure 20: WorkstationSome workstations that have no disk drive of their own is known asdiskless-workstation or dumb terminals. They terminals completelyrely on LAN for their access. Network operating system lets the nodework as if all the resources at the server belong to the node itself.What are dumb terminals?Those Workstations that have no disk drive of their own and relycompletely on LAN for their access are called dumb terminals. Thenetwork operating system lets these terminals work as if all theresources at the server belong to the workstation itself.Page 14

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 21: Dumb TerminalTypes of Computer NetworkComputer networks fall into three classes regarding the size, distanceand the structure namely: LAN (Local Area Network), MAN(Metropolitan Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network). A LAN linksa small group of functionally similar workstations within a localgeographic area such as a series of adjacent cubicles or offices on thesame floor. Once the network expands to include other floors ordivers office within a metropolitan area, it becomes a MAN. Finally, aWAN is simply a LAN of LANs. WANs expand the boundaries ofnetworking to a global or even galactic scale.What is a LAN?A LAN is a Local Area Network, within a single building or a specificconfined space. LANs typically comprise only one transmission mediatype such as coaxial cable or twisted pair. LANs are characterized bycomparatively high-speed communications. These high speeds arepossible because LANs use one kind of cable which generally islimited to 5 km or less.http://www.psexam.comPage 15

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamWhat is MAN?MAN stands for Metropolitan Area Networks. MAN is larger than aLAN and as its name implies, covers the area of a single city. MANsrarely extend beyond 100 KM and frequently comprise a combinationof different hardware and transmission media.The two most important components of MANs are security andstandardization. Security is important because information is beingshared between dissimilar systems. Standardization is necessary toensure reliable data communication.What is WAN?A wide area network is simply a LAN of LANs. WANs connect LANsthat may be on opposite sides of a building, across the country oraround the world. WANS are characterized by the slowest datacommunication rates and the largest distances. WANs can be of twotypes: an enterprise WAN and Global WAN.Figure 22: Wide Area NetworkClarify Enterprise WANs.An enterprise WAN connects an entire organization including all LANsat various sites. This term is used for large, widespread organizationssuch as corporations, universities and governments.Page 16

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 23: Enterprise WANClarify Global WANs.Global WANs also span the world but they do not have to connectLANS within a single organization. The Internet is an example of aglobal WAN. It connects diverse locations, organizations andinstitutions throughout the world. Global WANS can be public orprivate. Private WANs are called Intranet which belongs to anorganization. Public WANs are open to everybody so that anybodycan connect and use the resources and services available.What are the two types of LAN?There are basically two types of Local Area Networks namely: Arcnetand Ethernet.http://www.psexam.comPage 17

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamProtocolsWhat is a protocol?The term protocol refers to a set of rules and procedures that governthe transmission of messages over a physical networking medium.The most common network protocols are: (a) TCP/IP, (b) IPX/SPX and(c) NetBEUEWhat are the three major network protocols?The three major network protocols are:1. TCP/IP2. IPX/SPX (Used in Novell Netware)3. NetBEUE (Product of Microsoft Co.)Figure 24: TCP/IP StructurePage 18

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 25: IPX/SPX StructureMatch the following protocols and their functions(a) http, (b) pop, (c) ftp, (d) smtp, (e) MIME,1. Send email messages2. Transfer multimedia information3. Send email attachment4. Transfer files in servers and clients computers5. Receive email messagesAnswer: (a) - 2, (b) - 5, (c) - 4, (d) - 1, (e) - 3http://www.psexam.comPage 19

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamLAN TopologiesThe term topology defines the geographic arrangement ofnetworking devices. It describes the actual layout of the networkhardware. Given the location of workstations and peripherals, thegoal of topology is to find the most economical and efficient way toconnect all the users to the network resources while providingadequate capacity to handle user demands, maintain systemreliability and minimize delay.Figure 26: Different LAN TopologiesThe selection of a topology for a network can not be done in isolationas it affects the choice of media and the access method used.Because it determines the strategy used in wiring a building for anetwork and deserves some careful study.What are the two network connection types?The two different network connection types are (a) point-to-pointconnection and (b) multipoint connection.Explain Point-to-Point connection type.A point-to-point connection is a direct link between two devices suchas a computer and a printer. Most of today's point-to-pointconnections are associated with modems and PSTN (Public SwitchedTelephone Network) communications.Page 20

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsExplain multipoint connection.A multipoint connection is a link between three or more devices.Historically, multipoint connections were used to attach central CPsto distributed dumb terminals. In today's LAN environments,multipoint connections link many network devices in variousconfigurations.What are the basic LAN topologies?The three simple LAN topologies that are combined to form anypractical topology are known as basic LAN topologies. They are, BusTopology, Ring Topology and Star Topology.Explain Bus Topology.The physical Bus topology is the simplest and most widely used of thenetwork designs. It consists of one continuous length of cable (trunk)and a terminating resistor (terminator) at each end. Datacommunication message travels along the bus in both directions untilit is picked up by a workstation or server NIC. If the message is missedor not recognized, it reaches the end of the cabling and dissipates atthe terminator.Figure 27: Bus Topologyhttp://www.psexam.comPage 21

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamAll nodes on the bus topology have equal access to the trunk. This isaccomplished using short drop cables or direct T-connectors. Thenumber of devices and the length of the trunk can be easilyexpanded.Figure 28: Bus Topology Network connected with other networkFigure 29: T ConnectorPage 22

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 30: Different Cable TerminatorsWhat are the advantages of bus topology?The advantages of physical bus topology are:a. It uses established standards and it is relatively easy to install.b. It requires less media than other topologies.http://www.psexam.comPage 23

