INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENING - Seattle

1y ago
71 Views
5 Downloads
376.62 KB
29 Pages
Last View : 9d ago
Last Download : 1y ago
Upload by : Roy Essex
Transcription

INTRODUCTION TOORGANICGARDENINGCompiled by Ray SchutteIR

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENINGWHAT IS ORGANIC GARDENING.3PLANNING.3SOIL What is it? .3Soil Structure .3The Soil Food Web.4Introductory concepts .4Bacteria.5Soil Fungi .5Soil Protozoa.5Soil Nematodes.5Soil Arthropods.5Earthworms.6Fertilization.6FEED THE SOIL NOT THE PLANT.7Composting.7Mulching.8Weed free garden.8Hot composting.9Cold Composting.11Compost tea .12Green Compost materials .13Brown Composting Materials.13Composting Materials Used List .14Over-Wintering.15Interbay Mulch .15Green Manure Cover Crops.16Leaf Mold .18See What Is In Your Soil .19PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL .20Beneficial Insects in the Garden .20Attracting and Keeping Beneficial Insects .21Sources of Food for Attracting Benefical Insects .21PLANTING .23Selecting seeds and plants .23Planting.24Spacing .24Rows & Beds .25Soil Preparation .25Sowing Seeds and Transplanting.25Vegetable Planting-Harvest Guide .26Crop Rotation Planning .28Page 2 OF 29

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENINGWHAT IS ORGANIC GARDENINGOrganic gardening is a process that promotes and enhances biodiversity, natural biological cyclesand soil biological actives that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony.Organic gardening basic tenets are feeding the soil though decaying organic matter and utilizingnatural cycles and predators for disease and pest control.PLANNINGSuccessful organic gardens are not accidental. They are a result of planning, constant care andattention to how things grow. As you plan your garden you have to consider the size of yourplot, your commitment and your planting goals. What are your primary interests? Fresh greens,tomatoes, flowering perennials etc. Don’t underestimate the work involved in organic gardening.Once you decide your goals, develop a planting and harvest guide to fit your commitment. Forexample, do not plant something that will be harvested during that long planned vacation. If youdo so you will not see the fruits of your labor and let produce go to waste. Your garden plan willneed to include planting distances and depths. It may be helpful to draw your plant out on paperto determine the location of each crop. You will need to work out a succession plan of crops youplan to plant over 3 to 5 years as well as from season to season. If you plan to garden year roundyou may want to combine spring and summer into one plan and winter into a second plan foreach year. Soil building strategies need to be included in your plan, giving the soil time toprepare for the next crop. Remember the organic gardeners slogan: “Feed the soil not the plant.”Plan your garden thoughtfully and far enough in advance to achieve your goals.SOIL WHAT IS IT?Soil health is synonymous with a healthy and productive organic gardens. If you continue totake from the soil and return nothing you will wear your soil out leaving you with nutritionallydeprived, weak plants, increased diseases and pests. Commercial compost and manures aresterilized. Sterilization kills organisms that make up the soil food web. They will add organicmaterial to your garden, but will not measurably increase its fertility or health. The use of PeatMoss is discouraged in that it has no nutritional value.Soil StructureCheck your soils texture. Feel it. Rub some between you thumb and fingers. If the particles arevery fine you have clay, if they are very course you have sand. How does it hold together: is itcrumbly or powdery. Is it sticky or hard? Will it not crumble without a hammer? Does it refuseto hold together at all? Soil structure is how your soil holds air and water. Soil structure willdetermine how it warms up and how it cools down.Page 3 OF 29

