Toward a Sustainable Future for theRed Sea Coast of SudanPart 2: Socio Economic and Governance Survey1
Toward a Sustainable Future for theRed Sea Coast of SudanPart 2: Socio Economic and Governance SurveyThis program would have not be possible without the generous financialsupport of the European Commission and IWC Schaffhausen.3
CREDITSConsortium of partners:The Red Sea State of Sudan and related institutions (HCENR, ICZM Office, Red Sea University)Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA)The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)Afrikan Parks Conservation (APC)Coastal Oceans Research and Development in the Indian Ocean (CORDIO)The Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE)The Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE)Sudanese Development Initiative - SUDIAMallinson ArchitectsEditors:Tarik ChekchakAuthors:Mr. Tarik Chekchak, Equipe Cousteau, Director for Sciences & EnvironmentMs. Khulood Tubaishat, PERSGA, Advisor on Policy and Coastal GovernanceDr. Melita Samoilys, CORDIO, Director, Marine BiologistMr. Roy Facey, Equipe Cousteau, External ConsultantMr. Nedal Aloral, Equipe Cousteau, External ConsultantMs. Raphaëlle Martinez, UNESCO Division of Education Strategies and Capacity Building, Education Planning Specialist of theSection for Education Support StrategiesMr. Ahmed Hanafi Abdel-Magid, Sudia, Consultant, in charge of updating the 2007/8 surveyDr. Rebecca Klaus, Equipe Cousteau, Consultant & Advisor, Marine Biologist and GISDr. Jeremy Kemp, Equipe Cousteau, External Consultant, Marine BiologistMs. Lauren Salm, PERSGA and Equipe Cousteau, UNESCO World Marine Heritage assessmentMr. Daniel Rodary, Equipe Cousteau, External Coordinator of the ICZM Project in Sudan.Dr. Nigel Hussey, Equipe Cousteau, Consultant, ElasmobranchsDr. Steve Kessel, Equipe Cousteau, Consultant, ElasmobranchsDr. Abdel Gadir Dafallah Elhag, Director, Institute of Marine Research, Port Sudan, SudanThe following people have also provided important information and advice,and their assistance is also acknowledged:Dr. Taha Bedawi, former Director of the ICZM Office, Port Sudan, SudanMr. Claudio Scarpellini, owner and skipper of the MSY Elegante, WildSea ExpeditionDr. Ehab Omer Abdalla, Red Sea University, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Port Sudan, SudanDr. Mohamed Sheikh El Dine, Red Sea University, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Port Sudan, SudanMs. Noémie Stroh, Equipe Cousteau, Project ManagerDr. Huming Yu, Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA), Senior Programme OfficerDr. Michael Pido, Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA), Director of the Center forStrategic Policy and Governance at Palawan State University, PhilippinesMr. Holger Anlauf, Equipe Cousteau, Volunteer, Marine BiologistMs. Angela Gall, Equipe Cousteau, Volunteer, Communication and outreachMr. Mehdi Benchellah, Equipe Cousteau, Media advisorMr. Mohammed Younis, Equipe Cousteau, External Consultant, formerly of the Wildlife Conservation General AdministrationMamdouh Abdallah, Marine Fishery Administration, Red Sea State of Sudan.Ms. Aziza Abdallah, UNDP’s National Capacity Development Officer in Red Sea StatePagoulatos family, owners and managers of the Acropole Hotel, Khartoum, SudanLayout & design:Faircom New YorkPhotographic material by courtesy:The Cousteau SocietyPROGR AM DE VELOPED BY EQUIPE COUSTEAU / THE COUSTEAU SOCIE T Y (EDS. T. CHEKCHAK & M. MACFARL ANE) (20 14) TOWARD ASUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR THE RED SEA COAST OF SUDAN. PART 2: SOCIO ECONOMIC AND GOVERNANCE SURVE Y. PUBLISHED BY THECOUSTEAU SOCIE T Y, CUSTODIANS OF THE SEA 4 EAST 27 TH STREE T P.O. BOX 2032 1 NE W YORK, NY 1000 1.4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSEquipe Cousteau would like to thank the national and Red Sea state governmental bodies of Sudan,expecially the Governor of the Red Sea State of Sudan, The Honorable Mohammed Tahir Aila and themembers of its government