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Calhoun: The NPS Institutional ArchiveTheses and DissertationsThesis Collection2005-03Command and control of Special Operations Forcesmissions in the US Northern Command Area of ResponsibilityMcGregor, Otis W., IIIMonterey, California. Naval Postgraduate Schoolhttp://hdl.handle.net/10945/2198

NAVALPOSTGRADUATESCHOOLMONTEREY, CALIFORNIATHESISCOMMAND AND CONTROL OF SPECIALOPERATIONS FORCES MISSIONS IN THE USNORTHERN COMMAND AREA OFRESPONSIBILITYbyOtis W. McGregor IIIMarch 2005Thesis Advisor:Second Reader:Christopher BellavitaRobert SimeralApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited

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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEForm Approved OMB No. 0704-0188Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, includingthe time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, andcompleting and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or anyother aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washingtonheadquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project(0704-0188) Washington DC 20503.1. AGENCY USE ONLY2. REPORT DATEMarch 20053. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVEREDMaster’s Thesis4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE:5. FUNDING NUMBERSCommand and Control of Special Operations Forces Missions in the US NorthernCommand Area of Responsibility6. AUTHOR Lieutenant Colonel Otis W. McGregor III7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESSNaval Postgraduate SchoolMonterey, CA 93943-50009. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESSN/A8. PERFORMINGORGANIZATION REPORTNUMBER10. SPONSORING/MONITORINGAGENCY REPORT NUMBER11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the officialpolicy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT12b. DISTRIBUTION CODEApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words)The need for a well thought out, planned, and rehearsed command and control organization to conductspecial operations in the US Northern Command Area of Responsibility is vital to success in defending theHomeland. Currently, USNORTHCOM does not have an apportioned or assigned command and control structurefor the conduct of special operations. This thesis analyzes three courses of action to fulfill this requirement: usethe current USNORTHCOM battle staff command structure including the integration of the Standing Joint ForceHeadquarters-North; rely on the newly formed US Special Operations Command’s Joint Task Force Structures;and establish a Theater Special Operations Command North assigned to USNORTHCOM. Through the conductof analysis and research this thesis recommends that The Joint Staff direct the reorganization required to establisha Theater Special Operations Command North to exercise command and control of special operations forcesconducting operations in the USNORTHCOM AOR.14. SUBJECT TERMS Special Operations Forces (SOF), Homeland Security (HLS), HomelandDefense (HLD), US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), Command and Control (C2), Joint TaskForce (JTF), Joint Special Operations Task Force (JSOTF), Threat to Homeland, Posse Comitatus17. SECURITYCLASSIFICATION OFREPORTUnclassified18. SECURITYCLASSIFICATION OF THISPAGEUnclassifiedNSN 7540-01-280-550015. NUMBER OFPAGES11116. PRICE CODE19. SECURITY20. LIMITATIONCLASSIFICATION OFOF ABSTRACTABSTRACTUnclassifiedULStandard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18i

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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitedCOMMAND AND CONTROL OF SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCESMISSIONS IN THE US NORTHERN COMMAND AREA OF RESPONSIBILITYOtis W. McGregor IIILieutenant Colonel, United States ArmyB.S., Texas A&M University, 1987Submitted in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the degree ofMASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES(HOMELAND SECURITY AND DEFENSE)from theNAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMarch 2005Author:Otis W. McGregor IIIApproved by:Christopher BellavitaThesis AdvisorRobert SimeralSecond Reader/ CAPT (Ret)Douglas PorchChairman, Department of National Security Affairsiii

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ABSTRACTThe need for a well thought out, planned, and rehearsed command and controlorganization to conduct special operations in the US Northern Command Area ofResponsibility is vital to success in defending the Homeland.Currently,USNORTHCOM does not have an apportioned or assigned command and controlstructure for the conduct of special operations. This thesis analyzes three courses ofaction to fulfill this requirement: use the current USNORTHCOM battle staff commandstructure including the integration of the Standing Joint Force Headquarters-North; relyon the newly formed US Special Operations Command’s Joint Task Force Structures; andestablish a Theater Special Operations Command North assigned to USNORTHCOM.Through the conduct of analysis and research this thesis recommends that The Joint Staffdirect the reorganization required to establish a Theater Special Operations CommandNorth to exercise command and control of special operations forces conductingoperations in the USNORTHCOM AOR.v