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENINGThe simplest way to improve your soils structure is to add organic matter. As it decomposes itwill become humus. Humus will improve the way your soil binds together. Humus will keepclay from binding into “bricks” requiring a hammer to break up. Humus will help sandy soilsbegin to hold together. Working you soil when it is too wet or too dry can adversely affect itsstructure.In addition to improving the structure of your soil, organic materials will add important nutrientsto your soil and feed the soil food web, which makes nutrients available to your plants. Organicmaterial will help maintain healthy levels of oxygen and water in your soil and make it easier towork.The Soil Food Web 1Introductory conceptsThe soil food web is a cycle of soil organisms that feed on decaying organic matter and in turnfeed living organic matter. Plants through photosynthesis use solar energy to fix CO2 thebuilding block of plant matter. The plants in turn add organic matter to the soil (biomass andplant litter).The living components of the soil and food web have different compositions for differentecosystems. The biological complexity of the soil food web is involved in nutrient cycling,formation of soil structure, pest cycles and decomposition rates.When organisms consume food they create more of their own biomass and release wastes. Themost important waste is ammonium (NH4). Other organisms including plant roots quickly takeup ammonium and other readily utilized nutrients. This process is called mineralization.In addition to mineralization the soil food web can immobilize or retain nitrogen when thedemand goes down. Immobilized nitrogen is less mobile and less likely to be lost from therooting zone. Commercial fertilizers are not immobilized and are easily flushed through the rootzone and into the waste stream.Many soil organisms’ work to improve the structure of the soil. Earthworms and arthropodsconsume small aggregates of mineral particles and organic matter. They generate larger fecalpellets coated with compounds from the gut. These fecal pellets become a part of the soilstructure. Fungal hyphae and root hairs bind together and help stabilize larger aggregates.Improved aggregate stability along with the burrows of earthworms and arthropods increaseporosity, water infiltration and water holding capacity.Complex soil food webs contain numerous organisms that compete with disease causingorganisms. These competitors can prevent soil pathogens from establishing colonies andgenerating food. Some competitors feed on pathogens or generate material that is toxic or inhibitpathogens.1Taken from Soil Biology Primer, published by USDA natural Resources Conservation Service, August 1999. Thefull primer is available on line at mPage 4 OF 29

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENINGAn important role of soil is to purify water. Complex food webs include organisms that consumea wide range of pollutants.There are six major groups of soil organisms: bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropodsand earthworms.BacteriaBacteria are tiny, one celled organisms. What they lack in size they make up in numbers. Ateaspoon of productive soil contains between 100 million and 1 billion bacteria. Bacteria feedother members of the food web, decompose organic matter, help keep nutrients in the rootingzone, enhance soil structure, compete with disease causing organisms and filter and degradepollutants.Soil FungiFungi are microscopic cells that grow as long threads or strands called hyphae. Hyphae pushtheir way between soil particles, roots and rocks. A single hyphae can span in length from a fewcells to many yards. Fungi decompose complex carbon compounds, improve the accumulationof organic matter, retain nutrients and physically bind soil particles into aggregates. Fungi areimport food sources for other organisms in the food web, they can improve plant growth withsome plants, compete with plant pathogens and decompose certain types of pollutants.Soil ProtozoaProtozoa are single celled animals that fee primarily on bacteria, but also eat other protozoa,soluble organic matter and sometimes fungi. There are several times larger than bacteria. Asthey eat bacteria, protozoa release excess nitrogen that can then be used by plants and othermembers of the food web. Protozoa release nutrients stored in microbial biomass for plant use,increase decomposition rates and soil aggregation by stimulating bacterial activity, prevent somepathogens from establishing on plants and provide prey for larger soil organisms such asnematodes.Soil NematodesNematodes are non-segmented worms about 1/20th of an inch long. A few species areresponsible for plant disease, but the majority plays a beneficial role in the soil. Nematodes helpregulate the populations of other soil organisms, mineralize nutrients into plant available forms,prove a food source for other soil organisms that influence soil structure and consume diseasecausing organisms.Soil ArthropodsMany bugs, known as arthropods, make their home in the soil. They get their name form theirjointed (arthros) legs (Podos). Arthropods are invertebrates (have no backbone) and rely on anexternal covering called exoskeleton. Arthropods range in size from microscopic to severalinches in length. They include insects such as springtails, beetles, and ants; crustaceans such assowbugs; arachnids such as spiders and mites; myriapods, such as centipedes and millipedes andscorpions.Page 5 OF 29