involved in this project. They shared with us the vision that IntegratedCoastal Zone Management is a necessity for the development of the magnificent coast of the Red SeaState of Sudan.This project would not have been possible without the support of the European Commission andwe wish to especially thank Mr Paul Symonds (former Food Security Coordinator, Delegation of TheEuropean Commission To Sudan) who was a very responsive and supportive officer in charge of thefollow-up of this project, with a clear vision of environmental issues and opportunities for Sudan. Weare grateful for the support given by PERSGA (The Regional Organization for the Conservation of theEnvironment of the Red Sea & Gulf of Aden) and want to especially thank Mrs Khulood Tubaishat(former Advisor for Policy and Coastal Governance, PERSGA). Without her continuous involvementand commitment to the project, and the high level advisory and political support she has provided, inSudan and internationally, much less would have been achieved. We would like to highlight the roleMr Mohamed Younis Abdeslam, former officer of the Wildlife Administration, and Dr Rebecca Klausfor their continuous commitment to the creation and sustainable management of Sudanese marineprotected areas.We are grateful for the support given by Mr Mustafa El Taïeb, former Director of the Division ofScience Analysis and Policies (UNESCO, Natural Sciences Sector), Mr Natarajan Ishwaran, Director ofthe Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences, Mr Peter Dogse, Man and the Biosphere Programme(UNESCO, Division of Ecological Sciences) and Mr Ibrahim Sidibé, former Head of Office, UNESCOSudan. We also want to thank Mr Abubaker Mustafa Mohammed Khair, founder and chairman ofthe Board of Trustees of The Future University, and the former Governor of the Red Sea State HisExcellency Mr Hatem El-Wassila, for their early-stage support of this work and for helping to get thesupport of the highest political authorities in Sudan.Tarik ChekchakDirector for Sciences & Environment5
Forewordby Francine CousteauIN THE FOOTSTEPS OF JACQUES COUSTEAU Fifty years ago Jacques Cousteau’s Calypso dropped anchor on the coral reef Sha’ab Rumi off thecoast of Sudan.It was there that Cousteau designed and built the first underwater village as a place to test the inventions he created that would enable people to live and work under the sea.The brave pioneers on his crew spent a month under water, brilliantly demonstrating the vision ofCaptain Cousteau.Their experiences and subsequent contributions to science – including invaluable achievements intraining astronauts to work in a weightless environment – have been the subject of numerous scientificpublications.In 2003/2004 the Cousteau Society retraced the Captain's steps with Aquanaut Claude Wesly, whoin 1963 at Sha’ab Rumi had lived and slept in the village immersed under the sea, and later had seenimages of it in the Captain’s “The World Without Sun” feature, which won an Oscar in 1964.This was a hugely emotional moment not only for Claude and the entire team, but also for some localSudanese who recalled childhood memories of the Calypso and its Captain.Cousteau was always looking to the future and, as I thought of him and of the permanent residentsof Sha’ab Rumi, I decided to use the occasion of our return to Sudan to establish a long-term goal ofproviding these men and women with highly-skilled work that will help them build their future.We have had boots on the ground since 2003, with dozens of top scientists from around the worldproducing a highly-detailed study on the Sudanese coast. As part of this effort, we created the UNESCOCousteau University Chair in Khartoum. Since 2010, we have been developing a system of acoustic andsatellite monitoring of sting rays and sharks in the Red Sea manned by Sudanese teams.Scientific discoveries already have been made on how coral adapts to extreme conditions, and on thehybridization of the species.The two volumes presented here are available to scientists and policy makers who need to take bettercare of fragile ecosystems for generations to come. I express my deep gratitude to all those who havehelped us achieve this work that extends the path defined by Jacques Cousteau.Francine CousteauPresidentTeam CousteauThe Cousteau Society7
