Domain Definition Example New Example - Supervisor ABA

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A-4: Distinguish among behaviorism, the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and professionalpractice guided by the science of behavior analysis. Identify the domain for each example below, choosing from: behaviorism, the experimental analysis ofbehavior, applied behavior analysis, and professional practice guided by the science of behavior analysisDefine and create a new example for each domain of behavior analysis scienceDomainExperimentalAnalysis ofBehaviorDefinitionBasic research todefine and clarifyprinciples ofbehavior.ExampleUnderstanding conditionedreinforcement by training collegestudents to prefer one color overanother in a video game.AppliedBehaviorAnalysisApplied research toimprove sociallysignificantbehavior.Introducing a class-wide token economyand collecting data on class behavior.Practice Guidedby BehaviorAnalysisImplementation ofbehavioralinterventions tohelp people.BehaviorismConceptual andtheoretical accountof behavior.Demonstrating that children who arenon-verbal can learn to speak whenattempts to communicate aresystematically prompted, reinforced, andshaped.Describing a current event in terms ofbehavioral concepts and philosophy. 2016 SupervisorABATMNew Example

B-1: Define and provide examples of behavior, response, and response classSampleBehavior, response, or response class?Cooking a meal that is mostlyvegetablesResponseMaking healthy choices when eatingBehaviorEating a piece of fruit, taking amultivitamin, or eating raw carrotsResponse classCleaning the houseBehaviorVacuuming, mopping, or sweepingthe kitchen floorResponse classVacuuming the house for 10minutesResponsePutting toys back on the shelfResponseGeorge cleans the playroom, makeshis little brother clean it, or doesnot take toys outResponse classCleaning the playroomBehaviorBehaviorResponseResponse class 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.For each of the behaviors listed below determine whether the behavior is bestcharacterized as respondent, operant, or both. Be prepared to explain your rationale!BehaviorRespondent, Operant, or Both?SweatingRespondentBothEye thCoughingBothB-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies 2016 SupervisorABATM

