COVID- 19 Impacts On HVAC Systems In Schools

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COVID-19 Impacts onHVAC Systems in SchoolsBrought to you by Ohio Schools Council and GPD GroupOctober 7, 2020

AgendaIntroductionsCOVID-19 UnderstandingEngineering Control MeasuresRecommendationsQ&ALakewood CSD, Grant Elementary

Meet the PresentersGPD’s Lead Mechanical EngineersBrandon Marzley, PE, LEED AP BD CGreg Lavriha, PE 19 years experience, statewide 19 years experience, statewide Extensive design of HVAC systems in school buildings Design of HVAC systems to reduce spread of diseaseLead Mechanical Engineer for K-12 FacilitiesLead Mechanical Engineer for Healthcare Facilities

GPD Overview59Years in the Industry70Professionalsdedicated to K-12Full-Service A/E Firm,Employee-Owned.

Our Experience Designing for K-12 FacilitiesAkron Public SchoolsAmherst EVSDAshtabula Area CSDAuburn CCBarberton CSDBerea CSDBrecksville-Broadview Hts CSDBrunswick CSDBuckeye LSD (Ashtabula)Bucyrus CSDCanton LSDCleveland Hts-University Hts CSDCloverleaf LSDConneaut Area LSDCopley-Fairlawn CSDCoventry LSDCuyahoga Heights SchoolsCuyahoga Valley CCEdison LSD (Milan)Elgin LSD55 districts in thestate of OhioLakeview LSD, PK-8Fairview Park CSDField LSDGarfield Heights CSDGrand Valley LSDHighland LSDHudson CSDIndependence LSDJoseph Badger LSDKent CSDKirtland LSDLake Center ChristianLakeview LSDLakewood CSDLordstown LSDMaplewood LSDMaplewood CCMcDonald LSDMentor Public SchoolsMonroeville LSDNew Philadelphia CSDNorth Olmsted CSDNorth Royalton CSDNorton CSDOrange CSDParma CSDPerry LSDPleasant LSDPortage Lakes CCRevere LSDRolling Hills LSDRootstown LSDSouthingtown LSDStrongsville CSDToronto CSDTrumbull CTCTwinsburg CSDWarrensville Heights CSDWooster CSD 700Min construction inthe past 5 years

Our Experience Designingfor Healthcare FacilitiesOhioHealthOhioHealth Primary Care Physicians (OPG)HMH Infusion and PharmacyMGH Main Lobby RenovationsMGH Surgery RenovationsMMC Internal Medicine (OPG)OhioHealth Workhealth MarionMH 2nd Floor Planning and N/SMetroHealth SystemComprehensive RehabBroadway Health Center(Specialty Care and Family Medicine)The Ohio state UniversityArthur G. James Cancer Hospital:Gastrointestinal Oncology ClinicWexner Medical Center:Doan Hall Diagnostic Laboratoriesand Cardiovascular Rehab UnitOhioHealthWexner Medical Center:Martha Morehouse Tower7th and 8th Floor RenovationsUniversity Hospitals EastMicrobiology LabNationwide Children’s HospitalOT / PT DepartmentAdministrative and Faculty OfficesMount CarmelBed Tower, Structural andLandscape Architecture30 years helpinghospitals care fortheir patients 500Min construction inthe past 3 years

COVID-19Understanding

GPD / COVID-19 StatementThe recommendations provided herein are ourprofessional design opinion based on the referencedguidelines and criteria and as such we cannot guaranteeor warrant that the building modification recommendationswill reduce, eliminate or mitigate the spread of COVID 19or viruses in general. This is a representation of what weunderstand are practices utilized by others in the currentenvironment, which continue to evolve.

