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TesT Youroak wisdomWelcome toShields Oak GroveWhat do all oakshave in common?How many kinds ofoaks are there?Where do oaksgrow in the wild?Special Collections, Shields LibraryLift the flaps to check your answers.How tall dooaks get?How long dooaks live?What are oakapples?Dr. John M. Tucker was a professor of botany,director of the Arboretum (1965-66 and 1972-84),and a prominent oak researcher. Many of the oaksin Shields Oak Grove were started in the 1960sfrom acorns collected from around theworld for his research.Explore Shields Oak Grove to learn more about these amazing trees.Peter J. Shields Oak GroveDebbie AldridgeShields Oak Grove is named for Judge Peter J.Shields, often called the father of the UC Daviscampus. Judge Shields and his wife Caroleecreated a fund to provide support for theArboretum’s land along the waterway.arboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library ServicesDr. Tucker created an endowmentto help preserve the Grove forfuture generations. Contact theUC Davis Arboretum to learnmore about supporting ShieldsOak Grove and other givingopportunities.

TesT Youroak wisdomWelcome toShields Oak Grove Oaks have acorns—nuts thatgrow in a scaly cupEquatorTropic of Capricorn There are approximately 500 species of oaktrees and shrubs in the world Oaks have tassel-like hangingflowers; their pollen isdistributed by the wind The UC Davis Arboretum collection includesabout 100 species, varieties, and hybrids 400 years—oldestnative valley oak(Quercus lobata) inthe Arboretum320’6’Statue of LibertyOak TreePerson804020 1,500 years—oldestEnglish oaks (Quercusrobur)—This 1,000year old tree grows inSherwood ForestGalli200’Oaks grow from2 feet to 200 feettall—they areextremely variablein appearance.The Persian oaksin front of you areabout 90 feet tall.QuercusOaks are native to the Northern Hemisphere, fromthe cold northern latitudes to tropical Southeast Asiaand Central America. Shields Oak Grove features oaksfrom around the world. 13,000 years—shrub oak (Quercus palmeri) inRiverside County, CaliforniaEmily GriswoldAllan JonesTropic of CancerAn oak apple, or gall, isnot a fruit at all. When atiny wasp injects its egginto an oak twig, the treeforms a growth of planttissue, called a gall, aroundthe egg. The gall providesfood and protection for thewasp larva as it maturesand eats its way out—lookfor the tiny exit hole.Explore Shields Oak Grove to learn more about these amazing trees.Peter J. Shields Oak Grovearboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library ServicesShields Oak Grove is named for Judge Peter J.Shields, often called the father of the UC Daviscampus. Judge Shields and his wife Caroleecreated a fund to provide support for theArboretum’s land along the waterway.Debbie AldridgeDebbie AldridgeAllan Jones Oaks are trees and shrubsthat belong to the genusQuercus, meaning “fine tree”Special Collections, Shields LibraryLift the flaps to check your answers.Dr. John M. Tucker was a professor of botany,director of the Arboretum (1965-66 and 1972-84),and a prominent oak researcher. Many of the oaksin Shields Oak Grove were started in the 1960sfrom acorns collected from around theworld for his research.Dr. Tucker created an endowmentto help preserve the Grove forfuture generations. Contact theUC Davis Arboretum to learnmore about supporting ShieldsOak Grove and other givingopportunities.

What Dooaks look likewhite oakQuercus albatemperateforests of theeastern U.S.This white oak (Quercus alba) is what someone from the easternU.S. would consider a typical oak, but. oaks are variable.What Do All Oaks Have inCommon?bur oakQuercus macrocarpatemperate forests of thecentral and eastern U.S.bur oakQuercus macrocarpatemperate forests of thecentral and eastern U.S. Oaks belong to the genus Quercus and theplant family Fagaceae, the beech family Oaks have acorns – nuts borne in a scaly cupvalley oakQuercus lobatainterior valleys ofCalifornia Oaks have tassel-like catkins (hanging maleflowers) that release pollen in springmesa oakQuercusengelmanniicoastal southernCalifornianetleaf oakQuercus rugosamountains of Mexicocoast live oakQuercus agrifoliacoastal hills of Californiagray oakQuercus griseasouthwest U.S.and Mexicooak of TaborQuercus ithaburensiseastern Mediterranean regionkermes oakQuercus cocciferaMediterranean regionkermes oakQuercus cocciferarocky hillsides ofthe MediterraneanregionChinese cork oakQuercus variabilistemperate forests of east AsiaChisos red oakQuercus gravesiidesert mountains of west TexasTurkish oakQuercus cerrismountains of southernEurope and Asia MinorThese are all different kinds of oaks.Can you find leaves and acorns that look like these in Shields Oak Grove?Peter J. Shields Oak Grovearboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library ServicesAll photos were taken by Allan JonesAll acorns and leaves are actual sizecoast live oakQuercus agrifoliacoastal hills of CaliforniaOaks rely on wind to carry pollen from the maleflowers (shown here) to the female flowers, whichare tiny and nondescript.

