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SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK.The Different Methods of Defending Oneself with a Walking-stick or Umbrella whenAttacked under Unequal Conditions.Bv E. W. Barton-Wright.Introduction.It must be understood that the new art ofself-defence with a walking-stick, here intro-duced for the first time, differs essentially fromsingle-stick or sword-play; for a man may be achampion in the use of sword or single-stick,and yet be quite unable to put a walking-stickto any effective use as a weapon of defence.The simple and sufficient reason to account forthis is that both in single-stick and sword-playa cut is always taken up by the hilt of theweapon, whereas if you attempted to guard ablow with a walking-stick—which has no hilt—in the same way as you would with a sword, theblow would slide down your stick on to yourhand and disable you. Therefore, in order tomake a stick a real means of self-defence, ithas been necessary to devise a system bywhich one can guard a blow in such a way as tocause it to slide away from the hand insteadof towards it, and thus obviate the risk of beingdisarmed by being hit upon the fingers.After some fifteen years of hard work,such a system has been devised by a Swissprofessor of arms, M. Vigny.It has recently been assimilated by me intoGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:28 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlemy system of self-defence called " Bartitsu,"now taught at my School of Arms andPhysical Culture at 67B, Shaftesbury Avenue,London.In the art of self-defence with a walking-stick, the stick is held in the hand with thethumb overlapping the fingers, and not, as insingle-stick or sword-play, with the thumbresting on the blade. The stick is thereforemanipulated with the wrist—and not with thefingers as in sword-play—and the blows aregiven by swinging the body on the hips,—andnot merely by flips from the elbow. In thisway blows can be made so formidable thatwith an ordinary malacca cane it is possible tosever a man's jugular vein through thecollar of his overcoat.No. I.—The Guard by Distance—How to Avoid any Risk of beingHit on the Fingers, Arm, or Body by Retiring out of theHitting Range of your Adversary, but at the same time KeepingHim within the Hitting Range of your Own Stick.The mode of defence I am about todescribe I have called " The Guard byDistance," to distinguish it from " Guards byResistance." It will be noticed that in thismethod of defence the man attacked doesnot attempt to guard a blow by raising hishands to stop it, but simply by changingfront from left to right foot—in other words,by swinging round from his original position,in which his left foot is advanced in front ofhis right, to a position in which his right footis in front of his left. By so doing, he avoids

12PEARSON'S MAGAZINE.No. 1.being hit himself, with thecertainty of being able tohit his adversary.When guarding by dis-tance, you take up theposition of rear - guard—that is to say, you standwith left foot forward,slightly bent knees, rightarm held above the head,and left arm thrown wellout in front of you.I ought to state herethat this is not a very easyattitude to assume, and that a cer-tain amount of training in physicalculture is necessary before it canbe adopted with ease; but whenyou have acquired the requisitesuppleness of body it is a very safeand reliable position to take up.You must be careful to maintainthe same distance between yourselfand your adversary, which youoriginally take up, by retiring (rightfoot first) as he advances, and advanc-ing (left foot first) as he retires. Then playGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:27 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlea waiting game, and entice your opponent tostrike at your arm or head by exposing oneof the two, so that you are prepared to retireinstantly upon the first sign of danger.Your opponent, encouraged by the appar-ently exposed position of your left arm,naturally strikes at it, but you, anticipating theattack, withdraw it very quickly, and swing itupwards behind you. This upward sweep ofthe arm automatically causes you to swingyour left foot well behind your right, and todraw in the lower part of your body out of youropponent's reach ; at the same time it im-parts the initial momentum to your right arm,and assists in bringing your stick down veryquickly and heavily upon your adversary'shead before he has time to recover his balanceafter over-reaching himself in trying to hit you.No. 2.—Another Way to Avoidbeing Hit by Retiring out ofRange of your Adversary's Stick.It is always most desirable to try to enticevour adversary to deliver a certain blow, andJNo. 2.

SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK,so place yourself at a great advantage bybeing prepared to guard it, and to deliveryour counter - blow. To induce youropponent to aim a blow at your head youtake up the same position of rear-guard asdescribed in the last trick, but instead ofexposing your arm so much, you push yourhead more forward, leaving it apparentlyquite unguarded. Your assailant foolishlyaccepts the invitation, and you promptly drawyourself out of danger by swinging your leftfoot behind your right. This movement givesan automatic counter-movement to the rightside of your trunk, and helps you to swing ina very heavy right-handed blow across hiswrist, which might thus easily be broken.No. 3.- Double-handed Stick-play—Showing the Best Way to Handlewith Two Hands a Stick which is too Heavy to Manipulate Quicklywith One Hand, when Attacked by a Man Armed with a Light Stick.In mastering the art of self-defence with astick it is important to learn how you maybest wield your weapon with two hands,otherwise you might be at a serious disad-vantage when carrying a heavy stickwhich you could not use freely withone hand, if attacked by a man carry-ing a lighter cane with which hecould make quick, one-handed play.Your assailant's movements in thisGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:24 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlecase would be so much quicker thanyours that you would be at a veryserious disadvantage with vour heavierweapon.The preparatory position for de-livering a double-handed blow atyour adversary's head is a positionof guard, in which you hold the stickwith both hands horizontally aboveyour head, with thumbs away fromyour face, and hands at the ends ofthe stick. The beauty of this positionlies in the fact that your opponentdoes not know which end of the stickyou intend to use to hit him with.We will suppose that you are hold-ing the stick with the heaviest endin your right hand, and that youpropose to hit him with this end.The blow is delivered thus—youslide your right hand quietly off theright-hand end of the stick, andbring it back again, holding the stick with thethumb on the side nearest your face. Then,using your left hand as a pivot, you slideyour right hand up to your left with a circularmotion, thus delivering a strong side blow atyour adversary's face.Should you wish to strike your opponentwith the opposite end of the stick—the lighterend—you would slip your left hand off theleft end of the stick, bring it back with thethumb on the side nearest your face, and thenslide your left hand towards your right, toimpart a circular motion to the stick as before.A person requires to be very supple in theshoulders to work a stick gracefully and wellwith two hands.

PEARSON'S MA GAZINE.No. 4.—How to Defend Yourself,without Running any Risk ofbeing Hurt, if you are Carryingonly a Small Switch in yourHand, and are Threatened by aMan with a very Strong Stick.Imagine that you are walking in a lonelypart of the country, carrying a light switch oran umbrella, when suddenly a foot-pad barsyour way, carrying a stout stick, with whichhe threatens you.It is obvious that under these conditions ifyou gave your assailant time to assume theoffensive, he would have no difficulty inbreakingdown any slight guard you might offer,and in felling you to the ground. Knowingthis disadvantage, and without giving him timeto realise it, you must at once attack.You should aim a vicious blow at yourassailant's head, holding your hand very highin order to force him to guard high.Simultaneously, you should jump forwardfrom the attacking position, shown in thesecond photograph, to the position shown inthe third photograph, and strike him withthe open hand high up on the chest, pullinghis foot away from beneath him at thesame time—in order to disturb his balance,and destroy his power to hit you. YouGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:27 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlecould now strike your adversary such a blowwith your fist on the face as to renderhim unconscious, or, of course, you couldbelabour him with your stick if it weresuitable for the purpose.

SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK.No. 5.—Another Way to Defend Yourself when your Adversary isArmed with a Stout Stick, and you are Carrying only anUmbrella or an UnreliableCane,In case the student of the art of self-defence with a walking-stick finds difficultyin mastering the preceding method of de-fence, here is an alternative, equallyeffective, and, perhaps, somewhat safer forbeginners to practise.As before, appreciating the unreliabilityof your weapon, you assume the offensiveat once before your opponent has time todiscover your disadvantage. You beginoperations precisely as described in the lasttrick, by striking high at your assailant'shead, and forcing him to guard high.Simultaneously you spring into the positionshown in the third photograph, seizing youropponent just below the elbow, therebycompletely disturbing his balance, andso preventing him from hitting you.You can now deliver a heavy right-handed blow with your fist upon his chin,or over the heart, which will render himunconscious.A nine-stone man who is active, andwho timed this movement nicely, couldcompletely upset the balance of a manGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:29 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-google'twice his weight and bring him to theground in a second.In case you are carrying a stick whichmight be strong enough to deliver a heavyblow, another method of attack is asfollows : After you have disturbed yourassailant's balance by seizing him by theelbow, you retire quickly, by withdrawingyour left foot well behind your right, andthen, holding your head and body well onone side out of possible danger, youdeliver a heavy blow with your stickacross your assailant's kneecap.When practising this trick it is well toremember that a sharp blow on the knee-cap is very dangerous, and would utterlyincapacitate a man if well delivered. It isadvisable, therefore, not to hit too hardwhen showing the trick to a friend.

16PEAKSON'S MA GAZINE.No. 6.—A very Safe Way to Disable a Boxer who Attempts toRush You when You are Armed with a Stick.Imagine the case of a man armed with aserviceable stick being attacked by a skilledboxer. One of the safest and most reliablemethods of defence against a boxer's fists isas follows:—The man with the stick faces the boxer inthe back-guard position—that is to say, withhis left foot and arm extended, and his rightarm guarding his head. His left arm is thusfree to guard his face or body, if, by anychance, he should fail to evade the blow.As soon as the boxer opens his attack witha direct blow upon the man with the stick,the latter jumps with one movement to theformer's left, bending well forward in acrouched position, so as to avoid any possi-bility of being hit. Then, turning halfround on his left toe, and drawing his rightfoot in a line with his left, he makes a low,back-handed sweep with his stick, and strikesthe boxer across the knee, disabling him,and bringing him to the ground.But for the sake of argument, we willsuppose that in the excitement of the engage-ment the blow missed the boxer's knee, andstruck him on his shin, in which case he mightGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:27 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlestill be able to show fight. Quickly recoveringhis balance, the boxer turns on his left toe bystepping to the right with his right foot, faceshis opponent, and puts in another blow.But here, again, the man with the stickanticipates the move, and bayonettes theboxer in the heart before the blow can fall.As his stick gives him a longer reach thanthe boxer's, he runs no danger, and thestrong, upward thrust with the stick shouldcompletely incapacitate his adversary.I 'should like the reader to thoroughlyunderstand that in every form of self-defencethe first and most essential thing is to have awell-trained eye. This trick is entirelydependent upon the quickness of the eye injudging the right moment to jump on oneside, so that the boxer does not becomeaware of the fact until he has struck at youand overreached himself, when it is too latefor him to make good his disadvantage.

SELF-J)EFEXCE Willi A WM.KIXG-STICK.17No. 7.—A Safe Way forOne Man to Disable An-other when both areEqually well Armed withSticks.Supposing that you are attackedby a man armed, like yourself, witha stout stick, here is a very prettyway to disable him.Standing in the position of frontguard, right foot forward, knees I em.right arm extended, you invite anattack at your head by holding yourguard rather low. Your opponentaccepts the invitation, and leads offat your head. You parry—an easymatter, as you are prepared for thisblow—and simultaneously, jumpingwell to your opponent's right, youcrouch down and make a low, sweep-ing cut at his knees, which will bringhim to the ground.If, however, by any chance thisresult is not achieved, because yourblow has fallen upon your oppo-nent's shin instead of upon his knee,you will still have the best of thesituation. Finding that you haveGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:25 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlegot under his guard, your adversarywill draw back his right foot andprepare to give you a back-handedcut across the face. You, however,foil this attempt by keeping too closeto him to admit of this, and bayonettehim with the point of your stick.I specially recommend this andthe foregoing trick to the attentionof the reader, whether lady orgentleman,both being very easv andmost effective. The most difficultpart of the trick is to learn how tomake your opponent lead off in theway you wish. But this becomesvery simple with a little practice.Vol XI.-2.Jssiy K