TABLE OF CONTENTSCredits .4Acknowledgements.5Foreword .7List of Acronyms.10Glossary .12Executive Summary .17Summary of Key Findings for the ICZM Survey.18Summary of Recommendations from the Sudan ICZM Project (Phase I).201 Introduction.1.1 Project Background.25251.1.1 An Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project in Sudan. 251.1.2 The Red Sea State. 261.1.3 The Jeddah Convention & Related Protocols. 271.1.4 Linking Biodiversity Conservation & Poverty Reduction . 281.2 Project Goal and Objectives. 281.2.1 Project Process and Phases. 291.2.2 Work Packages & Organisational Arrangements . 321.2.3 Consortium of Partners. 321.2.4 Monitoring the ICZM Process. 351.3 Cousteau in Sudan. 421.4 The Challenge of Bridging Conservation and Development Issues. 461.5 Governance in the Red Sea State. 471.6 Socioeconomic Development in Red Sea State. 491.6.1 Opportunities for Peace & Prosperity. 491.6.2 Artisanal Fisheries Sector. 491.7 Historical and Cultural Assets. 511.7.1 A Historical Overview of Northern Sudan. 511.7.2 Suakin’s Unique Architecture . 521.7.3 The Beja Culture. 5482 Governance and Planning in Red Sea State .572.1 The New Political Environment of the Red Sea State.2.1.1 The Decentralisation Process and Public Participation.2.1.2 The Policy-Making Environment.2.2 Improving Coastal and Ocean Governance.2.2.1 Institutional Arrangements for Environmental Protection.2.2.2 Main Stakeholders and Key Players in Environmental Management in RSS.2.2.3 Environmental Governance vs. MDGs in RSS.2.2.4 Legislation and Regulations.2.2.5 Private Sector Participation.2.2.6 Constraints to the Existing Environmental Management in RSS.2.2.7 The Red Sea State Master Plan.2.2.8 Environmental Impact Assessment.2.3 Education and Sustainability.2.3.1 The Current RSS Education System.2.3.2 RSS Education Sector Planning, Policy and Reform.575760616163656873737475868893
2.3.3 Assessment and Opportunities for Environmental/Sustainability Education in RSS.2.4. Recommendations.2.4.1 General Recommendations.2.4.2 Recommendations for EIA.2.4.3 Recommendations for Education.971011011011023 Socio-Economic Development in The Red Sea State. 1053.1 Overview of Society and Economy of RSS.3.1.1 Demographics and Settlement Distribution.3.1.2 History, Ideology and Culture.3.1.3 Settlements and Social Infrastructure.3.1.4 Health and Education.3.1.5 Livelihoods and Economy.3.1.6 The Villages of Dungonab Bay-Mukkawwar Island Marine National Park.3.2 Livelihood Opportunities and Sustainable Development.3.2.1 Promoting Peace and Security through Sustainable Livelihoods.3.2.2 Economic Valuation of Sudan's Marine and Coastal Resources.3.2.3 A Need for Sustainable Fisheries.3.2.4 Toward Sustainable Tourism in RSS.3.2.5 Village Environmental Management and Livelihood Opportunities for DMNP Communities.3.2.6 Assessing Alternative Livelihood Opportunities for DMNP Communities.3.2.7 Improving Livelihoods in Inland RSS (Sinkat-Arkawit area).3.3 Coastal Development and Risk Management .3.3.1 Coastal Development .3.3.2 Oil Development: Operations, Management and Issues.3.3.3 Ports, Navigation and Maritime Issues in Sudan.3.3.4 Marine and Coastal Pollution.3.4 Designing a Socioeconomic Monitoring Programme for RSS.3.4.1 RSS Socioeconomic Development Plan: 2005-2008.3.4.2 ICZM Socioeconomic Monitoring Programme.3.5 Recommendations .3.5.1 Livelihood Interventions .3.5.2 Risk Management.3.5.3 Completion of the Socioeconomic Monitoring 671801811821941982092152152162272272312334 Gap Analysis and Summary of Recommendations. 2344.1 GAP Analysis. 2344.2 References. 2389