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENINGArthropods improve soil structure through burrowing and the creation of fecal pellets, controldisease-causing organisms, stimulate microbial activity, enhance decomposition throughshredding large plant litter and mixing the soil and regulate healthy soil food web populations.EarthwormsMost people become familiar with these soft, slimy, invertebrates at an early age. Earthwormsare hermaphrodites, meaning they exhibit both male and female characteristics. They are majordecomposers of dead and decomposing organic matter. They derive their nutrition from thebacteria and fungi that grow in these materials. They fragment organic material and recycle thenutrients it contains. In terms of biomass and overall activity, earthworms dominate the world ofsoil invertebrates including arthropods.Earthworms shred and increase the surface area of organic matter, thus, stimulating microbialdecomposition and nutrient release, improve soil stability, porosity and moisture holdingcapacity by burrowing and aggregating soil, turn soil over, prevent disease and enhancedecomposition by bringing deeper soil to the surface and burying organic matter. Earthwormsimprove water infiltration by forming deep channels and improving soil aggregation and improveroot growth by creating channels lined with nutrients.FertilizationN-P-K, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the principle nutrients required by plants. Greengrowth is encouraged by nitrogen, Phosphorous encourages flower and seed production whilepotassium helps the plant to use proteins and carbohydrates and build strong stems. Certaincrops need more of a particular nutrient for example tomatoes need calcium and garlic requireslots of nitrogen.These nutrients all can be supplied through compost and decomposing organic material suchcoffee grounds from your local espresso stand, carrot pulp from the local juice bar, hops andgrains from the local brewery, fresh mowed grass, fall leaves, straw and banana peelings; alongwith the addition of a wide variety of nutrients found in such things as ground oyster clam ormussel shells; crab or shrimp finings, egg shells, granite dusk, glacial till, fish meal, seed meal,ground poultry bones, water that was used to steam or boil vegetables and water used to hard boileggs.You may want to start out with a soil test. An inexpensive test is available from the Universityof Massachusetts that will provide the basic information you need along with the added bonus ofa lead test. The soil tests will provide you with the pH (acidity level) of your soil. A balancedpH of 6.5 to 7.0 is desired. Soil tests will guide you in what nutrients you may need to add toyour soil and other amendments that can improve the soil.You can also find soil food web testing services at Soil Food Web. These are more expensive,but will give you accurate information on your soil’s health.Many gardeners use the organic fertilizer provided by the P-Patch program to provide nutrients.The fertilizer should not be considered an adequate substitute for adding organic materials toPage 6 OF 29

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENINGyour soil. A good soil-building program can provide all the necessary nutrients required by yourgarden. Fertilizing requirements decline as a healthy food web efficiently stores and cyclesnutrients.FEED THE SOIL NOT THE PLANTDecomposing organic matter into the soil is the underlying tenant of organic gardening.Microorganisms decompose organic matter and through the process of mineralization makesmake nutriments available to plants.Living soil is successful soil! The benefits of adding organic matter include: Support for the soil food web (microbiological activity or life of the soil)Contributes major and minor nutrients required for healthy plantsImproved tilth and structure of the soilImproved water retention. More water soaks into the soil and can be used by crops.Improved ability to store nutrientsSlow release of nutrientsAssist the mineralization processes (converting insoluble minerals into plant usableforms)Increase pest and disease resistanceWater quality is protected. Nitrates do not leach into the ground water when soilorganism hold nitrogen in the rooting zoneRemoves organic materials from the urban waste streamReduces pollutantsStrong healthy plantsFlavorful sweet vegetables and beautiful flowers.CompostingGardening raises our consciousness about where our food comes from, and allows us to observebasic life processes in the food chain. Animals, plants, insects, worms, bacteria and arthropodseach occupy a unique rung in the ladder of life. Through gardening, and particularly throughcomposting, we can observe their complex interactions in a microcosm, and we can learn howour own actions affect the process.P-patch garden waste, grass clippings, browned leaves and other organic materials are returnedto the earth to nurture and replen

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENING WHAT IS ORGANIC GARDENING Organic gardening is a process that promotes and enhances biodiversity, natural biological cycles and soil biological actives that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony. Organic gardening basic tenets are feeding the soil though decaying organic matter and utilizing

Related Documents:

plants. Tuck a plant or two in a basket and place it on a shelf. Dwarf and slow growing plant varieties, vertical gardening and square foot gardening methods can add to your eye appeal as well as your table. Flowers, fruits and herbs can be Gardening for Small Spaces Article and photos by Terri Simon, Master Gardener cont’d on pg. 6

94 GardeninG Gardening resources. Gardening Resources Scouting Literature Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Bird Study, Insect Study, Nature, Plant Science, and Soil and Water Conservation merit badge pamphlets Books Bartholomew, Mel. All New Square Foot Gardening. Cool Springs P

Straw Bale gardening is more economical, easier on your back, and is great for people with mobility issues. After over 40 years of gardening in four states, Wanda has experimented with many forms of gardening including Ruth Stout’s raised beds, keyhole gardening, and the French Intensive Gardening Method. She has tried many

The Kellogg Garden Organic Gardening Guides include detailed information and resources on how, why, and what to do in your gardens as well as advice on planting, growing, and harvesting individual plants throughout the year. Start by confirming the proper planting zone for . your garden. Organic Gardening: Zone 7 Planting Chart. 7a 7b

school will have a more comprehensive gardening program to teach students valuable life skills. We designed the manual in two main parts: a general organic gardening guide that any school can use to create a comprehensive gardening program and a more specific section to address the specific needs of the Baan Huay Euen School.

