Audronė Raškauskienė Jurgita Vaičenonienė PHONETICS

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2UDK 811.111‘342(075.8)Ra233This resource book was approved for publication at the meeting of the Department of English Philology, Facultyof Humanities on 9 October 2012 (Protocol No. 5) and the meeting of the Committee of the Faculty ofHumanities, Vytautas Magnus University on 3 December 2012 (Protocol No. 6‐4).Reviewed by Prof. Dr. Ingrida Eglė ŽindžiuvienėISBN 978‐9955‐12‐871‐7 (internetinis)ISBN 978‐9955‐12‐872‐4 (spausdintas) Audronė Raškauskienė, 2013 Jurgita Vaičenonienė, 2013 Vytautas Magnus University, 2013

3This resource book is dedicated to the memory of Vitalija Liutvinskienė (1956 2011)who for twenty years was a devoted teacher at the Department of English Philology,Vytautas Magnus University, and who taught English Phonetics among other subjects.

4FOREWORDThe importance of intercultural communication is growing in a globalized and ever‐changingworld. In this context, the role of English as an international language cannot be denied. Theknowledge of English Phonetics, i.e. how particular sounds are produced, their properties, how weperceive speech and what happens to speech sounds when we speak fast, helps us to speak clearlyand understand others correctly, which is of utmost importance, especially in interculturalcontexts.The present resource book is designed as a supplement to Peter Roach’s (2010) textbook EnglishPhonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course and may be used to accompany lecture courses onEnglish Phonetics at university level. It is equally suitable for self‐study and for in‐class situationwith a teacher. Phonetics: Drills and Exercises gives students practice in pronunciation andtranscription of English sounds, enhances their understanding of phonological structures andrules, and improves speaking and listening skills.The resource book consists of 13 units and 7 appendices. Each unit contains the information aboutthe texts to be read on the unit’s topic, a list of key terms, a variety of pronunciation andtranscription exercises, online resources for further practice, and study questions which help torevise the material practiced in the unit.Units 1‐4, 11‐13 and appendices E, F, and G were prepared by Assoc. Prof. Audronė Raškauskienė,whereas units 5‐10 and appendices A, B, C, and D were prepared by Dr. Jurgita Vaičenonienė.The authors extend their gratitude to Lina Kišonytė who contributed the resource book bypainting the mid‐sagittal sections of the human head in Unit 3, Darius Tumšys for pictures in Units5‐7, and Edmundas Unguraitis for the pictorial story in Appendix A.

5CONTENTSForeword41Symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)62Accents and Dialects of English123Production of Speech Sounds164Vowels, Diphthongs, and Triphthongs205Plosive Consonants of English (p, t, k, b, d, g)286Fricative (f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h) and Affricate (tʃ, dʒ) Consonants of English347Nasal (m, n, ŋ) and Approximant (l, r, w, j) Consonants of English408The Syllable479Strong and Weak Syllables5210 Stress Placement in Simple Words5711 Stress Placement in Complex Words6312 Weak Forms6813 Aspects of Connected Speech74References82Appendix ADiagnostic Test87Appendix BVowels, Diphthongs and Silent Letters89Appendix CGroup Discussion of the Film “My Fair Lady”92Appendix DTopics for Individual Presentations93Appendix ESentence Stress and Weak Forms94Appendix FE Lectures and Suggestions for In Class ActivitiesAppendix Gby Prof. Dr. Jürgen Handke, “The Virtual Linguistics Campus”97Links to Additional Transcription Exercises99

61SYMBOLS OF THE INTERNATIONALPHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA)ReadingsRoach, P. 2010. English Phonetics and Phonology. A Practical Course.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1‐3; 31‐37.Key criptionVowelsPractice1. Review the English Alphabet (adapted from YZyz[waɪ][zed] in Am E [zi:][eɪ][bi:][si:][di:][i:][ef][dʒi:]Note: In English, there is no one‐to‐one relation between the system of writing and the system ofpronunciation. The English alphabet has 26 letters but in (Standard British) English there areapproximately 44 speech sounds. A set of phonetic symbols called the International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA) is used to represent the basic sounds of spoken languages.

