Availability Is Key - Viewpoint Mining

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2010: issue 6A publication of Caterpillar Global MiningCaterpillar produces50,000th truckMaking mine sites safer byreducing blind spotsGoing undergroundto create the second largest gold minein chinamodern systems demandclean fuelAvailability is keyCC&V demandsconsistent productionfrom haulage fleetFlee t m a n a g e m e n t:Getting ready for the upturnFilm showcasescompanies that aremining right

I’m pleased to present this edition of Viewpoint magazine—the first issue in this new decade.We’ve heard from a number of readers in the pastfew months who find it a valuable resource forinformation about the mining industry and whoeagerly await each new issue. Every day we get newsubscription requests from all over the world.Like everyone in the mining industry, we havebeen dealing with challenging times in the past year.We hope you’ll find information in this issue to helpyou be successful today and in the years ahead.We address the industry’s response to the reduceddemand for commodities in an article aboutfleet management, where we not only discussactivities in the downturn, but also focus on theways manufacturers and mining companies arepreparing for the upturn.Our best practices story highlights the importanceof clean fuel and showcases a mine in Armenia thatrealized outstanding results from the installation ofa fuel filtration system.We also feature “Ground Rules: Mining Right fora Sustainable Future,” a film that is the cornerstoneof a new educational program designed to helpimprove public opinion about mining. It includesa set of 75 lesson plans to help educators furtherexamine the themes and concepts presented inthe film.In this issue, we feature Cripple Creek & Victor Goldmine in Colorado, which recently completed a sixmonth evaluation of new trucks for its haulage fleet.We’re grateful for this mine’s participation in a fieldfollow on our new 793F trucks and we appreciatetheir valuable feedback.We’re always looking for new ways—likeViewpoint—to add value beyond the products andservices we provide to our customers.We take readers to China’s Jinfeng mine, a gold-richsite that has moved underground and is now thesecond largest gold mine in China.Chris CurfmanEditorial Board: Tony Johnson, Editor. Glenn Morrison, Australia; Matt Turner, Canada; JuneTian, China; Martin Gill, CIS; David Mohr, Europe, Africa and the MiddleEast; John Bergin, Southeast Asia; Keith Malison, Latin America; BradBeyer, United States; David Rea, Large Mining Trucks; Mel Busch, LargeTrack-Type Tractors; Randy Aneloski, Large Wheel Loaders; Yon Chong,Underground Machines; Kent Clifton, Support; Ken Edwards, Safety &Sustainability; Tim Siekmann, Product Support; Greg Gardner/Dan Hellige/Andy Trent, Global Accounts; Renee Balaco/Charlie Zimmerman, MiningMarketing; Roschelle McCoy, Technology; Converse Marketing, Publisher.c Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint / 2010: issue 6This issue’s safety feature focuses on operatorvisibility and how a new object detection system willhelp enhance vision and protect against collisionsinvolving large mining trucks.President, Caterpillar Global MiningViewpoint is a publication of Cat Global Mining,producer of one of the mining industry’s broadestlines of equipment and technology. Caterpillarserves the worldwide mining community throughits vast dealer network and a single division calledCaterpillar Global Mining, headquartered inPeoria, USA, with additional offices worldwide.

AUTOMATIC WATER DRAINAllows excess water to drain.COALESCING FILTER ELEMENTSFibers attract water into largedroplets that fall to the bottom.(view is simplified for illustration.)OUTLET SAMPLING VALVEProvides access forfiltered fuel samples.SLUG CONTROL VALVESlows down or shuts off fuel flow ifthe amount of water in the fuelexceeds the flow capacity of thewater drain valve or if particulate orcoalescer filters start to plug.4-MICRON PARTIRemoves abrasiveGaugesindicate filterrestriction.table of contentsWATER METERContinuously measures andrecords volume of water removed.caterpillar producesPort foroptionalheatingelement.50,000th Off-Highway TruckObject Detection:CLEAN, DRY FUELINLET SAMPLINGProvides access founfiltered fuel samMaking mine sites safer by reducing blind spots26modern systems demand clean fuelthe dangers of contaminationGoing undergroundto create the second largestgold mine in China:JinFeng Mine28GAShdurem216 6Getting ready for the upturnFilm showcases companies that aremining right22CC&V demands consistentproduction from haulage fleetAvailability is keyNews from caterpillar829Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint 1