Given several examples, identify each as positive or negative reinforcement, and generate newexamples for each.Type of Reinforcer(Positive or Negative)ExampleJavier gives a correct answer in class and his teacher gives him ahigh-10 and praise. He answers more questions in class insubsequent days.Julie raises her hand so that the teacher won’t call on herrandomly. Raising her hand increases over time.Kendall studies hard to get good grades because her parents havesaid that they won’t pay for her car insurance anymore if she failsanother class.Basia studies hard to get good grades so that she can graduateand go to a good college.Today, Dima called out twice as many times as yesterday.Yesterday, Dima called out in class and the teacher verballyreprimanded her.Anzac cries whenever his parents take him to a family functionand insist that he give his aunts kisses. Anzac’s parents getembarrassed and leave, and Anzac cries earlier and faster atevery subsequent family function.Positive ReinforcerNegative ReinforcerNegative ReinforcerPositive ReinforcerPositive ReinforcerNegative ReinforcerPositive ReinforcerNegative ReinforcerPositive ReinforcerNegative Reinforcer 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcementGiven several examples, identify the schedule of reinforcement being described. Generate newexamples for each schedule of reinforcement.ExampleAfter calling an Uber, the first time you go outside afterapproximately 10 minutes is reinforced by seeing the car.You get the mail every day and bring it in the house, and every 3to 5 times your spouse thanks you.Every time you open your web browser and navigate to ashopping website, you find it reinforcing to see things to buy.During your aerobics class, your instructor, Richard Simmons,delivers praise for the first action he sees after every 5 minutes.Schedule of ReinforcementVariable IntervalVariable RatioFixed RatioFixed IntervalFixed RatioVariable RatioFixed IntervalVariable Interval 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-6: Define and provide examples of positive and negative punishment contingenciesGiven several examples, identify which are positive and which are negative punishment, and generatenew examples for each.Type of Punishment(Positive or Negative)ExampleSabra came home 5 minutes late from a date. Her parentsgrounded her for 5 days. Sabra comes home 5 minutes early thenext time she’s on a date.Shannon refuses to type with Caleb because he used to fix hermistakes when she was typing in a shared document.Owen left the full trash bin out on the kitchen floor. Sherril yelledat him and he never leaves the trash bin out again.Bobby refuses to use a particular ATM because he has beencharged double fees from that bank in the past.Omar was practicing juggling with three-pound balls. He droppedone on his foot and broke his toe and never juggles again.Shango never jogs while holding his phone because he oncedropped it in a puddle while running and it never worked again.Negative PunishmentPositive PunishmentPositive PunishmentNegative PunishmentPositive PunishmentNegative PunishmentPositive PunishmentNegative PunishmentPositive PunishmentNegative Punishment 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-7: Define and provide examples of automatic and socially mediated contingenciesGiven several examples, identify which are automatic and which are socially mediated contingencies,and create new examples for each.Type of Contingency(Automatic or Socially Mediated)ExampleFelix claps and cheers whenever his three-year-old daughterdances, so she dances whenever she sees him.Milly dances because she enjoys the feeling of the movement intime with the music.John asks for and receives free samples from the deli staffwhenever he visits the deli.Theon enjoys laying in the sun because it’s warm.Raoul gets a sunburn from laying out without sunscreen on awarm day.Larissa is told to leave the store by the manager after she asks fortoo many free samples.Socially Mediated ContingencyAutomatic ContingencySocially Mediated ContingencyAutomatic ContingencyAutomatic ContingencySocially Mediated ContingencyAutomatic ContingencySocially Mediated ContingencyAutomatic ContingencySocially Mediated Contingency 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-8: Define and provide examples of unconditioned, conditioned, and generalized reinforcers andpunishersGiven several examples, identify which are unconditioned, conditioned, and generalized reinforcers andpunishers, and develop new examples for each.Type(Unconditioned, Conditioned,Generalized)ExampleTatiana gets to work early on Fridays because she enjoys seeingher friend who only works on Fridays.Dion drank too much at the bar last night, missed an exam andhad a terrible headache the next day. He refused to drink anyalcohol for a whole week after that.Seamus goes down a metal slide on a hot day and never wants toplay on the slide again.Warren often puts his children to bed early so he can get somesleep.Mrs. Foster gives out tickets to students in her class for followingdirections and handing in homework. Students can trade ticketsin for prizes and homework passes at the end of the week.Raffaela avoids anything that smells like cheese curls after shevomited once from eating them.Conditioned ReinforcerGeneralized PunisherUnconditioned PunisherUnconditioned ReinforcerGeneralized ReinforcerConditioned PunisherUnconditioned ReinforcerConditioned ReinforcerGeneralized ReinforcerUnconditioned PunisherConditioned PunisherGeneralized Punisher 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus controlGiven several examples, identify which stimuli function as SDs and which function as S-deltas, andgenerate new examples for each.ExampleHearing a cell phone alert lets you know checking may bereinforced with a text messageHearing the ringtone associated with your mother-in-law lets youknow you may have an unpleasant conversation if you answerSeeing boiling water lets you know that pouring the water on atea bag will result in a cup of teaSeeing a police car by the side of the road results in driversobeying the speed limitSeeing your grandmother is a signal that telling a dirty joke won’tbe appreciatedSign on the pizzeria door that says “Due to inclement weather weare sold out of wings” so you don’t bother going inType (SD or lta 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus controlGiven several examples, identify which represent stimulus control and which represent stimulusgeneralization, and generate new examples for each.Type(Stimulus Control or StimulusGeneralization)ExampleMuhammed is a 3-year-old boy who says “cat” when he sees anyfurry, four-legged animal with a tail.Rodrigo is a 4-year-old boy who says “cat” when he sees cats and“dog” when he sees dogs.Earl only attempts to open his hotel room door when he sees thelight turn green after putting the key card in the slot.Fiona recognizes a phone with a cord and rotary dial even thoughshe has only ever used a touch-screen mobile phone.Mikka answers when someone asks “how are you?” or “how yadoing?” or “what’s happening?”Isabel asks her father for money because she knows he will give itto her, but never bothers to ask her mother who is frugal.Stimulus GeneralizationStimulus ControlStimulus ControlStimulus GeneralizationStimulus GeneralizationStimulus ControlStimulus ControlStimulus GeneralizationStimulus ControlStimulus Generalization 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-11: Define and provide examples of discrimination, generalization, and maintenanceGiven several examples, identify which describe discrimination, generalization, and maintenance, andgenerate new examples for each.Type(discrimination, generalization, ormaintenance)ExamplePancho learns to use a soda vending machine. When he sees asnack vending machine, he is able to use that one, too.Juliet only takes her macaroni and cheese out of the oven aftershe hears the timer ring.Engel remembers how to knit a scarf from when her grandmothertaught her several years ago.Ramon uses Euros to pay for things in Europe, and dollars to payfor things in America.Maria travels to Italy for her honeymoon, and can understandsome of the spoken language that she learned in high school.Leo learns to drive on a Volkswagen Bug, and is able to drive aJeep and a Mustang without further tionMaintenance 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operationsWrite definitions and examples for each of the different types of motivating operations. Given severalexamples, identify which motivating operation is described for each. Add new examples of each type ofmotivating operation.Type of motivating operationUnconditioned motivatingoperationsConditioned motivatingoperationsDefinitionUnlearned stimulus condition with value- and behavior-alteringeffectsLearned stimulus condition with value- and behavior-altering effectLearning history results in environmental variable thatestablishes/abolishes effectiveness of reinforcing another stimuli;causes/abates behavior reinforced by another stimulusNeutral stimulus is paired with an aversive unconditioned motivatingoperation and acquires the same value-altering and behaviorReflexive motivating operationsaltering effects as the unconditioned motivating operation withwhich it was pairedNeutral stimulus that is paired with unconditioned motivatingoperation or conditioned motivating operation and acquires theSurrogate motivatingsame value-altering and behavior-altering effects as theoperationsunconditioned motivating operation or conditioned motivatingoperation with which it was pairedTransitive motivatingoperationsExampleNot eating for several hours results in hunger, which is amotivating operation that increases value of food and foodseeking behavior.Not drinking for several hours is paired with a commercial ofsomeone enjoying a beer, resulting in beer-seeking and drinkingbehavior. Future beer commercials lead to beer-seeking anddrinking behavior.A mother comes when her child calls for her. The child is morelikely to call for his mother when he has a nightmare. Thenightmare doesn't make the mother's coming more likely, butmakes the mother's presence more reinforcing.A child is asked to clean up his room by his parents. If he doesn'tclean his room within a few hours, he will be nagged about hismessy room. The parents' request to clean his room is a signalwarning that failure to respond will result in a worseningcondition. Over time, the child learns to clean his room quicklywhen asked to avoid the nagging. 2016 SupervisorABATMTypeUnconditioned motivatingoperationsConditioned motivating operationsTransitive motivating operationsReflexive motivating operations

