Everything You Learned About The Cause Of Polio Is Wrong .

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Everything You Learned About The Cause of Polio Is ou-learned-about-cause-poliowrongPosted on:Friday, August 21st 2015 at 8:45 pmWritten By:Jim WestThis article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2015Visit our Re-post guidelinesOriginally titled, "A Critique Of Scientific Literature: Pesticides and Polio," this article byJim West was first published in The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, June2000, then republished as a 2nd edition in 2002 by The Weston A. Price Foundation,with additional material and the editorship of Sally Fallon. The article summarizes hisbook, "DDT/Polio", which he had attempted to publish in 1998. This is a 3rd edition,August 14, 2015.

WarningIt has been alleged that DDT causes or contributes to a wide varietyof diseases of humans and animals not previously recognized asassociated with any chemical. Such diseases included. poliomyelitis,.such irresponsible claims could produce great harm and, if takenseriously, even interfere with scientific search for truecauses.[1] (Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J.Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, 1991)Hayes and Laws were informing their readers about the heretic, Dr. Morton S. Biskind.In 1953, when Biskind's writings were published, the United States had just enduredits greatest polio epidemic. The entire public was steeped in dramatic images — apredatory poliovirus, nearly a million dead and paralyzed children, iron lungs, strugglingdoctors and dedicated nurses. The late president Franklin D. Roosevelt had beenmemorialized as a polio victim who was infected with the deadly poliovirus near thebeautiful and remote island of Campobello. The media was saturated with positiveimages of scientific progress and the marvels of DDT to kill disease-carryingmosquitoes. Jonas Salk was in the wings, preparing to be moved center stage.Through this intellectually paralyzing atmosphere, Dr. Biskind had the composure toargue what he thought was the most obvious explanation for the polioepidemic: Central nervous system diseases such as polio are actually thephysiological and symptomatic manifestations of the ongoing government and industrysponsored inundation of the world's populace with central nervous system poisons.Today, few remember this poignant writer who struggled with the issues of pesticides,issues that Rachel Carson would be allowed to politely bring to public awareness nineyears later, as the lead story in The New Yorker magazine and then as a national bestseller, by limiting her focus to the environment and wildlife. Biskind had the audacity towrite about human damage.I found "M.S. Biskind" in the endnotes to Hayes' and Laws' diatribe. What could possiblyhave motivated Hayes' and Laws' biased genuflection towards germ theory? Suchofferings, commonly written into the final paragraphs of scientific articles, are usuallydone with an appearance of impartiality. With great anticipation, I went to a medicallibrary and found Biskind's 10-page 1953 article in the American Journal of DigestiveDiseases.[2] Presented below are excerpts regarding polio from his article.In 1945, against the advice of investigators who had studied thepharmacology of the compound and found it dangerous for all formsof life, DDT (chlorophenoethane, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane)was released in the United States and other countries for general useby the public as an insecticide.[.]Since the last war there have been a number of curious changes inthe incidence of certain ailments and the development of newsyndromes never before observed. A most significant feature of this

situation is that both man and all his domestic animals havesimultaneously been affected.In man, the incidence of poliomyelitis has risen sharply;[.]It was even known by 1945 that DDT is stored in the body fat ofmammals and appears in the milk. With this foreknowledge the seriesof catastrophic events that followed the most intensive campaign ofmass poisoning in known human history, should not have surprisedthe experts. Yet, far from admitting a causal relationship so obviousthat in any other field of biology it would be instantly accepted,virtually the entire apparatus of communication, lay and scientificalike, has been devoted to denying, concealing, suppressing,distorting and attempts to convert into its opposite, theoverwhelming evidence. Libel, slander and economic boycott havenot been overlooked in this campaign.[.]Early in 1949, as a result of studies during the previous year, theauthor published reports implicating DDT preparations in thesyndrome widely attributed to a "virus-X" in man, in "X-disease" incattle and in often fatal syndromes in dogs and cats. The relationshipwas promptly denied by government officials, who provided noevidence to contest the author's observations but relied solely on theprestige of government authority and sheer numbers of experts tobolster their position.[.]["X-disease"] .studied by the author following known exposure toDDT and related compounds and over and over again in the samepatients, each time following known exposure. We have described thesyndrome as follows:.In acute exacerbations, mild clonic convulsions involving mainly thelegs, have been observed. Several young children exposed to DDTdeveloped a limp lasting from 2 or 3 days to a week or more.[.]Simultaneously with the occurrence of this disorder [X-disease] anumber of related changes occurred in the incidence of knowndiseases. The most striking of these is poliomyelitis. In the UnitedStates the incidence of polio had been increasing prior to 1945 at afairly constant rate, but its epidemiologic characteristics remainedunchanged. Beginning in 1946 the rate of increase more thandoubled. Since then remarkable changes in the character of the