Resources / Guidelines

Theoretical Modes of TransmissionCDC and ASHRAE COVID-19 Guidance Surface contamination Close contact transmission Airborne moisture dropletsResearch continuing

Control Measures for COVID-19From AIHA and NIOSH

Engineering ControlMeasures

Risk Assessment Facility and maintenance Understanding of risk and exposure Hazards (Biohazard) OperationsCoventry LSD, High School

Risk Assessment Short term vs. long term Budget (capital and maintenance)Independence LSD, High School Media Center

Temporary Control Measures Measure focused on a singlepandemic / outbreak Measure designed for limited use Little impact / modification toexisting facilityStrongsville CSD, Middle School

Temporary Control Measures Increased ventilation Longer operating hours (24/7) Demand Control Ventilation disenabled Building ventilation flush Portable disinfectors Portable air purifiers / filters Portable humidifiers / diffusers Operable windows

Temporary Control MeasuresIncreased ventilation ASHRAE recommends increase to130% of minimum Air change rate / dilution Temperature and humidity concernsLonger operating hours Keep facility in 24-hr operation,no set backDemand Control Ventilation disenabledBuilding Flushing After school end, put building ineconomizer modeAkron PS, Ellet CLC

Temporary Control Measures Portable disinfectors Portable air purifiers / filters Portable humidifiers / diffusers Operable windowsLakewood CSD, Lincoln Elementary

Permanent Control Measures Focused on current and futureviruses and bacteria Permanent use Impact / modification to existingfacility HVAC Operation impacts Significant capital cost

Permanent Control MeasuresFiltration MERV 13 minimum Virus micro levels vs. filter ratings HEPA filter applications (MERV 17 and up) Energy recovery disenabled if feasible Operations / MaintenanceStrongsville CSD, Middle School

Humidity ControlASHRAE recommends 40% - 60% RHfor virus / bacteria controlSchool application Mold growth Condensation Operations and maintenance

UV Disinfection LightingUV-C (UVGI) –Germicidal for HVAC systemsUsed in healthcare for past 15 years Disinfection, virus, bacteria, mold control Disinfect cooling coilDecontaminationHigh intensity / exposure concernsMount in existing equipmentMaintenance

Localized UV / UVGI UV / UVGI mounted onwalls in the spaces Used in healthcarelobbies, waiting rooms,food services, corridors High / low intensity /exposure concerns

Bipolar IonizationEmerging technology in healthcareand HVAC industries Virus / bacteria controlOlder technology vs. NeedlepointBipolar Ionization Used as air treatment measureto reduce OAUsed positive and negative ionsMaintenance freeAkron PS, Firestone CLCScientifically-rigorous, peer-reviewedstudies do not exist No manufacturing standards Concerns with ozone generation

Recommendations

RecommendationsUnderstanding of risk assessmentTemporary measures(based on systems with ventilation) Increasing ventilation, dependingon system capacity Control changesTemporary measures(based on systems without ventilation) Air purifiersOperating cost concernsAmherst EVSD, Powers Elementary

RecommendationsUnderstanding of risk assessmentPermanent measures Installed UV / UVGI in HVAC systems Installing MERV 13 filters Developing pandemic control logic Localized UVGI for clinic andlobby areas- Exhaust (negative pressure)high risk areasBerea CSD, Berea-Midpark Middle School

Cost Impacts and Understanding Operating cost will vary UV-C (10,000 CFM AHU)- approx. 12,000 per unit MERV 13 filters cost will vary- Fans, filters, racks Control logic will vary- approx. 1,000 per point Localized UVGI- approx. 2,000 - 6,000Hudson CSD, Middle School

Th r ou g h you r O SC memb er s h ip , G PD, a s a na p p r ove d O SC con s u lta n t, ca n b eg in you rb u ild in g eva lu a tion s immed ia tely.Brandon Marzley, PE, LEED AP BD CLead Mechanical Engineer for K-12bmarzley@gpdgroup.com(330) 572-2212Greg Lavriha, PELead Mechanical Engineer for Healthcareglavriha@gpdgroup.com(216) 927-8657

HMH Infusion and Pharmacy. MGH Main Lobby Renovations. MGH Surgery Renovations. MMC Internal Medicine (OPG) OhioHealth Workhealth Marion. . Landscape Architecture. OhioHealth. 500M. in construction in the past 3 years. 30 years helping hospitals

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