treeCTIf ThIsouldalkGrowing up in a living museum of plantsAge 46 –Sampled and PressedArboretum volunteers collectedand pressed samples of my stems toadd to the UC Davis Herbarium (acollection of pressed plant samples),so researchers can study me andmake sure I’m properly identified.Noah’s Ark for Oaks?20092007As a member of the North American PlantCollections Consortium (NAPCC) MultisiteOak Collection, we, along with a growinglist of other public gardens, have committedto maintain our oak collection at the highesthorticultural and museum standards to ensureits long-term preservation for research, teaching,and conservation.Although large, the Arboretum’s collectionincludes only 14% of the 500 oak species thatoccur worldwide. Oaks come from a broad rangeof climate and soil conditions, and no singlegarden can grow every kind of oak. By partneringwith gardens from different climate zones acrossNorth America, together we can preserve more oakspecies, hybrids, and horticultural varieties thanany of us could on our own.Age 44 – A Great HonorThe Arboretum oak collection wasinducted into the North AmericanPlant Collections Consortium. I’mnow part of an important nationalcollection!Emily GriswoldAge 36 – A New LabelI got a new label that helps visitorsidentify me and learn where myspecies grows in the wild.2006Dawn Spinella2003Age 2 – PlantingI was so small whenthe gardener plantedme here from mynursery pot that I hadto be hand-watered andprotected from rabbitswith a wire cage.Age 40 – Health Check-upI get periodichealth checksfrom an arborist,or tree doctor. In2003, my healthwas rated as good.1999Emily Griswold1983The Sapling YearsAge 20–Becoming a Mature Tree1970s1965Allan Jones1963Around this timeI started floweringevery spring andmaking acorns everyfall. UC Davis classesstarted to come hereto study me and theother oaks.My Wild OriginsAllan JonesMembers of the NAPCCMultisite Oak Collection(as of 2010) Chicago Botanic Garden, Glencoe, ILCornell Plantations, Ithaca, NYDenver Botanic Gardens, Denver, CODonald E. Davis Arboretum, Auburn, ALHolden Arboretum, Kirtland, OHLandis Arboretum, Esperance, NYMissouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis, MOMorris Arboretum of the University ofPennsylvania, Philadelphia, PAThe Morton Arboretum, Lisle, ILMount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, MANew York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NYRancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden,Claremont, CAScott Arboretum of Swarthmore College,Swarthmore, PAStarhill Forest Arboretum, Petersburg, ILUC Davis Arboretum, Davis, CAThe University of California Botanical Garden,Berkeley, CAUniversity of Washington Botanic Gardens,Seattle, WAAre Oaks Threatened?Joining the ScientificCollectionA UC Davis student collected myacorn in west Texas while workingfor botany professor John Tucker.Emily GriswoldGoogleAge 43 – On the MapStudent mappersdetermined my GPSlocation and addedme to a new digitalmap. Researcherscan now find meon a map on theArboretum website.The curator gavemy acorn anaccession number(A63.0009) to trackmy life and times inthe Arboretum.In California and worldwide, many oak speciesare threatened with extinction by urbanization,clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing,overharvesting, and global climate change. Arecent global study of oaks found 29 species tobe critically endangered or endangered and 27more species to be vulnerable. In Shields OakGrove, Santa Cruz Island oak (Quercus parvula)and Brandegee oak (Quercus brandegeei) from BajaCalifornia are both considered endangered.startherePeter J. Shields Oak Grovearboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services