disease have been noted. Contrary to all past experience, the diseasehas remained epidemic year after year.DDT vs Polio (1945-1953)In the graph below, I provide confirmation of Biskind's observations for 1945-1953, interms of polio incidence andpesticide production. I have utilized pesticide data fromHayes and Laws which they had derived from US Tariff Commission data. Polioincidence data was gathered from US Vital Statistics.[3],[4] Although I argue hereinagainst Hayes' characterization of Biskind's work, credit goes to Hayes for publishingarcane pesticide data. All graphs refer to paralytic polio.Physiological Evidence

Biskind also describes physiological evidence of DDT poisoning that resembles poliophysiology:Particularly relevant to recent aspects of this problem are neglectedstudies by Lillie and his collaborators of the National Institutes ofHealth, published in 1944 and 1947 respectively, which showed thatDDT may produce degeneration of the anterior horn cells of thespinal cord in animals. These changes do not occur regularly inexposed animals any more than they do in human beings, but theydo appear often enough to be significant.He continues, bearing his exasperation in trying to make the obvious plain.When the population is exposed to a chemical agent known toproduce in animals lesions in the spinal cord resembling those inhuman polio, and thereafter the latter disease increases sharply inincidence and maintains its epidemic character year after year, is itunreasonable to suspect an etiologic relationship?Before finding Biskind's work, I had spent months engaged in a nearly futile search forthe physiology of acute DDT poisoning. I began to sense that American DDT literatureas a whole intends to convey that DDT is not dangerous except with regard to itsgeneral environmental effects due to persistent bioaccumulation, and that thephysiology of acute DDT poisoning is therefore trivial. DDT literature uniformly jumpsfrom descriptions of symptoms, over physiology, to the biochemistry of DDT-causeddysfunction in nerve tissue.It was as though detectives had come upon a mass-murder scene and immediatelybecame obsessed with the biochemistry of dying cells around bullet holes, whileignoring the bullet holes.Eventually, I did find a German study of the physiology of acute DDT poisoning, byDaniel Dresden.[5] (Physiological Investigations Into The Action Of DDT, G.W. Van DerWiel & Co., 1949) This study confirms that DDT poisoning often causes polio-likephysiology:Conspicuous histological degeneration was, however, often found inthe central nervous system. The most striking ones were found in thecerebellum, mainly in the nucleus dentatus and the cortex cells.Among other things an increase of the neuroglia and a necroticdegeneration and resorption of ganglionic cells was found. ThePurkinje cells were less seriously affected than the other neurons.Also in the spinal cord abnormalities of a degenerative nature werefound.such changes were not found invariably. there is neither anobvious relation between the size and spreading of the lesion and thequantity of DDT applied. information of adequate precision aboutthe nature of the anomalies is lacking.