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TABLE OF CONTENTSI.INTRODUCTION.1A.HOMELAND DEFENSE VIGNETTE .2B.IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM.3C.BACKGROUND .71.Desert One .72.Holloway Commission .93.Goldwater-Nichols Defense Act .104.USSOCOM Organization.12D.SPECIAL OPERATIONS MISSIONS .14E.USNORTHERNCOMMANDMISSIONSANDRESPONSIBILITIES .17F.THESIS CONSTRUCT .20II.LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY.23A.RESEARCH QUESTION .23B.DISCUSSION .241.The Theory and Doctrine of Special Operations .252.The Theory and Doctrine of Homeland Security.263.America's Historical Experience with Special Operations andHomeland Security.274.The Spectrum of Threats USNORTHCOM Can Expect to Face.295.The Strategic and Political Environment in WhichUSNORTHCOM Operates .31C.METHODOLOGY .331.Eliminated Courses of Action .332.Missions in the USNORTHCOM AOR.353.Attribute Definitions.35a.Responsiveness .35b.Continuity of C2 .36c.Knowledge of the AOR.36d.Manpower Cost .37e.SOF Ability to Operate and Integrate with Interagency .374.Conduct of Analysis of Courses of Action .38III.ANALYSIS .39A.INTRODUCTION.39B.THREATS TO THE HOMELAND .40C.MISSIONS .431.Homeland Security and Homeland Defense .432.USNORTHCOM Missions .463.USNORTHCOM Special Operations Missions.49D.COURSE OF ACTION DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS.521.USNORTHCOM Adaptive Joint Force Headquarters .52vii

2.E.USNORTHCOM Adaptive Joint Force HeadquartersComparison to Attributes.56a.Responsiveness .56b.Continuity of C2 .57c.Knowledge of the AOR.57d.Manpower Cost .58eSOF Ability to Operate and Integrate with Interagency .583.Theater Special Operations Command North .584.Theater Special Operations Command North Comparison toAttributes .60a.Responsiveness .60b.Continuity of C2 .60c.Knowledge of the AOR.61d.Manpower Cost .62e.SOF Ability to Operate and Integrate with Interagency .625.USSOCOM Provided Joint Task Force.636.Comparison of USSOCOM Joint Task Force to Attributes .65a.Responsiveness .65b.Continuity of C2 .66c.Knowledge of the AOR.66d.Manpower Cost .67e.SOF Ability to Operate and Integrate with Interagency .67SUMMARY .67IV.FINDINGS .69A.INTRODUCTION.69B.ATTRIBUTE COMPARISON .691.Responsiveness .692.Responsiveness Rank Order .713.Continuity of C2.714.Continuity of C2 Rank Order.725.Knowledge of the AOR.726.Knowledge of the AOR Rank Order.737.Manpower Cost .738.Manpower Cost Rank Order .749.SOF Ability to Operate and Integrate with Interagency .7410.SOF Ability to Operate and Integrate with Interagency RankOrder.75C.COURSE OF ACTION COMPARISON MATRIX.75D.SUMMARY .75V.CONCLUSION .77A.INTRODUCTION.77B.VIGNETTE CONCLUSION .78C.RESEARCH QUESTION REVISITED .78D.POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS .80E.FURTHER STUDIES REQUIRED OR RECOMMENDED .81viii

F.G.EFFECT ON WAR ON TERROR.81CONCLUSION .82BIBLIOGRAPHY .85INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST .91ix

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LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.US Combatant Commands’ Areas of Responsibility .18US Combatant Commands’ Areas of Responsibility .46USNORTHCOM Organization and Command Relationships .48USNORTHCOM Adaptive Joint Force Headquarters.53Standing Joint Force Headquarters-North .55Theater-Level Special Operations Forces Command and Control .59USSOCOM Deployable Joint Task Force .64Vignette C2 Structure for a Maritime Special Operation Mission .78xi

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LIST OF TABLESTable 1.Course of Action Comparison Matrix.75xiii

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ACRONYM JPGAir Force Special Operations CommandAdaptive Joint Force HeadquartersArea of OperationCommand and ControlCivil AffairsCivil Affairs OperationsCommander’s Executive BoardCombined Intelligence Fusion GroupConsequence ManagementCourse of ActionCombatant CommandCurrent Operations GroupConcept errorism Joint Task ForceDirect ActionDrug Enforcement AgencyDefense Planning GuidanceDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of DefenseDepartment of JusticeDomestic Warning CenterEmergency Action PlanForeign Internal DefenseForeign Terrorist OrganizationsGround Based Missile DefenseGeographic Combatant Commander or CommandGeneral (US Army abbreviation)Homeland DefenseHomeland SecurityHostage Rescue TeamIntegrated Survey PlanInformation OperationsInitially Operational CapableJoint Combined Exchange TrainingJoint Forces CommandJoint Forces Maritime Component CommandJoint Force Special Operations Component CommandJoint Information Superiority GroupJoint Manning DocumentJoint Planning Groupxv

