DEVELOPING A COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATIONAL GARDENING PROGRAM .

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Students lined up for a morning meeting at the Baan Huay Euen School in Chiang RaiProvince, Thailand.DEVELOPING ACOMPREHENSIVEEDUCATIONALGARDENING PROGRAMFOR THE BAAN HUAYEUEN SCHOOLAPIMUK DAOKHUNTOD, ALLYSON DAY, HANNAGRU, PHAKINEE KHUNSIRIKULWANIT, NATNICHALERTPLAKORN, PERAPATCH RAVIRUJIPHAN,PATRICK SCHENKENBERG, MARIAH SULLIVAN

DEVELOPING ACOMPREHENSIVEEDUCATIONAL GARDENINGPROGRAM FOR THE BAANHUAY EUEN SCHOOLAn Interactive Qualifying Project Report Submitted to the Faculty ofWORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE and CHULALONGKORNUNIVERSITYIn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of ScienceIn collaboration with The SATI FoundationAuthors: Apimuk Daokhuntod, Allyson Day, Hanna Gru, PhakineeKhunsirikulwanit, Natnicha Lertplakorn, Perapatch Ravirujiphan, PatrickSchenkenberg, Mariah SullivanDate: March 1, 2017Submitted to:Dr. Panuwat Padungros, Chulalongkorn UniversityDr. Melissa Belz, Worcester Polytechnic InstituteDr. Dan DiMassa, Worcester Polytechnic InstituteThis report represents the work of four WPI undergraduate students and four Chulalongkorn Universitystudents submitted to the faculty as evidence of the completion of the degree requirements. WPI routinelypublishes these reports on its website without editorial or peer review. For more information about theprojects program at WPI please see: http://www.wpi.edu/Academics/Projects.

AbstractMany students in rural areas do not receive higher education, so schools must adapt theircurriculums to meet the needs of their students. The goal of this project is to develop acomprehensive educational gardening program to teach agricultural skills at the Baan Huay EuenSchool in Northern Thailand. Through observation and interviews with the staff and students, wefound that the existing program lacked the effectiveness and structure required of successfuleducational gardens. To address these issues, we designed a gardening manual that will improvethe efficiency of the garden and provide educators a consistent source from which to teach. Theimplementation of the manuals and other recommendations in the report can result in a moresustainable educational organic gardening program.ii

AcknowledgementsThe completion of this project wouldn’t be possible without all the effort and hard work put infrom all the Interactive Qualifying Project and Interactive Social Science Project 2 teammembers.Dr. Melissa Belz, Dr. Dan DiMassa, and Dr. Panuwat Padungros - our advisors, for all theirguidance and motivations that proved doubtlessly helpful in the completion of our report.Mr. Somphet Nosee, teachers, and students of Baan Huey Euen School - for the warmwelcome and cooperation throughout our project visits.Worcester Polytechnic Institute and Chulalongkorn University - for the opportunity toparticipate in this project.Mechai Pattana Foundation and NIST International School- for allowing us to tour theirfacilities and interview staff members for guidance on our project.Dr. Sakson Rouypirom from the SATI Foundation- for sponsoring us on this amazing projectand carrying it on.Mr. Ronnakrit Rinnairak – for his valuable insight and information on organic gardening.Colleen Beck, MLIS - for providing us with helpful feedback and valuable information.iii