So we find that especially the cerebellum and the spinal cord arehistologically affected by DDT.And more recently, in the works of Ralph Scobey, MD, I found that from ancient timesto the early 20th century, the symptoms and physiology of paralytic poliomyelitis wereoften described as the results of poisoning. It wasn't until the mid-19th century that theword "poliomyelitis" became the designation for the paralytic effects of both severepoisoning and polio-like diseases assumed to be germ-caused.[6]In contemporary Britain, a farmer-turned-scientist, Mark Purdey, has found substantialevidence that Mad Cow Disease, a form of polio-like encephalitis, was caused by agovernment-mandated cattle treatment consisting of organophosphate pesticide and acompound similar to thalidomide.[7] Unlike most scientists, Mark Purdey became legallyembroiled with the government during his research.[8]Morton S. Biskind had the courage to write about humans. His views fell into disfavorafter the introduction of thepolio vaccines, which was a grand act that proved in mostpeople's minds that polio was caused by a virus. By October, 1955, Biskind, whoseworks had been published in established medical journals and who testified before theSenate on the dangers of pesticides, was forced to self-publish his writings, one ofwhich I found while browsing through an old card catalog. A scan ofMedline/Pubmed[9] found no other works by him except for a very tame article in1972, warning that diseases incurred during a patient's stay in a hospital are notnecessarily due to microbes. He died not long thereafter, in his late 60s. I don't havethe precise date of death, though his birth was in 1906.A Contemporary StudyBelow are three graphs that confirm Biskind, utilizing data that spans far beyond hisobservations. Due to the paucity of data regarding pesticide exposure and locale, thesefindings of production data are presented as an indication of exposure, keeping in mindthe great changes in public awareness and legislation beginning circa 1950, which alsoserved to reduce DDT exposure. Pesticide production data comes from Hayes andLaws.DDT vs Polio (1940-1970)In this graph I did not include DDT data for the period of 1954 onward because DDTdistribution was then being shifted out of the U.S. and into developing nations, while itsU.S. production skyrocketed.Governmental hearings, including those with Biskind, Scobey and others, brought aboutgreater awareness of DDT dangers, as well as better labeling and handlingmethods.[10] Due to public governmental debate in 1949-51 and numerous policy andlegislative changes afterward, DDT production figures after these dates do not correlatewith US usage or exposure to DDT.[11],[12],[13]

DDT Before 1950Before 1950, DDT was hailed as a miracle of progress that was virtually non-toxic tohumans, in spite of FDA's warnings and attempts to keep it off the market. This photoon the left is one of several similar photos from Zimmerman, et al, DDT: Killer ofKillers (1946). The advertisement on the right is from an unknown source, though itappears to be circa 1954.

Other photos in Zimmerman advocate 5% DDT solution sprayed directly on dairy cows(body, feed, and water):

This promotion of highly questionable products is reflected in present-day geneticallyengineered food campaigns.DDT after 1950Governmental hearings, including Biskind and Scobey, and others, eventually broughtabout greater awareness of the dangers, better labeling and handling methods.DDT after 1954This period is given special consideration for DDT.After 1954, DDT production increased tremendously, but mainly as an export product.Due to public governmental debate in 1950-51 and numerous policy and legislativechanges afterward, its production figures thereon do not at all correlate with U.S. usageor exposure to DDT.As many studies demonstrate, DDT exposure after 1954 declined sharply, and thisdecline is represented in the following graph, along with supporting data. DDTproduction is not shown, post-1954.Historical context: DDT was incriminated from 1950 until its registration cancelation in1968 and ban in 1972. Thus, 1950-1951 represents a point of increased public

awareness, changes in legislation and policy, voluntary phase-out, and labelingrequirements. It is significant for this comparison of DDT against infantile paralysis,that before the period of increased awareness, DDT was mandated on dairies, yetafterward, ruled out of dairies. Much of the domestic usage was shifted to forestryapplications, placing less DDT directly into the food chain.The visual impact of all the persistent pesticide graphs rests upon the assumption thatproduction correlated withhuman exposure. Given the lack of regulation and theextreme media hype surrounding DDT before 1953, this is not an unrealisticassumption.It is clear that post-1954 DDT production did not correlate with human exposure. Yet, itis possible to estimate relative values for exposure post-1954. This can beaccomplished by reviewing DDT levels in adipose tissue (National Adipose TissueSurvey, and other studies),[14] considering DDT in imported food, and considering thedaily amounts of ingested DDT.The early trend of National Adipose Tissue Survey's can be interpolated back to 1944,six years from 1950, the first Survey year, because it is safe to assume that DDT tissuelevels were zero in 1944, since DDT was introduced for domestic usage in 1945. Theestimate of DDT exposure is a reasonable because DDT has a half-life of about oneyear. To achieve any downward trend in the DDT/adipose line, DDT exposure had tohave decreased sharply.Note that no scale is provided for "relative DDT exposure". The Survey values arepresented without distortion, linearly, with the starting point at 1954, and values forare estimates based on the Survey and DDT ingestion data.Error is limited by two boundaries, for the estimated values of DDT exposure.1) Exposure's downward slope must be much greater than the Survey line's downwardslope, because of DDT's half-life. 2) Exposure values must continue at least through1968.