PEARSON'S MAGA7JNE.No. 8.—One of the Safest Plans of Defence for a Tall Man to Adopt,who has not much Confidence in his own Quickness andKnowledge of Stick-play, when Opposed to a Shorter and moreCompetent Opponent.r— - , A tall, slow-moving man,attacked by a quick, shortopponent, is at an immensedisadvantage, as the short mandelivers his attacks at lightningspeed in unexpected quarters,and so reduces any possibleadvantage the other may holdin size and reach. Under thecircumstances it would be advis-able for the tall man to try toinduce his opponent to delivera blow for which he will befully prepared.This he will best do by takingup the rear-guard position, stand-ing with his left foot forward,left arm extended, and rightarm above the head, as pre-viously described. He thenthrows his left arm forward asa bait. In ninety-nine cases outof a hundred the bait will proveirresistible. No sooner, how-ever, does the short man beginGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:26 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googleto move his stick, with theintention of bringing it acrossthe tall man's arm, than thelatter must jump within theformer's guard, in order tobreak the force of his blow asit falls, then, seizing the other'sftick, the tall man can belabourhis opponent's head.Of course, it is understood thatif the tall man has only got aweak stick or umbrella in hishand, which would only be ofuse in making the necessary feintto get an opening, directly heobtained the advantage shown inphoto No. 2, he would use hisi fist to strike his opponent in theface or over the heart in order todisable him.

SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK.'9No. 9.—How to Defend Yourself with a Stick against the mostDangerous Kick of an Expert Kicker.The student of the art of self-defence witha walking-stick might think it hardly worthwhile to study any particular method ofdefending himself which mighty insure himagainst an attack by a savater, or foot-boxer.You might suppose that there would be no greatdifficulty in guarding a high kick, providedyou carried a stout stick in your hand.Those who have seen savaters at work, however, and realise the extraordinaryswiftness of the kicks which they planton their opponents' bodies, will under-stand that scientific kicking can onlybe guarded with certainty by a scientificmethod of defence.Taking up a position of rear-guard,with left arm extended to ward off apossible kick at the small of the back,hip. or left side, you describe circularcuts in a left to right downward direc-tion with your stick. Your opponent,standing well out of reach, prepares todo what in French boxing, or la savale,is called a " chassd "—that is, from hisoriginal position, with left foot and leftarm extended, he places his right footGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:26 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlebehind his left so as to enable him toapproach within kicking distance if theopportunity presents itself, and, at thesame time, to keep his body and headwell out of danger. Then, seeing anopening, he places his right heel firmlyon the ground and aims a kick with hisfoot at your heart.Anticipating the danger, you transferthe whole weight of your body fromyour left to your right leg, which enablesyou at the critical moment to withdrawyour foot very quickly—to avoid a kickon the shin in case of a diversion inthe attack — and at the same timeassists you to draw your body out ofdanger. You then bring your stick soheavily down on your adversary's ankleas to break it.If you wish to defend yourself againstkicks lower down on the body, youemploy exactly the same means ofdefence, but as it is not necessary tohold the arm so high in describing thecircular cuts, it is very much easier todefend yourself. The object of describingcircular cuts, by the way, as opposed to adirect cut, is that you are very apt, in thelatter case, to miss the kicker's leg, whereasin the former case you cannot fail, not onlyto deliver your blow, but also to ward off anddivert the kick.

20PEARSOXS MA GAZ1XE.No. l0. One of the Best Ways of Knocking Down a Man in a GeneralScrimmage, when there is not Room to Swing a Stick Freely.When a man finds it neces- jr - sary to defend himself in a. street fight, or the like, hemay not have room to swinga stick freely. One of the bestmethods of using a stick as aweapon under these circum-stances is to pass it between thelegs of the assailant, and. bjpressing it sharply against ths.inside of one of his thighs, tocause him to lose his balance.In order to carry out thetrick effectively on a singleassailant, when there is nocrowd, you should stand in thefront guard position, and makea cut at the side of youropponent's face. While heraises his hand to guard hisface, you seize his upliftedhand with your left hand,crouch down and pass yourstick through his legs, exertingsufficient leverage to throwhim on his back.Generated on 2014-07-15 23:26 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googleAnother method is to takeup the back position guard,standing with your left footforward and your right armabove your head, which youmust purposely expose in orderto induce your opponent tostrike at it. At the momentwhen he attempts to hit you onthe head, you must slip underhis guard, and seize his rightwrist. Now pass your stickthrough his legs, and throwhim upon his back.To employ the same trick ina crowd it is only necessary tostoop, cover your face wellwith your arm and hand, andto keep diving with your stickbetween people's legs, upset-ting them right and left.[In our next istue rre hope to give a further selection »f these methodi of defence.—V.n. P.M 1