DEVELOPING A COMPREHENSIVEEDUCATIONAL GARDENING PROGRAM FORTHE BAAN HUAY EUEN SCHOOLExecutive SummaryAPIMUK DAOKHUNTOD, ALLYSON DAY, HANNA GRU, PHAKINEE KHUNSIRIKULWANIT, NATNICHALERTPLAKORN, PERAPATCH RAVIRUJIPHAN, PATRICK SCHENKENBERG, MARIAH SULLIVANPoverty and Schools’ ResponsesDue to accessibility and high poverty rates in rural areas, many students do not continue onto collegeor higher institutes (Gibbs, 2000). Without more education many students in rural areas stick to traditionaloccupations such as animal husbandry, farming, handicraft work, and fishing (Indiazone, 2012). As studentscontinue to seek work in more vocational jobs, schools focus on skill based education, rather than collegepreparatory courses like mathematics and science (Jones, 2015). The Baan Huay Euen School, located inChiang Rai province, recently implemented a gardening program to satisfy the government’s Less Study,More Skills program aimed at teaching students vocational skills.Objectives and MethodsIn collaboration with the SATI Foundation and the Baan Huay Euen School, the goal of our projectwas to develop a comprehensive educational gardening program to provide students with valuablelife skills. To accomplish this goal we established the following objectives:1.2.3.4.Identify what makes other educational gardening programs in Thailand successfulDetermine the needs of the school garden at the Baan Huay Euen SchoolIdentify the current gardening practices and knowledge used in the areaAnalyze the school curriculum and determine how to incorporate a gardening programTo gather information about each objective we used semi-structured interviews, focus groups, andnon-participatory observation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers, the principal, thehead villager, a local agricultural teacher, and a representative from the SATI Foundation. Students madeup the focus groups to allow them a space they felt comfortable in. In order to get feedback on our proposedsolutions we held a focus group of teachers. Non-participatory observation consisted of watching studentswork the garden, daily routines of the school, as well as observing agricultural techniques of the localcommunity.Key FindingsLack of shared knowledge negatively affects students’ education.Through interviews with teachers, we found varying levels of gardening knowledge within the school,which means that students learn different information depending on their teacher. Teachers do not have thebackground knowledge to effectively teach students about gardening and in many cases, students whoseiv

parents farm have more knowledge than their teachers. After visiting the local farmers market and observinga household farm, we found the community had extensive knowledge about agricultural techniques thoughthose did not translate into the school. Without consistent source of information coming from, students’educations suffer.a)b)Figure A: a) Poorly organized garden at school; b) Well organized garden at schoolCurrent permaculture techniques decrease effectiveness of the educationalprogram.The current layout of the gardens and the lack of fertilizer integration negatively impacts the successof the garden as a comprehensive educational tool. Unorganized gardens spread throughout campus do notprovide a good model for students. From our observations we found students wash pig waste down tubesdirectly onto a garden which causes health risks to students as well as an inability to use the waste forfertilizer. Without proper technique for collecting waste to make fertilizer and creating well organizedgardens, students learn incorrect information from the beginning.Looking AheadShort Term RecommendationsVarying levels of knowledge about organic gardening among teachers at the Baan Huay EuenSchool negatively impacted the success of the students. Therefore, the success of the gardening programrelies on the ability of the teachers to maintain consistency in their lessons. For this reason, we created aneasy to follow guide of gardening techniques, and we recommend that the teachers in the Baan Huay EuenSchool reference this manual in order to teach consistent information (Appendix A). The manual containsinformation on appropriate planting techniques, fertilizers, nutrition, and meal recipes. Following this manualensures all teachers have the same information about organic gardening as well as helpful infographics theycan use to teach with. Additionally the school can start to incorporate fertilizer into their gardening practicesand increase space efficiency. Alternatively teachers can attend extra classes on agriculture though thatwould put undue stress on them.v

Long Term RecommendationsThegardeningmanualprovides short term improvements tothe current garden, however longterm considerations can increase theeffectiveness and continue to growthe program. With this in mind, werecommend our sponsor distribute thegardening manual to other schoolswishing to teach their studentsagricultural skills. By doing so, anetwork of schools could form whereideas can spread.As another long termconsideration,werecommendaddressing erosion and waterscarcity before they becomedetrimental to the gardeningprogram. Erosion provides ahazardous environment for studentsto work in as well as takes awayvaluable space for gardening. Theschool should build retaining walls forlarge dirt precipices, especially onthe Terrace Garden to keep it fromcollapsing. On the other hand, waterscarcity, though not a huge issuecurrently, could prove problematic asthe garden expands. Waste waterFigure B: Example page from the gardening manualfrom students using a filtered watertank can accumulate through a system of tubes and used to water the garden provided the soap containsorganic materials.ConclusionBy adapting our proposed gardening manual to the curriculum at the Baan Huay Euen School, theschool will have a more comprehensive gardening program to teach students valuable life skills. Wedesigned the manual in two main parts: a general organic gardening guide that any school can use tocreate a comprehensive gardening program and a more specific section to address the specific needs ofthe Baan Huay Euen School. With minor changes to the manual, any school can adapt the information to fittheir specific needs. The program we developed in collaboration with the SATI Foundation and the BaanHuay Euen School can serve as an example for other rural schools hoping to arm their students with valuableknowledge to improve their futures.vi