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamWhat are the disadvantages of bus topology?The disadvantages of bus topology are:a. The bus networks are difficult to reconfigure, especially whenthe acceptable number of connections or maximum distanceshave been reached.b. They are also difficult to troubleshoot because everythinghappens on a single media segment. This can have dangerousconsequences because any break in the cabling brings thenetwork to its knee.What is Ring Topology?The physical ring topology is a circular loop of point-to-point links.Each device connects directly to the ring or indirectly through andinterface device or drop cable. Message travel around the ring fromnode to node in a very organized manner. Each workstation checksthe message for a matching destination address. If the addressdoesn't match the node simply regenerates the message and sends iton its way. If the address matches, the node accepts the message andsends a reply to the originating sender.Figure 31: Ring TopologyPage 24

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsPoint out the major advantages of Ring Topology.The advantages of ring topologies are:a.They are very easy to troubleshoot because each deviceincorporates a repeater.b. A special internal feature called beaconing allows troubledworkstations to identify themselves quickly.Point out the disadvantages of Ring Topology.The disadvantages of ring topologies are:a. It is considerably difficult to install and reconfigure ringtopologyb. Media failure on unidirectional or single loop causescomplete network failure.Explain Star Topology.The physical star topology uses a central controlling hub withdedicated legs pointing in all directions – like points of a star. Eachnetwork device has a dedicated point-to-point link to the central hub.This strategy prevents troublesome collisions and keeps the lines ofcommunications open and free of traffic.Figure 32: Star Topologyhttp://www.psexam.comPage 25

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamThis topology, obviously, require a great deal of cabling. This designprovides an excellent platform for reconfiguration and troubleshooting. Changes to the network are as simple as plugging anothersegment into the hub and a break in the LAN is easy to isolate anddoesn't affect the rest of the network.Figure 33: Star TopologyWhat are the benefits of Star Topology?The benefits of star topology are:a. Relatively easy to configure.b. Easy to troubleshootc. Media faults are automatically isolated to the failed segment.What are the disadvantages of Star Topology?The disadvantages are considered as follows:a. Requires more cable than most topologies.b. Moderately difficult to install.Page 26

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsWhat are the popular topologies other than basicTopologies?Apart from basic topologies some other topologies worth consideringare: mesh topology (every device connected to all other devices),Cellular Topology (wireless point to pint and multipoint design), TreeTopology (Hierarchical connections of devices), Hybrid topology(combination of two or more basic topologies).Figure 34: Tre TopologyFigure 35: Mesh TopologyNetwork StandardsWhat is a Networking Standard?Protocol (the logical component) and Topology (the physicalcomponent) is combined together to create a networking standard.These standards are developed and controlled by the Institute ofElectrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).What are the four major industry standards?The four major industry standards are (a) Ethernet, Token Ring,ARCNet and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface).http://www.psexam.comPage 27

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamWhat is an Ethernet?The Ethernet topology was developed at the University of Hawaii toconnect computers on the various Islands. It was radio based design.Later, Robert Metacalfe went to Xeros's Palo Alto Research Center(PARC) laboratories and eliminated the radio portion and changed toco-axial cabling. Ethernet is one of the most popular LANtechnologies in use today covering more than 85% of the networks.Ethernet system consists of three basic elements:4. The physical medium use to carry Ethernet signalsbetween computers on the network5. A set of rules (protocols) embedded in each Ethernetinterface that will decide how multiple computers on thenetwork will have access to the data on the medium.6. An Ethernet frame that consists of a standardized set ofbits used to carry data over the system.How an Ethernet Worked?The operation of Ethernet can be described in simple terms asfollows:Each computer on the Ethernet Network, also known as a node,operates independently of all other nodes. All nodes attached to anEthernet are connected to a shared medium over which the Ethernetsignals travel serially, one data bit at a time.To send data a station first listens to the channel and when thechannel is idle the station transmits its information in the form of anEthernet frame, or packet. The Ethernet rules (protocol) are definedin such a way that every node gets a fair amount of frametransmission opportunity.Page 28

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for ICT TrendsFigure 36: Ethernet NetworkAs each Ethernet frame is sent out on the shared medium, theEthernet interfaces inside the node look at the destination address.The interfaces compare the destination address of the frame withtheir own address. The Ethernet interface with the same address asthe destination address in the frame will read the entire frame and allother network interfaces will ignore the information.What is Medium Access Control of Ethernet?The set of rules which ensures that every node in an Ethernet gets afair amount of frame transmission opportunity, are called the"Medium Access Control" mechanism. The Medium Access Controlmechanism is based on a system called Carrier Sense Multiple Accesswith Collision Detection (CSMD/CD).Explain Ethernet Frame.The heart of Ethernet system is the Ethernet Frame, which is used todeliver information between the computers. The frame consists of aset of bits organized into several fields. These fields include addressfields, a data field and an error checking field that checks the integrityof the bits in the frame to make sure that the frame has arrivedintact.http://www.psexam.comPage 29

Contribution of Suresh Khanal for PS ExamList some advantages of Ethernet.Ethernet's major advantages are:1. It is an inexpensive way to achieve high speed LANtransmissions (10 to 100 MB/s)2. It is a proven technology that supports various writingconfigurations.3. It works well with a large number of LAN and micro-tomainframe applications.4. It is easy to install.What are the disadvantages of Ethernet Cabling?The Ethernet cabling ahs the following disadvantages:1. Ethernet is not

Figure 61: Yahoo, Ask, MSN, Google Search Engines 55 Figure 62: Alta Vista Search Engine 56 Figure 63: Lycos 56 Figure 64: Meta Search Engine 57 Figure 65: Web Index 58 Figure 66: Hypertext and Hyper Link 59 Figure 67: Email Client Interface 60 Figure 68: New Email Message 61 Figure 69: Emoticons 63

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