LIST OF PsIMOINCIOCISOJAMLBSLPGM&EMADMDGsMDTF10Agency for Cooperation in Research and DevelopmentAtlantic Gulf Rapid Reef AssessmentAlternative Income-Generating ActivitiesAfrican Parks FoundationConvention on Biological DiversityCommunity-Based OrganisationCentral Bureau of StatisticsCentre for Environment and Development in the Arab Region and EuropeCoastal Livelihoods AssessmentCoastal Oceans Research and Development in the Indian OceanComprehensive Peace AgreementCoral Point Count with Excel ExtensionsDungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island National ParkEuropean CommissionEnvironmental Impact AssessmentEnvironmental Impact Assessment Working GroupEducation for All (UN)Education Policy and Strategy Simulation ModelEnvironmental School ClubEastern Sudan Peace AgreementEducation Sector Strategic PlanEducation Working GroupFish Aggregating DevicesFood and Agriculture Organisation of the United NationsFederal Ministry of General EducationFast Track Initiative (UN)Global Acute MalnutritionGross Domestic ProductGross Enrolment RatioGeographic Information SystemGeneral Management PlanGovernment of National UnityGovernment of SudanGender Parity IndexHigher Council for Environment and Natural ResourcesHeadquartersIntegrated Coastal Zone ManagementIntegrated Coastal Zone Management OfficeInternally Displaced PeopleInternational Maritime OrganisationInterim National ConstitutionInternational Oceanographic CommissionInternational Organisation for StandardisationJoint Assessment MissionLand-Based SurveyLiquid Petroleum GasMonitoring and EvaluationMaritime Administration DirectorateMillennium Development GoalsMulti-Donor Trust Fund
MEAsM&E BWCGAWHCWHOWSSDMultilateral Environmental AgreementsMonitoring and Evaluation ManualMarine Environment Protection AdministrationMinistry of Agriculture, Animal Welfare and Natural ResourcesMinistry of Environment and TourismMarine Protected AreaMarine Research InstituteNational Biodiversity Strategy and Action PlanNet Enrolment RatioNon-Governmental OrganisationNational Oceanographic and Atmospheric AdministrationNational Oil Spill Contingency PlanNet Registered TonPriority Actions Programme – The Coastal Management CentrePort Sudan Association for Entrepreneur DevelopmentPartnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East AsiaThe Regional Organisation for the Conservation of the Environment in the Red Sea and Gulf of AdenPublic Health CentresPoint Intercept TransectPlymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological ResearchRapid Ecological AssessmentRehabilitation and Recovery ProgrammeRed Sea and Gulf of Aden RegionRed Sea StateRed Sea State Ministry of HealthRed Sea UniversityStakeholder ConsultationSudanese DinarsSudan Environment Conservation Society – Red Sea StateSocioeconomic Programme CoordinatorSocial Impact AssessmentSanganeb Atoll Marine National ParkState Ministry of EducationSocioeconomic Monitoring ProgrammeSea Ports CorporationSudan People’s Liberation Movement/ArmySocioeconomic Working GroupSudanese Development InitiativeTerms of ReferenceUniversal Basic EducationUnited Nations Development ProgrammeUnited Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural OrganisationUnited Nations International Children’s FundUnited Nations Industrial Development OrganisationUniversal Primary EducationUnderwater Visual CensusValued Environmental ComponentsVillage Environmental Management PlanWorld BankWildlife Conservation General AdministrationWorld Heritage CentreWorld Health OrganisationWorld Summit on Sustainable Development11