Table of ContentsAbstractiiAcknowledgementsiiiExecutive SummaryivTable of ContentsviiList of Figures and TablexAuthorshipxiChapter 1: Introduction1Chapter 2: Background22.1.Poverty in Rural Areas2.1.1.2.2.Effects of Poverty on Rural SchoolsRural School Education2232.2.1.School Gardening and Agricultural Techniques32.2.2.Examples of School Gardening Programs32.3.Agriculture in Rural Schools42.3.1.Organic Gardening Practices52.3.2.Transitioning to an Organic Garden5Chapter 3: Methodology3.1.Objectives77Objective 1: Identify what makes other educational gardening programs in Thailandsuccessful7Objective 2: Determine the needs of the garden at the Baan Huay Euen School8Objective 3: Identify the current gardening practices and knowledge used in the Baan HuayEuen area8Objective 4: Analyze school curriculum and determine how to incorporate a gardeningprogramChapter 4: Results4.1.School BackgroundFinding #1: Varying levels of gardening knowledge amongst teachers leads toinconsistencies in student learning.9101010vii

Finding #2: The current permaculture techniques decrease effectiveness of the gardens.12Finding #3: Unshared knowledge within the community hampers the development of theschool’s gardening program.17Finding #4: Passion in teachers translates to successful student gardens.Chapter 5: Recommendations5.1.Short Term Recommendations181919Recommendation #1: The teachers at the Baan Huay Euen School should use the gardeningmanual to teach consistent information about organic gardening.19Recommendation #2: The school should incorporate a more structured gardening plan intotheir curriculum.20Recommendation #3: The school should follow an incentive program to motivate eachstudent to garden.20Recommendation #4: The school should utilize its animal waste to make natural fertilizer.22Recommendation #5: The school should collaborate with members of the community inorder to increase support of the program.235.2.Long Term Recommendations24Recommendation #6: The SATI Foundation should expand the program to other schools inNorthern Thailand.24Recommendation #7: The Baan Huay Euen School should establish erosion controlmethods.24Recommendation #8: The Baan Huay Euen School should reuse filtered wastewater in orderto feed the ppendix A: NIST International School Interview Questions30Appendix B: Mechai Pattana Foundation Interview Questions32Appendix C: Dr. Sakson Rouypirom and SATI Interview Questions33Appendix D: Baan Huay Euen Principal Interview Questions34Appendix E: Baan Huay Euen Administrator Interview Questions35Appendix F: Baan Huay Euen Teachers Interview Questions36viii

Appendix G: Local Agricultural Teacher Interview Questions38Appendix H: Interview Questions for Students39Appendix I: Organic Gardening Manual41Appendix J: Planting Plan42Appendix K: Pest Control43Appendix L: Incentive Program44ix

List of Figures and TableFigure 1: Well organized garden at Baan Huay Euen compared to a poorly organized garden . 11Figure 2: Map of the Baan Huay Euen School campus with labeled gardens and buildings. . 12Table 1: Garden numbers, names, and pictures . 13Figure 3: Student gardening on Terrace Garden . 15Figure 4: Overcrowded cement cylinder on Terrace Garden. 15Figure 5: Fences on Dorm Garden . 16Figure 6: Students working on the garden on their own time . 21Figure 7: Scoreboards for the incentive program . 21Figure 8: Student cleaning pig pen . 22Figure 9: Pipes draining over Terrace Garden . 23Figure 10: Compost box. 23Figure 11: Student walking on the edges of the concrete cylinders. . 25x

AuthorshipOriginal WritingFirst RevisionSecondRevisionTranslationApimuk and HannaAllyson--AbstractPhakinee andPerapatchAllyson--IntroductionPatrickPatrick, Hanna andMariahHanna ture Review2.1.2.2.2.3.Phakinee, Natnicha,and PatrickApimuk, Perapatch,and PatrickMariah andNatnicha2.4.Hanna2.5.Phakinee,Perapatch, andApimuk2.6.HannaResearch PlanPhakinee andHannaPatrick and AllysonResultsAll Team Members2.7.Allyson andPatrickAllyson andPatrickAllyson andPatrickAllyson andPatrickAllyson andPatrickAllyson andPatrickAllyson andPatrickHanna and PatrickAllyson Allyson-Allyson-Mariah andPatrick-Recommendations#1Patrick and Allyson#2Perapatch#3HannaAllyson, Patrick,Hanna, MariahAllyson, Patrick,Hanna, MariahAllyson, Patrick,Hanna, Mariah------xi

