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CHAPTERArrays8In this chapter, you will:Declare arraysInitialize an arrayUse variable subscripts with an arrayDeclare and use arrays of objectsSearch an array and use parallel arraysPass arrays to and return arrays from methodsUnless noted otherwise, all images are 2014 Cengage LearningCopyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review hasdeemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

CHAPTER 8ArraysDeclaring Arrays398While completing the first five chapters in this book, you stored values in variables. In thoseearly chapters, you simply stored a value and used it, usually only once, but never more than afew times. In Chapter 6, you created loops that allow you to “recycle” variables and use themmany times; that is, after creating a variable, you can assign a value, use the value, and then,in successive cycles through the loop, reuse the variable as it holds different values.At times, however, you might encounter situations in which storing just one value at a timein memory does not meet your needs. For example, a sales manager who supervises 20employees might want to determine whether each employee has produced sales above orbelow the average amount. When you enter the first employee’s sales value into anapplication, you can’t determine whether it is above or below average because you don’tknow the average until you have all 20 values. Unfortunately, if you attempt to assign20 sales values to the same variable, when you assign the value for the second employee,it replaces the value for the first employee.A possible solution is to create 20 separate employee sales variables, each with a unique name,so you can store all the sales until you can determine an average. A drawback to this methodis that if you have 20 different variable names to be assigned values, you need 20 separateassignment statements. For 20 different variable names, the statement that calculates totalsales will be unwieldy, such as:total firstAmt secondAmt thirdAmt This method might work for 20 salespeople, but what if you have 10,000 salespeople?The best solution is to create an array. An array is a named list of data items that allhave the same type. Each data item is an element of the array. You declare an array variablein the same way you declare any simple variable, but you insert a pair of square bracketsafter the type. For example, to declare an array of double values to hold sales figures forsalespeople, you can write the following:double[] salesFigures;Similarly, to create an array of integers to hold student ID numbers, you can write thefollowing:int[] idNums;In Java, you can also declare an array variable by placing the square brackets after the array name, as indouble salesFigures[];. This format is familiar to C and C programmers, but the preferredformat among Java programmers is to place the brackets following the variable type and before thevariable name.You can provide any legal identifier you want for an array, but Java programmersconventionally name arrays by following the same rules they use for variables—arraynames start with a lowercase letter and use uppercase letters to begin subsequent words.Additionally, many programmers observe one of the following conventions to make itmore obvious that the name represents a group of items:Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review hasdeemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves t

Search an array and use parallel arrays Pass arrays to and return arrays from methods . In Java, you can also declare an array variable by placing the square brackets after the array name, as in . but Java programmers conventionally name arrays by following the same rules they use for variables—array names start with a lowercase letter .

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