Mine sites purchase, store and consume millions of liters of fuel each year—a major expenseand a leading contributor to machine performance. Today’s increasingly complex fuel injectionsystems require fuel to be of a higher quality—especially when it comes to cleanliness—than ever before.THE DANGERS OF CONTAMINATION:MODERN SYSTEMS DEMAND CLEAN FUELWhile mines can’t always control the condition ofthe fuel they receive, they can have an impact onhow clean it is when it enters the machine. Minesaround the world are taking steps to reduce fuelcontamination—extending the life of components,improving machine performance, maintaining fueleconomy and increasing machine availability. Aside from the costof tires and fuel,and the wages ofmachine operators,about 70 percentof total machineoperating costis the life cyclecosts of powertraincomponents.“There’s no question that the use of contaminatedfuel in modern fuel systems can cause a host ofproblems with machinery,” says David Barker, aproduct support consultant in Caterpillar’s GlobalMining Division. “But there are things sites can doto control the cleanliness of the fuel they use.”THE COST OF CONTAMINATIONCleanliness is critical to minimizing cost-per-tonnethrough better care of machines. “Aside from thecost of tires and fuel, and the wages of machineoperators, about 70 percent of total machineoperating cost is the life cycle costs of powertraincomponents,” explains Barker. n a typical large mining truck, the costOdistribution is: Engine40% Transmission/Torque Converter 10%Final Drive & Differential40%Miscellaneous10%Modern fuel systems use electronic unit injectors,a component that delivers precise amounts of fueland controls injection timing to within thousandthsof a second. Electronic unit injectors control the2 Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint / issue 6performance and fuel economy of the engine andare expensive to replace when worn.Component life cycle cost is roughly defined ascost to rebuild the component divided by actualcomponent life in hours. Extending the life ofa component is the most important factor inreducing its life cycle cost. This does not meansimply extending overhaul intervals and allowingcomponents to wear more severely. It meansimplementing a strategy to reduce the rate ofwear and achieve longer component life withoutincurring excessive wear.“Contaminated fuel can cause an unacceptable rateof injector wear and resultant failure—and, as aresult, unnecessary repair costs,” says Barker.FUEL CONTAMINANTSThe two most common contaminants in fuel areexcessive dirt and water. These contaminantsare typically introduced into fuel during thetransportation, mixing or storage process.Water, the most common contaminant, may beintroduced when warm, moist air condenses on thefuel tank walls and condensation builds up.Excessive water can reduce the lubricating qualitiesof the fuel and cause injector seizure and contingentengine damage. In addition, fungus and bacterialive in water. When they get into a fuel system, theycan plug fuel filters, reducing their life and causingpremature injector wear-out, all of which affect thelife of the machine.

Particles of dirt, sediment and other solids havea similar effect on fuel injectors, causing them towear out prematurely and leading to unnecessaryfailures.Clean fuel does more than just reduce problems,however. Added benefits include improved fueleconomy and longer component life. In addition toreducing the replacement frequency of fuel filtersand injectors, clean fuel prolongs injector life.“What it really boils down to is availability of themachine,” says Barker. “When machines are notin for repairs, they are at work on the site. Lessdowntime means greater productivity.”IMPROVING CLEANLINESSThe two critical factors leading to fuel quality are thecleanliness of the fuel delivered to the site, and thestorage and handling practices used after it arrives.“Fuel suppliers, of course, indicate to mine sitesthat the fuel they deliver is clean,” says Barker. “Andmany times it starts out that way. But that fuel isn’tgoing directly into machines; it’s going into bulkstorage tanks that may be contaminated or havehigh levels of condensation built up.”In order to maximize engine life, diesel fuelsupplied to the fuel tank should have a maximumparticulate level of ISO 18/16/13 with a maximumwater content level of 0.1 percent (1,000 ppm).In some geographic areas, fuel suppliers to mineshave the infrastructure and discipline to deliverrelatively clean fuel. However, in the majority ofmining applications, that is not the case. Fuelleaving the refinery is transported to remotelocations through ships, pipelines, barges andtrucks, and is often stored in intermediate storagetanks. Each time the fuel is stored or moved, ithas the opportunity to attract contaminants. Insome cases gross amounts of water and/or dirt cancontaminate the fuel. Much of this can be removedthrough proper storage and handling.Fuel Storage CapacityGiven adequate storage time, much of the dirt andwater in fuel will settle to the bottom of the storagetank if the fuel is left undisturbed. Fuel storagecapacity on the site should be adequate to let newfuel deliveries settle for two to three days beforedrawing the supply fuel from the tank.“The most common problem on mine sites is lackof tank capacity,” says Barker. “Mine capacity andhaulage fleets often grow faster than their fuelstorage facility. This usually results in fuel beingadded to tanks while it is being consumed. Thispractice stirs up contaminants and keeps them insuspension in the delivery fuel.”Storage tank designRegardless of size or shape, best practicesrecommend that fuel storage tanks have thefollowing:Sloped tank floor. Water which settles out of thefuel will flow to the lowest spot in the sloped tank.Tanks should have a drain at the lowest point andbe drained frequently to minimize the presenceof water.Well-located suction pipe. A suction pipe located wellabove floor level will ensure that only clean fuel isdrawn in, and water and dirt that have settled to thebottom of the tank remain undisturbed.Desiccant vent filters. These filters remove anymoisture from air entering the tank.Non-corrosive tank lining. At a minimum, the tankfloor and the bottom 1 meter (3 feet) of the tankshould be epoxy coated to resist corrosion fromtrapped water.Fuel handlingOnce the proper steps have been taken regardingstorage, it’s important to also have a fuelmaintenance policy, with adequate personnel inplace responsible for proper fuel handling. Thisincludes using particle counters and water detectiontests to measure cleanliness and sampling incomingshipments and outgoing fuel.Fuel leaving the refinery istransported to remote locationsthrough ships, pipelines, bargesand trucks, and is often storedin intermediate storage tankslike the ones above. Each timethe fuel is stored or moved, ithas the opportunity to attractcontaminants. In some casesgross amounts of water and/ordirt can contaminate the fuel.SUPPLEMENTING WITH FILTRATIONThe fuel filters on machines are designed to providefinal filtration for moderately clean supply fuel.Machine filtration is not intended to clean fuelcontaminated with large amounts of dirt and water.Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint 3