Hayes and Laws also used a secondary evaluation, DDT intake per day, to explain thatfrom 1954 to 1964-67, DDT ingestion decreased by an approximate factor of five.Significantly, the Salk vaccine program began in 1954.The observed decrease in the concentration of DDT in food (Walker etal., 1954; Durham et al., 1965a; Duggan, 1968) offers an adequatereason for the decrease in storage in people. The average intake ofp,p'-DDT and of total DDT-derived material was 0.178 and 0.280mg/human/day, respectively, in 1954, but only 0.028 and 0.063mg/human/day, respectively, during the period 1964-1967. (Hayesand Laws, page 303)BHC vs Polio (1940-1970)BHC (benzene hexachloride), a persistent, organochlorine pesticide, is severaltimes more lethal than DDT, in terms of LD50, i.e., the lethal dosage required to kill 50percent of a test population."Unlike the situation with DDT, in which there have been fewrecorded fatalities, there have been a number of fatalities followingpoisoning by the cyclodiene and hexachlorocyclohexane-typeinsecticides. The chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides are among the

most toxic and environmentally persistent pesticides known." (Hayes& Laws)As shown in the graph below, BHC was produced in 1945-1954 at quantities similar toDDT. In spite of BHC's lethal quality, it has received much less publicity than DDT.While DDT was banned for such things as an association with the thinning of eagles'eggs, BHC was phased out of production because it was found, after 15 years, to imparta bad taste to food. It is still used in developing nations. It is tempting to ask whetherthe highly public DDT was "fronting" for the more dangerous BHC. BHC's correlationwith polio incidence is astonishing.Lead-Arsenic vs. Polio (1940-1970)After viewing the DDT and BHC graphs above, note that the period of 1940-46 isunaccounted for in terms of polio-pesticide correlation. The missing piece of the puzzlefor this six-year period is supplied by the lead and arseniccompounds. These types ofcentral nervous system ("CNS") poisons have been the central component of pesticidessince their widespread use beginning approximately 1868 until the advent of theorganochlorine pesticides in the early 1940s. For those who have thought that"organic" food was the norm before the release of DDT to the civilian sector in 1945,the immense production of lead-arsenic compounds presented in this graph isdisappointing. This data requires a reconsideration of any perception regarding

"natural" quantities of arsenic found in apple seeds, apricots, or almonds, wherepesticides can accumulate systemically from contaminated earth.Pesticide Composite: SummaryJust over three billion pounds of persistent pesticides are represented in the graphbelow.Virtually all peaks and valleys correlate with a direct one-to-one relationship with eachpesticide as it enters and leaves the US market. Generally, pesticide productionprecedes polio incidence by 1 to 2 years. I assume that this variation is due tovariations in reporting methods and the time it takes to move pesticides from factory towarehouse, through distribution channels, onto the food crops and to the dinner table.A composite of the three previous graphs, of the persistent pesticides — lead, arsenic,and the dominant organochlorines (DDT and BHC) — is represented in the following:

These four chemicals were not selected arbitrarily. These are representative of themajor pesticides in use during the last major polio epidemic. They persist in theenvironment as neurotoxins that cause polio-like symptoms, polio-like physiology, andwere dumped onto and into human food at dosage levels far above that approved bythe FDA. They directly correlate with the incidence of various neurological diseasescalled "polio" before 1965. They were utilized, according to Biskind, in the "mostintensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history."Virus CausationA clear, direct, one-to-one relation between pesticides and paralytic polio over aperiod of 30 years with pesticides preceding polio incidence in the context of the CNSrelated physiology just described, leaves little room for complicated virus arguments,even as a co-factor, unless there exists a rigorous proof for virus causation. Polio showsno movement independent from pesticide movement as one would expect for the virusmodel.Medical propagandists promote images of a predatory, infectious virus, invading thebody and quickly replicating to a level that causes disease, however, in the laboratory,poliovirus does not easily behave in such a predatory manner. Attempts to demonstratevirus causation are performed under extremely artificial and aberrant conditions.