KJ Williams City of Seattle Edward B. Murray, Mayor Seattle LGBT Commission Recommendations for Seattle 2035 Comprehensive Plan Draft: Growth and Equity Public Review Draft Mayor Edward B. Murray Seattle City Council Diane M. S

Sep 04, 2020 · 4001 east stevens way ne seattle wa 98195 . 4209 w marginal way seattle wa 98106 4215 e stevens wy ne seattle wa 98195 . 9725 3rd ave ne seattle wa 98115-2024 999 third ave seattle wa 98104-4039 1. 1705 ne pacific st, seattle wa 98195

backyards across the country. These include award-winning Web sites garden.org and kidsgardening.org. 19.99 US / 23.99 CN / 13.99 UK ISBN 978-0-470-43067-5 Gardening/Organic Go to dummies.com for more! Ensure a healthy harvest through environmentally friendly gardening techniques. Want to grow an

stain concrete and wood decking. Container Vegetable Gardening 6-8 hrs sun for warm season vegetable crops 4-5 hrs sun for cool season vegetable crops. Container Ornamental Gardening If your area gets at least 6 hours of direct sun, you can choose plants for “full

Straw Bale Gardening Basics Would you like to grow a vegetable garden, but you have poor soil or you are unable or unwilling to get down on the ground to plant and harvest, or do you simply hate pulling weeds? “Straw Bale Gardening” is just what you need! Easy access is one benefit of gardening in bales

meth-eth-prop-but-pent-6 8 7 9 10 hex-hept-oct-non-dec-5 3.2 Naming Organic Compounds Organic H 3C CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 H 2C CH2 H 2C CH CH 2 3.3 Naming Organic Compounds Organic H 3C CH CH CH2 H3C CH CH3 CH3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 3.4 Naming Organic Compounds Organic Name all

gate or the fastest transportation to downtown Seattle, SEA Airport App, the official app of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA), can help. Chinese visitors can find SEA and Washington state tourism information on WeChat via: Cruise & Stay Guide SEATTLE 2711 Alaskan Way, Pier 69 Seattle, WA 98111 Denny.p@portseatte.org REPRESENTATIVES:

Dec 04, 2020 · Seattle Department of Construction and Inspections Code Compliance Renting in Seattle helpline: (206) 684-5700 Location: 19th Floor, Seattle Municipal Tower Mailing Address: 700 Fifth Ave., Suite 2000 P.O. Box 34019 Seattle, WA 98124-4019 The Washington State Residential Landlord/T

SEATTLE WOMEN’S REENTRY Seattle Women’s Second Chance Reentry Grant Strategic Planning and Evaluation FINAL REPORT Bureau of Justice Assistance Grant to Seattle Police Department: #215CZBX0013 City of Seattle Research/Consultant Agreement #16-02119/16-02120 Research Team Jacquel

Nov 26, 2013 · 77 comfort suites ‐ downtown seattle 601 roy st, seattle, wa 98109 122,942 82 dept of social & health services 1700 e cherry st, seattle, wa 98122 54,984 84 providence mt st vincent 4831 35th ave sw, seattle, wa 98126 217,603 85 foss home and

Music Theatre of Wenatchee, Inc. Wenatchee Chelan . Broadway Bound Children's Theatre Seattle King Centro Cultural Mexicano Seattle King : 4 . Civic Light Opera Association (dba Seattle Musical Theatre) Seattle King . SV Archive (dba Scarecrow Video) Seattle King

YMCA OF GREATER SEATTLE – West Seattle / Fauntleroy YMCA Summer Camps serving the Central, South and West Seattle area Summer Registration Paperwork Packet . or Hep B al- 2 dose ternate schedule for teens 1 Signed note from HCP attached 2 Rotavirus (RV1, RV5) 1

uncommon good 18 THE NEW NORMAL: COVID-19 STORIES 36 athletics 37 in memoriam 38 the last word Seattle University Magazine (ISSN: 1550-1523) is published in fall, winter and spring by Marketing Communications, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, PO Box 222000, Seattle, WA 98122-1090. Periodical postage paid at Seattle, Wash.

602 North 105th Street, Seattle, WA 98133 LP 105th LLC LP 105th LLC, 704 NE Northlake Way, Ste 100, Seattle, WA 9810 5 26 614560-0147 . Ave. S., Seattle, WA 98168 55 630000-0636 1116 North Northgate Way, Seattle, WA 98133 . 921 terry Avenue, Sea ttle, WA 98104 65

Elastomeric bumpers (ASME A17.1 year 2013 & prior) or buffer springs (ASME A17.1 year 2016) Platform Sizes 48"W x 54"D standard 42"W x 60"D optional 42"W x 54"D standard 51"W x 51"D 90 optional Specifications Power supply: 208/230 VAC, 1 ph, 30 amp, 60 hz Capacity: 1400 lb. (635 kg) Speed: 30 fpm (.15 m/s) Travel: up to 25'0" standard Three-year .