If contaminated fuel is used, the capability of theonboard filtration is overwhelmed and injectorseither wear out prematurely or seize.One way to reduce the burden on machine fuelfilters is to install a bulk fuel filtration system. Bulkfuel filtration consists of high capacity filters thatremove both excess dirt and water from the supplyfuel before it is put into the machine.Caterpillar has engineered a packaged systemto remove both dirt and water. The Cat BulkFuel Filtration System is intended for use in anyapplication where users store fuel for machinesor engines. It requires very little maintenance andcontains safeguards to prevent contaminated fuelfrom passing through the unit. How it works“ Bulk fuel filtrationhas been used in theaviation industry formore than 50 yearsto address thesesame problems.Now, Caterpillarhas adopted thisproven technologyto help our miningcustomers.”– David Barker, ProductSupport ConsultantThe self-contained unit is mounted on a skid,and is placed between the fuel storage tank andfueling station.The 4-micron, beta 200, full synthetic particulatefilter elements remove dirt in a single pass andeffectively hold large volumes of debris. Filterchange intervals are about once a month, dependingon the level of contamination. Filter elements maySEPARATOR CANISTERRepels smaller water dropletssuspended in moving fuel flow andprevents them from escaping.AUTOMATIC WATER DRAINAllows excess water to drain.OUTLET SAMPLING VALVEProvides access forfiltered fuel samples.SLUG CONTROL VALVESlows down or shuts off fuel flow ifthe amount of water in the fuelexceeds the flow capacity of thewater drain valve or if particulate orcoalescer filters start to plug.WATER METERContinuously measures andrecords volume of water removed.CLEAN, DRY FUEL4 Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint / issue 6be quickly and easily replaced without the need forhand tools.The coalescer unit contains multiple elementscapable of removing up to 3 percent water byvolume to 1,000 ppm (0.1 percent) or less at therated flow. Water removed by these elements falls tothe bottom of the coalescer unit and is automaticallydrained to an external water storage vessel. A floatmechanism in the bottom of the unit monitors thewater level. The coalescing elements do not plugand usually require changing only once a year.An automatic flow control valve slows down or stopsfuel outlet flow if particulate filters plug or there aremassive amounts of water in the fuel. This ensuresonly clean fuel leaves the unit.The maximum fuel flow rate of the user’s fuelsupply system determines the size of the coalescerfiltration system. Four different units are available.The smaller units are sized at 190-liters-per-minute(lpm) (50 gallons-per-minute) (gpm) and 379 lpm(100 gpm) units. They are intended for day tankapplications or for portable use on a fuel truckwhere fueling is done manually. The 757 lpm (200gpm) unit is intended for fuel stations using fastfill, where maximum flow does not exceed 757 lpm(200 gpm). This unit will handle truck sizes up toCOALESCER UNITCOALESCING FILTER ELEMENTSFibers attract water into largedroplets that fall to the bottom.(view is simplified for illustration.)4-MICRON PARTICULATE FILTERRemoves abrasive particles.Gaugesindicate filterrestriction.Port foroptionalheatingelement.INLET SAMPLING VALVEProvides access forunfiltered fuel samples.GATE VALVEShuts off flowduring service orremoval of unit.