Should I Grow anoakYou decide. Many oaks thrive in hot Central Valley summers,but some are too big for urban gardens.To grow. Picturesque spreading branches addbeauty to the garden; mature treesincrease property values Many oaks are long lived anddrought tolerant, provide shade,and require little maintenance Contrary to popular belief,many oak species growrapidly and tolerate normalgarden irrigation Oaks support nativewildlife like jays,squirrels, insects, andsongbirds Some oaks, like valleyoak, are resistant toSudden Oak Death, adisease that is epidemicin coastal northernCalifornia (not currently aproblem in the Central Valley)Peter J. Shields Oak Groveor not to grow? Trees that are too big for the site cancause problems for home gardeners Pruning large trees can be expensive,and spreading roots can lift sidewalksand damage foundations Leaf litter and acorns can be messy Evergreen oaks create deep shadethat makes it hard to grow otherplants Native oaks and lawns arenot compatible—frequentirrigation can cause fungaldiseases in some oaks Deep-rooted seedlings can be achallenge to weed Some oaks, like coast live oak,are susceptible to Sudden OakDeath disease in coastal regions(not currently a problem in theCentral Valley)arboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library ServicesRecommended Oaksfor the Central ValleyVALLEY OAKQuercus lobataMighty deciduous oak ofthe Central Valley is uprightand fast-growing whenyoung. It grows to 50-70 ft.tall with a spreading crownas it matures. Toleratesmoderate irrigation, heat,and alkaline soils and isimmune to Sudden OakDeath.ENGLISH OAKQuercus roburFairly fast-growingdeciduous tree to 5060 ft. tall with a wideopen canopy. Thereare also upright formswith narrow canopies.Tolerates occasionalto frequent watering.Immune to SuddenOak Death.SOUTHERN LIVE OAK Quercus virginianaPicturesque evergreen oak of the South, with wide,open canopy of glossy leaves. Grows moderatelyfast to 40 ft. tall and wide. Tolerates irrigation ordry conditions. Immune to Sudden Oak Death.GAMBEL OAKQuercus gambeliiSmall, ruggedoak to 30 ft. tall,deciduous,adaptable tomany soil types andmoisture levels. Fastgrower on rich soil.Can be multi-trunked.Immune to SuddenOak Death.All sidebar photos: Emily Griswold

What CanI Plant UnderoaksWhy is over-watering bad forCalifornia native oak trees?Diseases such as oak root fungus, caused byArmillaria fungus, and root rot, caused byPhytophthora water molds, are encouraged bysummer watering and can kill mature trees.OAKK.Because over-watering can harm mature native oaks, plants grown under these oaks needto thrive with low summer water. Many California native plants are good oak partnersbecause they can grow well with deep watering once or twice a month.O.Try these oak partners:Jack Kelly ClarkIf your oak is native to a region that is dry in summer,like California or the Mediterranean basin, you needplants that like dry shade.Armillaria mushrooms at the baseof an infected treeDeergrass(Muhlenbergia rigens) 2005 Louis M. LandryCanyon snow Pacific iris (Iris douglasiana)California fescue(Festuca californica)Jack Kelly ClarkHummingbird sage (Salvia spathacea)shrubsNikhil JoshiSnowberry(Symphoricarpos albusvar. laevigatus)perennialsEllen ZagorygrassesEllen ZagoryEmily GriswoldVisit the Arboretum website (arboretum.ucdavis.edu) for more informationon these and other local favorites.Peter J. Shields Oak Grovearboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library ServicesArmillaria fungus under the bark of aninfected tree

jays:AGlobal “Gardeners”Jays “plant” oaks all around the world. In fact, jayslive wherever oaks grow. By burying acorns, manyspecies of jays have helped oaks spread acrossNorth America, Europe, and Asia.ccidentAl GArdenersJays “plant” oak trees by stashingtheir acorns underground. Neal KramerCreative Commons AttributionA single westernscrub-jay canharvest upto 7,000 ripeacorns in the fallin California.The WESTERN SCRUB-JAY “plants” valley oak(Quercus lobata) acorns here in Davis.Allan JonesThe jay can rememberwhere the acorns are“planted” for up to eightmonths and will dig themup to eat later in the year.Any leftover acornscan start to growinto new oak trees.westernviews.usThe jay carriesthe acornsaway andburies themone at a time.Covering the acorns withleaves or pebbles helps hidethem from other jays andacorn thieves like squirrels.The GREEN JAY “plants” netleaf oak (Quercusrugosa) acorns in Mexico.FALLPeter J. Shields Oak GrovewinterspringJ. Fouarge, Aves-NatagoraAllan JonesThe EURASIAN JAY “plants”Persian oak (Quercus castaneifolia)acorns in the Caucasus Mountainsof Eurasia.arboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services