#4AllysonAllyson, Patrick,Hanna, Mariah--AssignmentOriginal WritingFirst ah--ConclusionPatrick and Hanna--Appendix AAppendix BAppendix CAppendix DAppendix EAppendix FAppendix GAppendix HAppendix IAppendix JAppendix KAppendix LDeliverablePresentationsLogisticsHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchApimukHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchHanna, Natnicha,and PerapatchAllysonApimukPerapatchNatnicha, Phakinee,Apimuk, and HannaAllyson, Patrick,Hanna, MariahAllyson, Patrick,Hanna, MariahAllyson muk, Hanna-Phakinee andPerapatchApimukPhakinee andPerapatchPhakinee andPerapatchPhakinee andPerapatchPhakinee andPerapatchPhakinee andPerapatchPhakinee andPerapatchPhakinee andPerapatchPhakineePhakinee andNatnichaApimuk andPhakineexii

Chapter 1: IntroductionRural communities in developing countries often live in poverty, and as a consequence,children seldom continue on with higher education (Farrigan & Parker, 2012; Cullen & Pretes,2000). Primary education not only provides the opportunity for children in rural communities tolearn how to read and write, but it is the best opportunity for them to learn important life skills.However, in many rural areas around the world, children are unlikely to receive formal educationthat fully addresses their needs (Taneri & Engin-Demir, 2011; OECD, 2012). Because differentlifestyles require different knowledge and skill sets, education designed for urban communitieswill not adequately address the specific skills that rural students need in order to thrive.One relevant set of skills taught in rural schools is agriculture techniques; a commonoccupation in rural areas is farming because of the natural resources available. People farm toprovide food for their households and sell any excess for profit (Indianetzone, 2012). Withoutproper skill development, children who grow up in farming communities may find themselves ata major disadvantage once they need to support themselves. Through gardening and other smallscale agricultural activities at school, younger children can begin honing the skills that will helpthem provide for themselves and their families later in life.In the United States of America, gardens have been incorporated into schools to serve aseducational supplements on many occasions (Bauermeister, Savio, Surls, & Swain, 2013; BriggsKoumjian, Morris, & Zidenberg-Cherr, 2002; Vermont farm to school, n.d.). They are used asoutdoor classrooms that facilitate scientific learning, but seldom do they teach technical skillsbeyond the basics. In Northern Thailand, a region dominated by farming practices, some schoolshave begun teaching agriculture as a part of the curriculum to better prepare their students for whenthey leave school.The Baan Huay Euen School in the Chiang Rai Province of Northern Thailand recentlyimplemented a gardening program intended to provide invaluable skills to its students, but becausethe program is still in its infancy there are obstacles and logistical hurdles that need to be addressed.The school has adopted the “Less Study, More Skills” program into their curriculum in order toprovide students with life skills. As many students from rural areas do not go to college, life skillscould prove more useful than college prep courses like mathematics or science.One organization dedicated to helping the underserved areas of Thailand is the SATIFoundation. They are a non-profit organization providing thoughtful, long-term solutions forproblems in underprivileged areas by working off the Buddhist principle Sati, or mindfulness. Inthe Baan Huay Euen School alone the SATI Foundation has built a filtered water tank and taughtstudents about personal hygiene and healthcare. Our project aims to provide a comprehensiveeducational gardening program to guide this school in the development of its existing program. Byteaching its students effectively and thoroughly, the Baan Huay Euen School will better prepareits students for successful agricultural careers or to provide for their families.1

Chapter 2: Background2.1.Poverty in Rural AreasRural areas in developing countries tend to be overlooked by governmental and nongovernmental organizations due to their isolation (Cullen & Pretes, 2000). Impoverished ruralcommunities seldom receive sufficient aid to sustain a healthy learning environment for theirchildren (Büthe et al., 2012; Brown, 1996). Without aid, isolated communities may struggle toprovide adequate education, reliable healthcare, and consistent food sources for themselves(Francken et al., 2012).In order to provide for their families, many people in rural areas obtain traditionaloccupations such as animal husbandry, farming, handicraft work, and fishing (Indiazone, 2012).In some more modernized comm

school will have a more comprehensive gardening program to teach students valuable life skills. We designed the manual in two main parts: a general organic gardening guide that any school can use to create a comprehensive gardening program and a more specific section to address the specific needs of the Baan Huay Euen School.

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