the 218-tonne (240-short-ton) Cat 793. The largestunit, 1136 lpm (300 gpm), is intended for fast-fill of327-tonne (360-short-ton) Cat 797 size trucks.Permanent installation is simple, says Barker. “Allyou need is a small concrete pad downstream of thefuel storage tank and supply pump. And a watercontainer is required nearby to store the wastewaterremoved from the fuel.” The system doesn’t requireelectric power unless it’s used in extremely coldclimates. An optional electric fuel heater is availablefor cold climates where water removed from the fuelmay freeze.SEEING RESULTS“You might wonder why, if mine sites could seethe value of fuel cleanliness, they aren’t all usingfiltration systems,” says Barker. “Truth is, they arenow beginning to understand how important it is—and what a difference it makes in the life of theircomponents and their equipment.”For example, Zangezur mine in Armenia had facedongoing problems with injectors and engines inall types of equipment on site. The installation of aCat Bulk Fuel Filtration system has had a dramaticimpact at the mine, which is operated by ZangezurCopper and Molybdenum Mining Company andowned by German company Cronimet.Zangezur mine, established in 1952, is the largestmining enterprise in Armenia and is the site of oneof the biggest deposits of molybdenum in the world.In 2009, the site produced an estimated 41000tonnes (45,000 short tons) of copper and about8200 tonnes (9,000 short tons) of molybdenumconcentrate. The site operates about 30 machines,including Cat 785 trucks, 992 and 993 wheel loaders,several track-type tractors and an excavator.Injector problems have a negative impact on anymine site, but that impact is even more significantin a remote location like Zangezur. The mineoperates at an altitude of 2200 meters (7,217 feet)and is surrounded by mountains.“Replacing parts is a challenge in Armenia,” saysIvan Glushankov, a Caterpillar mining productsupport specialist based in Moscow. “Not only isit costly to replace parts, it’s also a challenge toget them. It can sometimes take 30 days to repaira machine—and when that machine is down,productivity is down.”Caterpillar and Zeppelin Armenia representativesvisited the site, evaluated the problem andrecommended the site install the bulk fuel filtrationsystem. The results were impressive.“ The impact it hadon our site wasimmediate andsignificant. We haveseen improvementsin every machinewe operate.”– r ubik abramyan,zangezur mine, armenia“All the problems disappeared,” says RubikAbramyan, head of the mine’s transportationdepartment. “I have recommended to every minesite that they install this system. The impact it hadon our site was immediate and significant. We haveseen improvements in every machine we operate.”Glushankov estimates that the improvedperformance and longer component life resultingfrom using clean fuel has allowed Zangezur to payfor the fuel filtration system in just a few months.“They’re relatively inexpensive, especially whencompared to the cost of a mining machine,” saysBarker. “If you eliminate the need to replace acouple sets of injectors, you’ve paid for it.”Sites in the United States have seen similar results,says Barker. “These customers are no longer dealingwith plugged fuel filters. We had one mine managertell us that he had been replacing a fuel filter everyday prior to installing the bulk fuel filtration system.In the 10-day period after that, he didn’t make onereplacement. Customers are also reporting thatthey’re not forced to replace injectors at the halflife of the engine. And as always, less downtimetranslates to higher productivity.”Injector problems have anegative impact on any minesite, but that impact is evenmore significant in a remotelocation like Zangezur. Themine operates at an altitude of2200 meters (7,217 feet) andis surrounded by mountains.Barker predicts bulk fuel filtration will become amore common process on sites throughout theworld. “We have one customer that is so impressedwith the benefits of clean fuel that they’re filteringthe fuel when it goes into the storage tank, andagain when it comes out,” he says.FUEL WITH DIRT AND WATERCat Global Mining / Viewpoint 5