72. Pronounce the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet correctly. Practice writing theIPA symbols in the spaces provided. Add at least three more examples of words containingeach of the symbols (adapted from s.html).Symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)i.Short vowelsʌæeəɪɒʊiii.Student’stranscriptionIPA Examples[[[[[]]]]]cup, luck, love, funcat, black, mat, hatmet, bed, pen, bestaway, cinema, underhit, sitting, hymn, in[]hot, rock, dog, wash[[]]put, could, good, foothappy, lucky, stadiumStudent’s examplesLong vowelsɑ:ɜ:i:ɔ:u:Student’stranscriptionIPA Examples[]arm, father, car, start[[[[]]]]turn, learn, girl, fursee, heat, key, seacall, four, north, boughtblue, food, new, coolStudent’s examplesNote: The colon /:/ represents longer duration in pronunciation and is found in the transcription of PA Examplesaɪ[]five, eye, kite, buyeɪ[]say, eight, cake, madeɔɪaɪə[[[[[]]]]]ʊə[]boy, join, noise, toynow, out, cow, loudgo, home, no, lowwhere, air, share, wearnear, here, ear, sheerpure, tourist, cure,newerəʊeəStudent’s examples

Student’stranscriptionIPA Examples[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[bad, lab, job, backdid, lady, dog, badfind, if, off, fatgive, flag, go, baghow, hello, whole, headyes, yellow, year, yawncat, back, pick, scanleg, little, like, feelman, lemon, miss, climbno, ten, need, knowsing, finger, long, kingpet, map, top, spinred, try, right, wrongsun, miss, see, policeshe, crash, ship, stationtea, getting, time, bitcheck, church, pitch, chairthink, both, bath, thumbthis, mother, with, thatvoice, five, view, savewet, window, queen, winzoo, lazy, zero, pleasepleasure, vision, measure,just, large, jam, age]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]Student’s examplesNote the names of the following speech sounds [ʒ]‘upsilon’‘ash’open theta’‘yod’‘esh’‘yogh’3. Listen and repeat the sounds of English on the following BBC Learning English english/grammar/pron/sounds/chart.shtml.

94. Listen and repeat the pronunciation of consonants undsvowels.html. Provide your exampleswith each ghshyhighviethyZionvisionʃdʒchimejiveStudent’s example5. Write down the phonemes that occur in English but do not occur in your language:6. Write down the phonemes that occur in your native language but not in English:

107. Revision of terms. Complete the crossword puzzle below:Across:Down:1. Name for the symbol [ʒ]1. Name for the symbol [j]3. Name for the symbol [ʌ]2. Name for the symbol [ʃ]4. International Phonetic Alphabet6. Punctuation mark which is found in thetranscription of long vowels8. Name for the symbol [ə]10. Name for the symbol [θ]5. Name for the symbol [ʊ]7. Author of the textbook English Phoneticsand Phonology9. Name for the symbol [æ]11. Name for the symbol [ð]6871054392111Online resources1.Definitions of the key terms. PED Glossary.pdf?ITEM ENT ID 2491706&ITEMVERSION 1&COLLSPEC ENT ID 72.Extra exercises for use with English Phonetics and ite locale en US¤tResourceID 2491738¤tProjectID 5629545

113.Why are phonetics important? cJG0uErf8WY4.The sounds of English and the International Phonetic ndsipa.htm5.The sounds of english/grammar/pron/sounds/6.Interactive phonetic chart for English pronunciation. 0HeujZ45OZE&feature related7.Pronunciation lish/grammar/pron/sounds/vowel short 1s.html8.Transcription .Ladefoged, P. English Vowels. In A Course in Phonetics 5 th. Ed. Thomson/ Wadsworth apter4/4vowels.html10. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s ary/british/11. Oxford Advanced Learner's .com/pronunciation.html12. A Free Online Talking Dictionary of English Pronunciation. English Pronouncing Dictionary. hall&t &grammar Study questions1. is IPA?How many speech sounds are there in the IPA?What is a phoneme?What is a phonemic system of language?What symbols do we use to represent speech sounds?What is transcription?How do we call the following vowel phonemes?ʌ, æ, ə, ʊHow do we call the following consonant phonemes?ŋ, θ, ð, jHow do we pronounce the following speech sounds (vowels)?ʌ, æ, ə, ʊ, ɒ, ɜ:10. How do we pronounce the following speech sounds (consonants)?t ʃ, ʃ, ŋ, ʒ, θ, ð, dʒ