Poliovirus causation was first established in the mainstream mind by publications of anexperiment by Landsteiner and Popper in Germany, 1908-1909. Their method was toinject a purée of diseased tissue into two monkeys, "injected into the abdominalcavity". One monkey died after six days and the other was sickened.[15]Proof of poliovirus causation was headlined by orthodoxy. This, however, was anassumption — not a proof — of virus causation. The weakness of this method is obviousto everyone except certain viropathologists and has recently been criticized by themolecular biologist Peter Duesberg regarding a modern-day attempt to establish viruscausation for kuru, another CNS disease.[16]Since 1908, the basic test, as intracranial injection, has been repeated successfullymany times, using monkeys, dogs and genetically altered mice. However, a crucialweakness exists — polio epidemics do not occur via injections of poliovirus isolate intothe brains of the victims through a hole drilled in their skull — except, of course, inlaboratories and hospitals.If injection into the brain is really a valid test for causation then it should serveespecially well as a proof for pesticide causation. I propose that pesticides be injecteddirectly into the brains of test animals. If paralysis and nerve degenerationsubsequently occur, we then would have proved that pesticides cause polio.Going further, towards much higher standards of proof than those used to prove viruscausation, pesticides could be fed to animals and found to cause CNS disease. This hasalready been done with DDT and the histology of the spine and brain was poliomyelitis.Virus proofs require injection, often intracranial, to get any reaction from theexperimental animal. It is axiomatic that a theory is only as good as its ability to predictfuture events. I predict that such a test would prove pesticides to be the most reliablecausative factor.The injection of purée of diseased brain tissue into the brains of dogs was the methodpreferred by Louis Pasteur to establish virus causation with rabies, another CNSdisease. A recent, definitive biography of Pasteur finds him to be a most importantpublicist for germ theory, a crucial promoter for the notion that rabies is caused by avirus. Unfortunately, his rabies experiments were biased and unsupported byindependent studies.[17] (G. L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur, 1995)Therefore, in my opinion, even a cofactor theory, where pesticides catalyze predatorypoliovirus activity, or where pesticides weaken the immune system to allowopportunistic predatory poliovirus activity, cannot stand up to simple, common senseexplanations that include the concept of a symbiotic virus. Neurotoxins are enoughof a cause for neurological disease.The most obvious theory — pesticide causation — should be the dominant theory. Butthe opposite exists, a pervasive silence regarding pesticide causation juxtaposedagainst a steady stream of drama regarding virus causation. In light of the evidencepresented herein, the silence could ultimately discredit mainstream medical science,institutions of the environmental movement, and the World Health Organization (whichdirects both DDT application for mosquito campaigns and polio vaccination, worldwide).

Virus PresenceWhen the symptoms of polio are recognized, there is often a claim of virus presence inthe body of the polio victim. Sometimes a virus is found. Sometimes that virus is anenterovirus (a virus of the digestive tract). Sometimes that enterovirus is a poliovirus.During polio epidemics, orthodoxy blames the poliovirus, and therefore, my argumentfor the innocence of the poliovirus requires an explanation of these claims of viruspresence and the presence of an agent called the poliovirus. Here are three points:a) Economic Impetus: During the great epidemic of 1942-1962 polio victims werediagnosed with poliovirus-caused polio, regardless of whether or not the poliovirus wasfound, because the NFIP (March of Dimes) funds paid only for this kind of polio.Therefore, if patients were going to spend time hospitalized, in iron lungs andundergoing therapy, it would have been economically imperative for the hospital todiagnose them in this way.[18]Thus, presence of poliovirus in poliomyelitis was rarelydetermined in order to arrive at a diagnosis of polio.b) Other Pathogens: Even if one believes in virus culpability, other viruses are alsoclaimed by orthodoxy to be the cause of polio-like CNS diseases which are "clinicallyindistinguishable" from polio. In the 1940-50s, relatively few polio victims wereconfirmed technically for presence of the poliovirus. In 1958, a laboratory analyses of222 diagnosed polio victims (Detroit epidemic) found poliovirus in only 51% of thecases.[19] When multiple pathogens are hunted, a mix of pathogens, multiple viruses,fungi, and bacteria, can be associated with a single diagnosed case of polio.[20]Coxsackievirus and echoviruses can cause paralytic syndromes thatare clinically indistinguishable from paralytic poliomyelitis.[21] (JohnH. Menkes, Textbook Of Child Neurology, 5th ed., 1995, p420)During a polio epidemic, such cases would have likely been diagnosed as "polio". Afterthe 1970s, with the supposed approaching extinction of the poliovirus, such caseswould have been diagnosed as encephalitis or meningitis.c) Benign Virus: The poliovirus is considered to have been endemic throughout theworld going back to ancient times, yet this is not the case with paralytic polio.According to Arno Karlen, author of Man and Microbes, the"polio virus lives only in people; it probably adapted to the human smallintestine countless millennia ago." He continues, ". . . some historians haveclaimed that [paralytic] polio goes back to ancient Egypt; it may, but theevidence is thin."[22]Karlen makes a lot of sense here in view of the pesticide graphs, Biskind's arguments,and ancient historians describingparalysis from the inhalation of vaporized chemicalsduring blacksmithing operations. However, Karlen goes on to write that "the firstundisputed case dates from the late eighteenth century." This statement, however,must be invalid (in its attempt to establish polio images that have a basis in earlyhistory) because of Menkes' statement (above) that other viruses can also be causativefor polio symptoms and because common industrial poisons such as arsenic and leadcompounds can cause polio-like symptoms. Poisoning by arsenic, as a method ofassassination, has also been frequently employed from the earliest eras, and it is not