DEALING WITH THE DOWNTURNAs mines around the world adjusted their productionlevels to meet the reduced demand for commodities,mining companies continued to make a number ofimportant decisions that impact their equipment fleets.Whether machines were idled completely, operated lessfrequently, used for parts or moved to other locations,it’s important that equipment managers think aboutthe future while dealing with the downturn.fleetmanagement:getting ready for the upturn“The mining industry was significantly impacted bythe economic downturn that hit in 2009,” says ChrisCurfman, president of Caterpillar Global Mining.“Since then, we’ve continued to work alongside ourdealers and our customers, making adjustmentsto weather tough economic times. However, a lotof our focus has been not on the current situation,but on the future. We believe the upturn is goingto be just as severe as the downturn. And whenit happens, we want to make sure our customersand dealers have the right equipment, in the bestcondition, ready to go to work. And we want tomake sure we’re ready to support them.”6 Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint / issue 6When the downturn hit, mining companies aroundthe world responded in different ways in regard totheir haulage fleets. Some took trucks completelyout of production; others reduced their number ofshifts, yet continued to use their entire fleets forfewer hours. In some cases, parked trucks wereused to supply parts for the active fleet.Empire Machinery is one of the many Cat dealerswhose customers were impacted by the tougheconomy. The dealership has been supplyingequipment to mines in Arizona, USA, for morethan 50 years. “Some of our customers used parkedequipment to meet their need for parts,” says LarryKitto, Empire’s director of mining. “Another methodto reduce costs was to leave trucks idle while theyare waiting for a component.” In times of highproduction, dealers use “exchange” componentsso the truck is down only long enough for thecomponent to be installed. Cost reductions are thedriver when commodity prices are low, he explains,so customers have chosen to stand the trucks downand repair components instead of immediatelyreplacing them with another pre-built component.The downturn had an effect on dealerships as well.“When customers stop purchases and cancel orders,it’s very painful for us,” says Kitto. “But in the longrun, if they ignore the situation, we will all be inworse shape. Our approach is long-term. We arepartners with our customers in this business. Ourjob is to help them be successful. And when theysucceed, they buy our products and services. It’s awin-win.”MEETING EQUIPMENT NEEDSFrom offering do-it-yourself maintenances tips topromoting cost-effective rebuilds, Caterpillar alsolooked for ways to help customers deal with theirequipment fleets during the downturn. “Giventhat more machine owners were taking on routinemaintenance of their machines, Caterpillar puttogether some on-demand videos that providepractical, detailed advice on various procedures,”says Tim Siekmann, a Caterpillar product supportmanager. “The videos cover topics like properreplacement of air filters, identifying hose-

abrasion points, battery maintenance or preventingcontamination.” Videos are available at www.cat.com/maintenance-and-support.“A downturn isn’t the time to stop taking care ofmachines,” Siekmann continues. “In fact, it’s a goodtime, while production levels are reduced, to dosome of those routine maintenance items or safetyenhancements that you haven’t wanted to take thetruck out of production for.”The need for work-ready machines is a pressingconcern no matter the economic climate. “Toaddress that concern, Cat dealers provide anexcellent starting point—Technical Analysisinspections that assess the health of a machine andidentify potential problems,” says Siekmann. Theseinspections give machine owners an objective lookat machine condition and allow them to balancemachine capability against impending work.Economically restoring existing machines to reliablecondition is one “other-than-new” option, but thatoption can be complemented with used equipmentand rental equipment. Cat dealers offer a wide rangeof used machines for purchase or rent.IMPROVING PERFORMANCEAnother way to reduce costs is to become moreefficient—getting more performance out of theequipment and people on site. “ContinuousImprovement activities are a service Caterpillarand Cat dealers have provided for a long time, buttheir importance was even more apparent whenthe downturn occurred,” says Curfman. “Over thepast several years, we’ve invested millions of dollarsin these activities at mines around the world, andwe’re continuing to fund this vital work through thedownturn.”Activities cover every aspect of a mine’s operation,from maintenance and repair to applications andcomponent life management. These projects canhave a significant impact on a site’s productivity.Helping employees work more efficiently is anothercost-cutting objective. Caterpillar EquipmentTraining Solutions offers a practical means to helpachieve these goals by equipping machine operatorsto perform their jobs competently and confidently.Today, the method for teaching operating skills canbe tailored to the individual operator’s situation—whether class-room instruction, on-site training,“e-learning” or simulators.PREPARING FOR THE UPTURNThere’s no question that the mining industry hasfaced some difficult times. But when asked to pickone word to describe his company’s outlook on thesituation, Curfman chose “ready.”“We and our dealers are moving forward withconfidence and optimism,” he says. “We’replanning, organizing, preparing and executing.We’re working together with a sense of urgency tohelp make sure our mining customers are ready.Ready to overcome today’s challenges—ready tocapitalize on tomorrow’s opportunities. “Mining companies adjusted their workforces,inventory and support levels for the currenteconomic conditions. As they prepare for anupswing, Siekmann suggests it’s time to beginevaluating the status of their fleets, forecasting theneed for service and components and evaluating theskill sets of their employees.Caterpillar, too, has developed a plan for the upturn.“We’re working with mine sites to confirm we’regoing to be ready with what they need from us,”says Siekmann.“We don’t want long delays from the factory tostand in the way of anyone’s success,” Curfmansays. “So we have fine-tuned our forecastingsystems, evaluated inventories, took waste out ofthe supply chain and identified leading indicatorsthat will serve as trigger points for our productionprocesses and systems.”Curfman says Caterpillar is confident in the miningindustry’s ability to overcome these difficult timesand not only survive, but flourish in the years tocome. “Commodity prices are relatively strong andstill at investment thresholds, and we’re startingto see signs of life again in the mining business,”he says. “The message here is clear: We’ll not onlysurvive this particular downturn, but we will bebetter than before.”As mine managersprepare for increaseddemand, here are somequestions they haveconsidered: W hat is the status of my fleet?Have idled trucks been usedfor parts? How do I make surethey are ready to be put intoproduction again? Should I be planning rebuilds? Do I have my PlannedComponent ReplacementForecast updated? How can I use the CaterpillarFuture Dated Order (FDO) andCommitted Planned RepairOrder (CPRO) to make suremy parts and componentsare available when I havescheduled needed repairs? Am I forecasting and placingorders so I can match themwith my capabilities andcapacities? Have I reviewed my personneland their skill sets? Have I cutemployees in the downturn andlost some of the skill sets I’llneed in the upturn?Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint 7