122ACCENTS AND DIALECTS OF ENGLISHReadingsRoach, P. 2010. English Phonetics and Phonology. A Practical Course. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. 3‐7.Key termsAccentBBC EnglishCockney DialectDialectEstuary EnglishReceived Pronunciation (RP)Practice1. Listen to the vowel sounds, spoken by an American and a British speaker owels.html.2. Listen to the below given sentences spoken in the following accents: Southern AmericanEnglish, Dublin (Irish) English, Edinburgh (Scottish) English, London English and New ZealandEnglish at %20exercises/arthur.htm. Whatpronunciation differences can you hear?Once there was a young rat named Arthur, who could never make up his mind. Whenever hisfriends asked him if he would like to go out with them, he would only answer, "I don't know." Hewouldn't say "yes" or "no" either. He would always shirk making a choice.3. Read aloud and listen to the complete story of Arthur the Rat in a British accent on%20exercises/peter.htm (the text is takenfrom Ladefoged, P. A Course in Phonetics 5th ed.)Once there was a young rat named Arthur, who could never make up his mind. Whenever hisfriends asked him if he would like to go out with them, he would only answer, “I don‘t know.“ Hewould always shirk making a choice. His aunt Helen said to him, "Now look here. No one is goingto care for you if you carry on like this. You have no more mind than a blade of grass." One rainyday, the rats heard a great noise in the loft. The pine rafters were all rotten, so that the barn wasrather unsafe. At last the joists gave way and fell to the ground. The walls shook and all the rats'hair stood on end with fear and horror. "This won't do," said the captain. "I'll send out scouts tosearch for a new home." Within five hours the ten scouts came back and said, "We found a stonehouse where there is room and board for us all. There is a kindly horse named Nelly, a cow, a calf,and a garden with an elm tree." The rats crawled out of their little houses and stood on the floorin a long line. Just then the old one saw Arthur. "Stop," he ordered coarsely. "You are coming, ofcourse?" "I'm not certain," said Arthur, undaunted. "The roof may not come down yet." "Well,"said the angry old rat, "we can't wait for you to join us. Right about face. March!"

134. Listen to the complete story of Arthur the Rat in an American accent on%20exercises/american.htm.What pronunciation differences can you hear?5. Listen to examples of British regional accents at links to Voices Recordings. Chose one of the recordings by clicking on a dot on the map, andthen do the following (adapted from Hewings 2007: 15): Click on the name of one of the speakers under “More clips from this interview”.Read “About the interviewee”.Read the transcript.Listen to the recording and follow the transcript.Some clips have a section on “More about the speech in this clip”. Read this, focusing inparticular on information about pronunciation. Some dialect words are explained in thissection.Do the same with any other “More clips from this interview”.Go back and listen to the “Voice clip(s)”. These do not have transcripts. How much do youunderstand when you listen without a transcript? Do you notice features of pronunciationyou observed and read about earlier?Do the same with accents from other parts of the UK by clicking on other dots on the map.6. Listen to a selection of recordings on British Library site (between five and ten) from differentparts of the UK and make a list of interesting pronunciation activities/phonological‐variation/).7. Listen to a Cockney dialect sound clip and RP sound clip on Dialect Guide site 209576&sid 1746431.Make a list of differences in pronunciation that you notice.8. Discuss the following questions in small groups and present a summary of your discussion: Cockney, the dialect

The present resource book is designed as a supplement to Peter Roach’s (2010) textbook English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course and may be used to accompany lecture courses on English Phonetics at university level. It is equally suitable for self‐study and for in‐class situation

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