JSOTFJoint Special Operations Task ForceJTFJoint Task ForceJTF-NJoint Task Force-North formerly known as JTF-6LFALead Federal AgencyLNOLiaison OfficerMACAMilitary Assistance to Civil Authorities also known asDefense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA)MACSOG-VMilitary Assistance Command Special Operations GroupVietnamMFPMajor Force ProgramMGMajor GeneralNEONon-Combatant Evacuation OperationsNSSENational Special Security EventNORADNorth American Aerospace DefenseOEFOperation Enduring FreedomOIFOperation Iraqi FreedomONEOperation NOBLE EAGLEOPGOperations Planning GroupOPTOperations Planning TeamPSYOPPsychological OperationsSecDefSecretary of DefenseSJFHQ-NStanding Joint Force Headquarters-NorthSMEsSubject Matter ExpertsSOSpecial OperationsSOC-KSpecial Operations Command-KoreaSOCSOUTHSpecial Operations Command SouthSODSpecial Operations DivisionSOFSpecial Operations ForcesSOLICSpecial Operations and Low Intensity ConflictSRSpecial ReconnaissanceSWATSpecial Tactics and Weapons TeamsTACONTactical ControlTDATable of Distribution AllowancesTSCTheater Security CooperationTSOCTheater Special Operations CommandUCPUnified Command PlanUSAFUS Air ForceUSAUS ArmyUSASOCUS Army Special Operations CommandUSCGUS Coast GuardUSNUS NavyUSNORTHCOMUS Northern CommandUSSOCOMUS Special Operations CommandWMDWeapons of Mass DestructionWOTWar on Terrorxvi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI would to thank my wife, Suzanne and our children, Ciarra, Braden, and Camdenfor allowing me to take the time to complete this thesis. I also appreciate the time thatwas afforded me by the USNORTHCOM J3 and the USNORTHCOM SpecialOperations Division to complete this endeavor.xvii

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I.INTRODUCTIONSpecial Operations Forces are a critical component of United States NorthernCommand’s mission. However, unless significant changes are made to the manner inwhich US Northern Command is structured, the capabilities of Special Operations Forcesmay not be used to their full potential when they are most needed. This paper argues thatUS Northern Command should reorganize to provide better control of Special Operationsmissions in the US Northern Command Area of Responsibility.US Northern Command was established as a Geographic Combatant Commanderin October 2002 with the dual mission of defending the United States from aggressionand providing support to civil authorities in times of crisis and disaster. In order todefend the Homeland in the most effective manner, the primary focus is on defeatingattacks of aggression prior to terrorist attacks being realized in the United States. Theonly means of successfully defeating these attacks prior to their import into the homelandis to win the “away game.” The most adept force to conduct counter-terrorism operationsof this nature are United States Special Operations Forces (SOF). Command and controlof SOF requires an in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and weaknesses of these forceswhich can only be affected by a structure of command with this knowledge, a SpecialOperations-capable command.US Northern Command, in its current configuration,lacks a Special Operations Command capability. In order for US Northern Command tohave the highest probability of success in the execution of Special Operations, it isimperative that a Special Operations capable command be established to provide theCommander, US Northern Command the option to control Special Operations in the USNorthern Command area of responsibility (AOR).This paper will explore the most probable courses of action available for theCommander, US Northern Command to command and control Special Operations in theUS Northern Command AOR.Currently (2005), US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) does not have acommand element with the organic capability to command and control SOF assigned orapportioned to the command. USNORTHCOM has commanders and staffs capable of1

executing command and control in a conventional operation, but the capability tocommand and control Special Operations (SO) does not currently exist in theUSNORTHCOM span of control. In order for USNORTHCOM to realize this capability,changes in the training and organization of t

a Theater Special Operations Command North to exercise command and control of special operations forces conducting operations in the USNORTHCOM AOR. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 111 14. SUBJECT TERMS Special Operations Forces (SOF), Homeland Security (HLS), Homeland Defense (HLD), US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), Command and Control (C2), Joint Task