Availabilityis keyCC&V demandsconsistent productionfrom haulage fleet

Cripple Creek & Victor Gold Mining Company operationsrun around the clock on every day of the year. About 300full-time employees and 50 contractors work 12-hourshifts to produce 163000 tonnes (180,000 short tons)of ore per day. Four crews in each department arerequired to provide coverage throughout the year.The ability of these employees to meet theirproduction targets is largely dependent on theavailability of the mining machines they operate.The site relies heavily on consistent productionfrom its haulage fleet and work can come to astandstill if a machine breaks down. The mineoperates a fleet of Cat 793D trucks, and as itbegan looking to expand its fleet,agreed to be a field followsite for the newCat 793F.A HISTORIC GOLD MINECripple Creek & Victor Gold MiningCompany mine (CC&V) is a joint venturemajority owned and operated by AngloGold Ashanti(Colorado) Corp. The current mining operation,started in 1994, is called the Cresson Project. Thesite south of Denver, Colorado, USA, had beenmined using underground methods since the late1890s and into the 1950s. The area is famous for thegreat gold find of the district, the “Cresson Vug,” acavity in the rock, lined with crystals somewhat likea geode, where gold was essentially picked from thewalls of a room-sized void encountered about 366meters (1,200 feet) below the surface in 1914.Engineering for the modern Cresson mine beganin 1993. Obtaining the various permits necessary tomine was completed in 1994. The first Cresson goldwas poured in 1995, and an expansion constructionbegan in 2000. In late 2003, CC&V reached itsplanned expansion capacity of 18.1 million tonnes(20 million short tons). The mine poured its twomillionth ounce in 2004.Cat Global Mining / Viewpoint 9

As of December 2009, the mine reported a provenore reserve of about 112.5 million tonnes (124million short tons), containing approximately 1.6million ounces (45.5 million grams) of recoverablegold. The annual gold production rate from theCresson Project varies somewhat with about 250,000troy ounces produced in 2008. Currently, the minelife is estimated to last until 2016.This low-grade, open-pit operation produces doréthat is 70 percent gold and 20 percent silver. CC&Vprocesses about 22 million tonnes (24 million shorttons) of ore per year. The ore is treated using avalley-type, heap-leach process with activated carbonused to recover the gold. The resulting doré buttonsare shipped to a refinery for final processing.EVALUATING HAUL TRUCKSBuying a mining truck is serious business. Not onlyis there the substantial outlay of money to consider,

Viewpoint is a publication of cat Global Mining, producer of one of the mining industry’s broadest lines of equipment and technology. Caterpillar serves the worldwide mining community through its vast dealer network and a single division called Caterpillar global mining, headqua