unreasonable to assume that unsuccessful poisonings would have left their victimsparalyzed.Orthodox medical literature can offer no evidence that the poliovirus was anything elsethan benign until the first polio epidemic, which occurred in Sweden in 1887. This smallepidemic occurred 13 years after the invention of DDT in Germany, in 1874, and 14years after the invention of the first mechanical pesticide crop sprayer, which was usedto spray formulations of water, kerosene, soap and arsenic. The epidemic also occurredimmediately following an unprecedented flurry of pesticide innovations. This is not tosay that DDT was the actual cause of the first polio epidemic, as arsenic was then inwidespread use, other organochlorines had been developed, and DDT is said to havebeen merely an academic exercise.Poliovirus is categorized as an enterovirus. There are at least 72 known enterovirusesdiscovered to date. According to Duesberg, many enteroviruses are harmless"passenger viruses." In view of the material presented here, probably unknown toDuesberg, it is reasonable that we also view poliovirus as harmless outside of extremelaboratory conditions.The Symbiotic PoliovirusHaving now established the possibility of an innocent poliovirus, its presence in poliocan be explained as follows, with five more points:a) Accelerated Genetic Recombination: Genetic recombination is acceleratedwhenever a biological system is threatened.[23] Pesticides can be that threat. Theproliferation of viruses is known to be part of the process of accelerated geneticrecombination.b) The SOS Response: When a cell is critically threatened, accelerated geneticrecombination (which may include virus proliferation) is just one of a set of events thatmay occur. This set of events is called the "SOS response," which is known to betriggered by exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation.[24]Arnold Levine, writing in Field's Virology, provides an example:"When lysogenic bacteria were lysed [split open] from without, novirus was detected. But from time to time a bacterium spontaneouslylysed and produced many viruses. The influence of ultraviolet light ininducing the release of these viruses was a key observation thatbegan to outline this curious relation between a virus and itshost."[25]Is this mere irony? Common medical procedures such as chemotherapy, radiationtherapy, and the use of toxic pharmaceuticals accelerate genetic recombination andthus the potential for a necessary virus proliferation.c) The Ames Assay Test: The SOS response is utilized in the Ames Assay Test, astandard test whereby chemical toxicity is determined. According to the procedure,bacteria are exposed to a chemical solution in question, and if a genetic recombinationaccelerates via the spontaneous proliferation of viruses from these bacteria, then the

chemical is determined to be a poison. The phenomenon is analogous to a poker playerwith a bad hand who must request an exchange of cards and a reshuffled deck toimprove the possibilities for survival. In the Ames Assay Test, bacteria are concernedwith their genetic "hand" in order to improve their abilities to metabolize poisons,create utilizations for poisons, and shield against poisons. Thus they engage in thiswell-known phenomena of "gene shuffling," facilitated by virus proliferation.Thus, I propose that the poliovirus is a symbiotic (and possibly a dormant) virus thatbehaves in a manner suggested by the phenomenon found in the Ames Assay Test, atest used to determine toxicity.One could object to this analogy o

The late president Franklin D. Roosevelt had been . situation is that both man and all his domestic animals have simultaneously been affected. In man, the incidence of poliomyelitis has risen sharply; . methods.[10] Due to public governmental debate in 1949-51 and numerous policy and legislative changes afterward, DDT production figures .