Seeing a fast-food restaurant when hungry can result in goinginto the restaurant and eating, resulting in the reinforcer ofdecreased hunger. This may lead to feelings of hunger whenseeing a fast-food restaurant in the future, even if one hasrecently eaten and shouldn't necessarily feel hungry at that time.Surrogate motivating operationsConditioned motivatingoperationsSurrogate motivating operationsTransitive motivating operationsReflexive motivating operationsUnconditioned motivatingoperations 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-13: Define and provide examples of rule-governed and contingency-shaped behaviorGiven several examples, identify which describe rule-governed and which describe contingency-shapedbehavior, and generate new examples for each.Type (rule-governed orcontingency-shaped)ExampleAhmad did not need to be hit by a car to learn not to run intotraffic.Severine was burned when she touched a hot stove and will nottouch the hot stove again in the future.Nemy opens a cookie jar and finds cookies. She is more likely toopen the cookie jar in the future.Laurent eats a healthy diet so that he can maintain a hapedRule-governedContingency-shaped 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operantsGiven several examples, identify which verbal operants are described, and generate definitions and newexamples for each.Type of verbal ualDefinitionA specific response when the speaker asks for what he or she wantsor needs; the only verbal behavior which directly benefits thespeaker; source of control is unconditioned motivating operations orconditioned motivating operations and reinforcing consequence ofreceiving what is requestedA speaker names things and actions; source of control is non-verbaldiscriminative stimulus and consequenceA speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others; nopoint to point correspondence with the verbal stimuli;source of control is verbal discriminative stimulus and consequenceA speaker repeats a verbal behavior of another speaker; there is apoint-to-point correspondence with the verbal stimuli; source ofcontrol is verbal discriminative stimulus and consequenceSpoken verbal response that evokes a written, typed, or fingerspelled response. The cause of a textual verbal operant. Spoken bythe person who is dictating to others.Text (written, typed, or finger-spelled) that is evoked by a spokenverbal response. Caused by a transcription verbal operant. Occursby the person who is hearing a verbal response.Type(mand, tact, intraverbal, echoic,transcription, textual)ExampleSD: Child sees an airplaneResponse: "Airplane."SD: "Old McDonald had a . . . "Response: "Farm."SD: Students present in the classResponse: Teacher giving a class lectureSD: Feeling of hungerResponse: "Can I have some pizza?"SD: Teacher giving a class lectureResponse: Student writing down the words said by the teacherSD: "Apple."Response: "Apple."SD: Conference speaker introduces the keynote speaker by nameResponse: Sign-language interpreter finger-spells the name 2016 tualEchoicTextual