S LF-D FENC WITH A WALKING-STICK,Bv E. W. Barton-Wright.SECOND ARTICLE.*('.-No. I.—The Safest Wayto Meet an Attackwith a Spiked Staffor Long Stick whenyou are only Armedwith an OrdinaryWalking Stick.The first photograph showsthe most dangerous mode ofattack with a long stick, andalso the best position to adoptin order to meet such anattack with safety.It will be seen that the figureon the right is exposing hisbody in order to insure hisadversary attacking him there,and to be prepared with animmediate defence.Directly the man with thealpenstock attempts tobayonette him. he diverts theblow by turning sideways, andmaking a circular downwardcut, which hits the alpenstockand causes it to glide slightlyGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:38 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googleupwards and sideways — aguard known in sword playas " Septime envelope." Themoment the biow has beendiverted, the man with the stickmust seize the alpenstock withhis left hand, and, steppingin, strike his assailant a blowacross the face.r**-cJ.The first article appeared in the January Number.

SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK.131No. 2—The Best Way to Disablea Man who Tries to Rush You,and get under your Guard, inorder to Prevent You Hittinghim with a Hooked Stick.The first photograph shows the best positionto adopt in order to meet a sudden springand prevent an assailant from seizing yourstick.As a feint, you make a slightly threateningmotion with your left hand, as though youintended to seize the left hand of yourassailant, in order to belabour him with yourstick. The object of this feint is only toengage your adversary's attention, and makehim look at your left hand whilst you sud-denly dart your right arm forward, and hookhim by the neck in the crook of your stick.Directly you have hooked him. bend yourknees well so as to throw the whole weightof your body upon him, whilst you pull himwith his face towards the ground.When you have pulled him down suffi-ciently far to prevent him recovering hisbalance quickly, let go your stick, and seizehim by the shoulders, as shown in photoNo. 4, being careful to keep your feet wellout of reach of his hands, so as not to giveGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:39 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlehim the opportunity of throwing you overbackwards. Then, with a sudden jerk, pullhim forwards, and simultaneously jumpingclose into him, strike him with your knee inthe face.It is necessary to be very careful whenpractising this trick, as the slightest blow withthe knee in a person's face is sufficient tobreak a nose and several teeth.Of course the reader will understand thatin any method of self-defence it is necessaryto know how to maintain the proper distancebetween yourself and your assailant, in orderto deliver a coup-de-grdce with effect and cer-tainty. This knowledge, together with theconfidence, dash, and savoir-faire that are soessential, can only be acquired by practice ;but, when once gained, it is never lost.

I32PEAR SON'S MA GAZINE.No. 3. — An Effective Way toDefend Oneself with a HookedStick when Attacked by a ManArmed with an Ordinary StraightStick.A stick with a. curved handle, forming aroomy crook, although hardly so effective asa stick with a heavy knob on top for strikingpurposes, is a most serviceable weapon in thehands of an expert in the art of stick-play.Having guarded a blow with a hookedstick, it is a comparatively simple matter tohook an assailant in such a wav that he iseasily pulled off his balance. With a littlepractice it becomes easy to make sure ofhooking a man firmly by the neck or leg.Suppose, for instance, that a man carryinga crooked stick is suddenly attacked by anassailant armed with an ordinary straightstick. Here is a very pretty way to overthrowthe assailant:In the first place, the man with the hookedstick should hold his hand and stick high up,and well on one side, so as not to run anyrisk of being hit on the fingers.By doing this he purposely exposes hishead to attack. Knowing, therefore, that hisopponent is sure to strike at his head, he isGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:39 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googleprepared for a quick guard. The attackerdelivers his blow and it is received uponthe stick ; but before he has time torecover himself, and get into a position ofdefence, the other suddenly ducks and hookshim by the foot, on the outer side of theankle, bringing him to the ground by pullinghis legs apart.The assailant is then at the mercy of theman he has attacked, who can choose anypart of his body on which to administerpunishment.

SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK.'33No. 4.—A very Simple Wayto Protect Yourself witha Hooked Walking Stickagainst a Boxer,When carrying a hooked stick, hereis a very simple way to protect your-self against the attack of an unarmedassailant.Hold your stick behind you, as seenin the first photograph, so as to run norisk of the stick-arm being seized.Bend your left arm with the inside ofthe left hand facing outwards in orderto protect yourself from a kick at thehip, or a blow from the fist at yourface or ribs.In the photographs it wdl be seenthat the boxer has chosen the.attack athis opponent's face. To meet such anattack safely, you must put your headwell on one side, and bend both yourknees very considerably at the momentwhen the boxer leads off, so as to getwell under his guard. Directly youreceive the blow upon your arm. youmust straighten your knees, and sothrow up the boxer's arm. and makehim lose his balance, which preventsGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:39 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googlehim from using his right fist uponyour ribs.You have now the opportunity, andplenty of time, to hook him by theankle with your stick, as seen in thesecond photograph. Having so hookedhis foot, pull his legs apart, and bringhim to the ground, when you can applythe stick where and how you please.

PEA RSON' S MA GA ZINE.No 5.—How to Use a Wai king-Stick as a Weapon in a Crowd.Il will ho understood that it is quiteimpossible to swing a stick in a crowd,owing to want of elbow room ; and so. inorder to get elbow room and free scope tobit. you proceed as follows:—Hold yourstick more or less in a line with your hips.and proceed, as in the second photograph,to lunge to your left, holding the end ofthe stick in your right hand, and letting itslide through your left, in order to be ableto guide it with certainty.Lunging at the body of the nearest manon your left, vou disable him, and causehim to retreat precipitously. In doing so,he involuntarily forces back those in hisimmediate neighbourhood. You then turnon your heels. and bayonette the nearestman on your right, this time holding theend of your stick in your left hand, andguiding it through your right. Directly youhave bayonetted him, and caused him toforce back others in his attempt to escape,you make a quarter turn on vour heels,and bayonette the man behind you.Afier this, seeing another man close tohim with his legs slightly apart, you makea dive with your stick between his legs,and upset him. Take one step backwards,Generated on 2014-07-15 23:44 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized / use#pd-us-googleand you should now have sufficient roomto swing your stick to right and left acrosspeople's faces and heads until they dis-perse.

SELF-DEFENCE WITH A WALKING-STICK.!35No. 6.—How to Overcome theAdvantage of an Assailantwho Attacks You with aStout Stick when You areCarrying only a Light Cane.\Yhen threatened with an attack froman assailant who is armed with asuperior stick to your own, it is wiseto attack him before he realises thathe has you at a disadvantage.To do so to the best effect you shouldlead off with a right-handed blow atyour assailant's head, thereby forcinghim to guard high. At the samemoment you should jump in one move-ment from the position shown by thefigure to the left of photo No. 2 to theposition shown by the same figure inphoto No. 3—a very simple and easymovement. In making this spring youmust be careful to keep your head downand on one side.As soon as you are in the positionshown in photo No. 3, without makingany attempt to lift your adversary inorder to throw him, simply strike yourknee smartly against the back of hisknee : this will have the effect ofGenerated on 2014-07-15 23:45 GMT / c Domain in the United States, Google-digitized /

single-stick or sword-play; for a man may be a champion in the use of sword or single-stick, and yet be quite unable to put a walking-stick to any effective use as a weapon of defence. The simple and sufficient reason to account for this is that both in single-stick and sword-play