Wine, Dine, Write, RideThis English Oak Does it All!Lift and learn how different parts of theEnglish oak have been used throughout the ages.Quercus roburHonor?www.euforgen.orgDine?English OakDistribution of English oak, Quercus robur. Also calledle chêne pédonculé (French), die Stieleiche (German),kocsányos tölgy (Hungarian), el roble (Spanish),sommereik (Norwegian), la farnia (Italian), ficheiro(Portuguese), stejarul (Romanian), tammi (Finnish),dosya (Turkish), zomereik (Dutch), and dub letní (Czech).Sail? English oak is native to Europe, Asia Minor,the Caucasus, and parts of North Africa Trees may live up to 1,500 years Reaches 50–70 feet tall with a trunk diameter of12 feetWrite?Cultural importance Oaks were sacred to Norse, Celtic, Slavic,Teutonic and Greek peoples English oak’s ancient Celtic name Duir meansdoor—the tree was considered a threshholdto other dimensions Druids built sacred circles of stones underspreading oaks or in oak grovesRide?CeoilWine?Quercus robur, English OakPeter J. Shields Oak GroveCarrigagulla stone circle and oaks, County Cork, Ireland In Bronze-Age Europe, oaks wereassociated with gods of thunderand lightning. Hercules called upthunderstorms by rattling an oakclub in a hollow oak. The Englishstill say, “Beware of an oak, it drawsthe stroke.”arboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services

Wine, Dine, Write, RideThis English Oak Does it All!English OakQuercus roburEnglish oak leaves have been usedas symbols of courage, strength,and honor in many cultures.The oak leaf wreath shown herecame from a burial site in theDardanelles (modern Turkey) fromthe 4th Century BC.www.euforgen.orgPeople have pastured pigs andother livestock in English oakwoodlands to feed on acorns forthousands of years. Iberian hamfrom Spain, Alentejo ham fromPortugal, and Westphalian hamfrom Germany are all producedfrom pigs fed on acorns.Chris RorresJim ChampionLift and learn how different parts of theEnglish oak have been used throughout the ages.James CridlandDistribution of English oak, Quercus robur. Also calledle chêne pédonculé (French), die Stieleiche (German),kocsányos tölgy (Hungarian), el roble (Spanish),sommereik (Norwegian), la farnia (Italian), ficheiro(Portuguese), stejarul (Romanian), tammi (Finnish),dosya (Turkish), zomereik (Dutch), and dub letní (Czech).Wood from the trunk andbranches of English oak has beenprized as a shipbuilding materialover the centuries for its strengthand flexibility. Viking ships, thegreat ocean-going vessels of theearly middle ages, were built of thewood of English oak trees. English oak is native to Europe, Asia Minor,the Caucasus, and parts of North Africa Trees may live up to 1,500 years Reaches 50–70 feet tall with a trunk diameter of12 feetInk made from oak galls (roundgrowths caused by insects) was thestandard writing and drawing inkin England and the rest of Europefrom about the 12th century to the19th century, and remained in usewell into the 20th century.Cultural importanceCeoilEnglish oak wood has been usedto make wine barrels for centuriesfor its water-tight properties. Agingwine in oak barrels can affect itsflavor, color and texture.The tannic acid found in oak barkwas the original substance used totan (preserve) leather, such as thatused to make saddles.Sanjay AcharyaRooster’s Saddlery, LLC, 406-363-2478 Oaks were sacred to Norse, Celtic, Slavic,Teutonic and Greek peoples English oak’s ancient Celtic name Duir meansdoor—the tree was considered a threshholdto other dimensions Druids built sacred circles of stones underspreading oaks or in oak grovesCarrigagulla stone circle and oaks, County Cork, Ireland In Bronze-Age Europe, oaks wereassociated with gods of thunderand lightning. Hercules called upthunderstorms by rattling an oakclub in a hollow oak. The Englishstill say, “Beware of an oak, it drawsthe stroke.”Quercus robur, English OakPeter J. Shields Oak Grovearboretum.ucdavis.eduSign made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services

Age 43 – On the Map Age 36 – A New Label Age 2 – Planting My Wild Origins The Sapling Years Age 44 – A Great Honor Age 40 – Health Check-up Age 20– . Cornell Plantations, Ithaca, NY Denver Botanic Gard

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