SD: Music is too loudResponse: "Turn it down, please."SD: "How old are you?"Response: "Six years old."SD: People are in the audience at a conferenceResponse: Keynote speaker says her contact informationSD: Child sees a cat runningResponse: "Running."SD: "Dog."Response: ctIntraverbalEchoicTranscriptionTextual 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-15: Define and provide examples of derived stimulus relationsGiven several examples, identify which derived stimulus relationship is described, and generatedefinitions and new examples for each.Type of derived yDefinitionWhen without training, a response is selected that matches thesample stimulus exactly. A AWhen the learner is taught that A B and demonstrates that B Awithout additional training.A stimulus-stimulus relationship that results from training in twoother stimulus-stimulus relationships. A B, B C, therefore A CTypeExampleA person is taught to pick the picture of a dog when shown thewritten word "dog," and without additional teaching, will pick thewritten word "dog" when shown a picture of a dog.Given the written word "dog" and three other written wordsincluding "dog," "cat," and "mouse," the person picks the word"dog."A person is taught to pick the picture of a dog when hearing thespoken word "dog," and to pick the written word dog whenshown a picture of a dog; without additional training, she can pickthe written word "dog" when hearing the spoken word mmetryTransitivity 2016 SupervisorABATM

C-2: Distinguish among direct, indirect, and product measures of behaviorGiven several examples, identify which types of measures are described (direct, indirect, or product),and generate definitions and new examples for each.Type of measureDirect measureIndirect measureProduct measureDefinitionBehavior is directly observed and measured. If done correctly,considered a valid way to measure behavior.Assumptions about behavior are made based on a survey, ratingscale, or other means. Considered less valid than direct measuresbecause inferences are required between the measure and thebehavior of interest.Behavior is measured by the permanent effect it has on theenvironment.Type(direct, indirect, product)ExampleTaking trial-by-trial data on independent and promptedresponses during discrete trial teaching.Asking a staff member to fill out a survey to determine functionof behavior.Parent reported that the child was manding more frequently athome today.Child’s name written on the top of the worksheet.Recording data related to frequency of self-injury by reviewing avideo recording.Number of pieces of litter in the park before and after addingextra trash cans.Direct measureIndirect measureIndirect measureProduct measureDirect measureProduct measureDirect measureIndirect measureProduct measureDirect measureIndirect measureProduct measure 2016 SupervisorABATM

C-5: Measure form and strength of behavior (e.g., topography, magnitude)Given topographical definitions of several examples of behavior, develop magnitude measures for each.DefinitionPetra tears her clothing using her hands.Angelo speaks in a conversational tone ofvoice.Maura exercises using hand weights.Jack scratches his teachers by running hisfingernails along their skin.Magnitude MeasurePossible rating scale:1 – single tear, less than 1 inch2 – 2 to 4 tears, less than 1 inch each3 – single tear, more than 1 inch4 – 2-4 tears, at least one more than 1 inch5 – more than 2-4 tears of any lengthPossible rating scale:1 – inaudible at any distance2 – audible only within 2 feet3 – audible within 3-5 feet4 – audible within 3-10 feet5 – audible from anywhere in the roomPossible measure:Number of repetitions and weights for each exercise.Possible measures:Length of scratchIntensity of color (light red, dark red) 2016 SupervisorABATM

D-2: Distinguish between internal and external validityGiven several examples, identify which type of validity is described (internal or external), and generatedefinitions and new examples for each.Type of validityDefinitionInternal validityExternal validity% correct respondingExampleBeing reasonably certain that a student’s problem behavior wasreduced by functional communication training after theintervention was put in place.TypeInternal validity100806040Internal ing that a token economy is effective in both homeand school environments.Using strategies that have been shown to be effective in teachingneurotypical children to read with children with neurologicaldisorders, and finding that their reading skills improve also.External validityExternal validityInternal validityExternal validityInternal validityExternal validity 2016 SupervisorABATM

B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations Write definitions and examples for each of the different types of motivating operations. Given several examples, identify which motivating operation is described for each. Add new examples of each type of motivating operation. Type of motivating operation Definition Unconditioned motivating

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