GLOSSARY12Bahari silifMarine customary lawBejaDominant ethnic group in RSSBirishWoven matting over wooden frames used for building sheltersDangiet, lahagen,TogwanGifts and loans governed by the silif and administered through the patriarchal leadership to diwab members needing support in times of sickness, famine, homelessness,travel, marriage and death (a form of social security in a sense).DewaliState GovernorDh’ufraOpercula of Lambis and Strombus mollusc species, used for making perfume(khumbra)DiwabKinship groupsKhorFreshwater riverKhumbraTraditional perfume made by using the opercula of Lambis and Strombus molluscsKuraiTerrestrial territoriesMahalliaLocalityNazirTribal leader in Beja communitiesOmdaBelow the Nazir in the leadership hierarchySakanabRitualised greetings in the Beja customSandukTraditional wooden fishing boatSheikPerson providing the institutional framework for Beja communities and leading largeextended families (positioned below the Omdas in the Beja leadership hierarchy)SilifBeja customary law governing economic, social and environmental aspects of Bejalife, including resource and land managementTuBedawyeTraditional Beja languageWadiDry riverbedWilayaStateWaliGovernor
LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Ecological Indicators from the IOC handbook .37Table 2: Governance indicators from the IOC Handbook .38Table 3: Socioeconomic indicators from the IOC Handbook .40Table 4: Environmental Governance Powers and Responsibilities of Government Levels as set out bythe INC.58Table 5: Institutional Arrangements in Environmental Decision-making.63Table 6: International Conventions with EIA provisions.77Table 7: Suggested Structure of the EMP.85Table 8: Estimated population of key RSS localities. 106Table 9: Age distribution of RSS population. 107Table 10: Household Asset Ownership (%) . 110Table 11: Key Social Infrastructure across Localities (2008).111Table 12: Health facilities in the RSS 2004-2006.111Table 13: Health service personnel in RSS 2004-2006.111Table 14: Education facilities in the RSS 2004-2006. 112Table 15: Staff and pupil numbers and ratios in RSS 2004-2006. 112Table 16: Head of Household Educational Attainment across key Localities 2006. 113Table 17: Rural and Urban Primary School Enrollment and Completion across RSS. 114Table 18: Reported Respiratory and Gastric Conditions and Mortality in RSS Population (2006). 114Table 19: Child and Caregiver Acute Malnutrition rates in RSS (2006). 115Table 20: RSS Budget 2005-2007 (Sudanese Dinars). 115Table 21: RSS Per Capita Spending 2002-2006 (‘000’s Sudanese Dinars). 116Table 22: RSS Distribution of Employment by Sector and Locality in 2007. 116Table 23: Livestock population of the RSS by type, 2001. 117Table 24: Sorghum and millet production figures: Area in (000) fed, production in (000) m.ton andyield kg/fed. 117Table 25: Volume of imports and exports from Port Sudan. 118Table 26: Questions posed to fishers during the biodiversity survey to obtain qualitative informationon current fisheries observed during the survey (October-November 2007). 129Table 27: Fish species seen in Port Sudan market, 4th November 2007, 9:00-10:00 am. Quantities areexpressed as follows: Few less than 5 fish; Several 5 20; Many 20. Note lack of pelagics(Spanish mackerel, tuna etc) – only trevally seen. 130Table 28: Summary of information on the hook and line (hand line) fishery obtained from interviewswith fishermen (both coral reef and deep water). 131Table 29: Summary of information on the Trochus fishery obtained from interviews with fishermen. 13313
Table 30: Summary of information on the sea cucumber fishery obtained from interviews with fishermen. 134Table 31: Species list of sea cucumbers observed at fishing camps; average density counted for eachcommercial fishery group during the biodiversity survey; fishery value categories assigned duringbiodiversity survey and interviews, and prices. Densities from biodiversity survey (medium and lowvalue species were combined). 1 SDP 0.5USD. 135Table 32: Species taken by Egyptian trawlers. Non trawl gear represents catches from fibreglass boats. 136Table 33: Tourism Figures for RSS – 1987-2000. 142Table 34: Visitor numbers and revenue generated by the Sudanese tourism industry during the 20002006 time period.
Dr. Taha Bedawi, former Director of the ICZM Office, Port Sudan, Sudan Mr. Claudio Scarpellini, owner and skipper of the MSY Elegante, WildSea Expedition Dr. Ehab Omer Abdalla, Red Sea University, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Port Sudan, Sudan
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