United States V. Pilati (N.D. Ala./11th Cir.) – Appellee .

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No. 09-11978IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALSFOR THE ELEVENTH CIRCUITUNITED STATES OF AMERICA,Appelleev.JOHN PILATI,AppellantON APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTFOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMANORTHWESTERN DIVISIONBRIEF FOR THE UNITED STATES AS APPELLEEJOYCE WHITE VANCEUnited States AttorneyTHOMAS E. PEREZAssistant Attorney GeneralMARK L. GROSSCONOR B. DUGANAttorneysUnited States Department of JusticeCivil Rights Division, Appellate SectionBen Franklin StationP.O. Box 14403Washington, D.C. 20044-4403Telephone: (202) 616-7429

United States v. Pilati, 09-11978CERTIFICATE OF INTERESTED PERSONS ANDCORPORATE DISCLOSURE STATEMENTI hereby certify that the following persons may have an interest in the outcome ofthis case:1)Curran, Stephen J., Attorney for the United States, United States Department ofJustice, Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section, Washington, D.C.2)Dugan, Conor B., Attorney for the United States, United States Department ofJustice, Civil Rights Division, Appellate Section, Washington, D.C.3)Dunn, Christine, Esq., Washington, D.C.4)Epps, Julie Ann, Esq., Counsel for defendant-appellant John Pilati, Canton,Mississippi5)Gardner, Bruce A., Esq., Former Counsel for defendant-appellant John Pilati,Huntsville, Alabama.6)Gross, Mark L., Attorney for Respondent, Deputy Chief, United StatesDepartment of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Appellate Section, Washington,D.C.7)Hart, Matthew, Assistant United States Attorney, United States Attorney’s Officefor the Northern District of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.8)Hawk, Benjamin J., Attorney for the United States, United States Department ofJustice, Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section, Washington, D.C.C1 of 2

United States v. Pilati, 09-119789)The Honorable Virginia Emerson Hopkins, Judge, United States District Court forthe Northern District of Alabama10)Martin, Alice H., Former United States Attorney for the Northern District ofAlabama, Birmingham, Alabama.11)The Honorable John E. Ott, United States Magistrate Judge for the NorthernDistrict of Alabama.12)Pilati, John, Defendant.13)Vance, Joyce White, United States Attorney for the Northern District of Alabama,Birmingham, Alabama.s/ Conor B. DuganCONOR B. DUGANAttorneyC2 of 2

STATEMENT REGARDING ORAL ARGUMENTThe United States does not oppose Pilati’s request for oral argument.

TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGESTATEMENT OF JURISDICTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1STATEMENT OF THE ISSUES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2STATEMENT OF THE CASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.Course Of Proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.Statement Of The Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.a.Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5b.Count 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6c.Count 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7d.Count 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8e.Count 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11f.Count 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12g.Non-Charged Incidents Of Fondling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13h.Testimony Concerning The AdministrationOf Drug Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Standard Of Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued):PAGEARGUMENTIPILATI HAS WAIVED APPEAL ON EVERYISSUE EXCEPT ONE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21IITHERE WERE NO ERRORS RELATED TO SORNA. . . . . . . . . . 23A.B.IIISORNA Registration Was Proper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251.Pilati Was Convicted Of A Qualifying Offense. . . . . . . 252.The Jury Did Not Need To Make A SpecificFinding As To Adam Yarbrough’s Age. . . . . . . . . . . . . 28SORNA’s Registration Requirements Do NotViolate The Ex Post Facto Clause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30THE EVIDENCE AND TRIAL PROCEDURESEASILY SUPPORT PILATI’S CONVICTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31A.The Evidence Was Sufficient To ConvictPilati On All Counts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311.Pilati Had Fair Warning That TouchingGenitalia Was An Improper Search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.There Was Sufficient Evidence As To Count 1. . . . . . . 353.There Was Sufficient Evidence As To Count 2. . . . . . . 364.There Was Sufficient Evidence As To Count 3. . . . . . . 365.There Was Sufficient Evidence As To Count 4. . . . . . . 366.There Was Sufficient Evidence As To Count 5. . . . . . . 37- ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued):IVVPAGEB.The Indictment Was Not Constructively Amended. . . . . . . . . 41C.The Jury Instructions Were Proper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42THE MAGISTRATE COURT COMMITTEDNO EVIDENTIARY ERRORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44A.The Magistrate Court Properly ExcludedThe Victims’ Criminal Histories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44B.Evidence Of Pilati’s Prior Sexual MisconductWas Properly Admitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451.The Prior Misconduct Was AdmissibleUnder Rule 413. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462.The Magistrate Court Did Not Commit PlainError By Admitting The Prior Acts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47C.The Magistrate Court Properly AdmittedPrior Consistent Statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48D.The Magistrate Court Properly Allowed LawEnforcement Witnesses To Testify How TheyAdministered Drug Tests And Victims To TestifyHow Drug Tests Were Typically AdministeredTo Them. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50PILATI WAS NOT DENIED HIS COUNSELOF CHOICE WHEN THAT COUNSELVOLUNTARILY WITHDREW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51A.The Evidentiary Hearings ConcerningBowling’s Withdrawal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51- iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued):B.VIPAGEPilati Was Not Denied His Choice Of Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . 54THE MAGISTRATE COURT CORRECTLYCALCULATED PILATI’S SENTENCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56A.The Magistrate Court Did Not Err In ApplyingThe Criminal Sexual Abuse Guideline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57B.The District Court Correctly Applied The CivilRights Guideline’s Specific Offense Characteristic. . . . . . . . 60CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCECERTIFICATE OF SERVICE- iv

TABLE OF CITATIONSCASES:PAGE*Anderson v. Creighton, 483 U.S. 635, 107 S. Ct. 3034 (A1987). . . . . . . . . . . . . 32*Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520, 99 S. Ct. 1861 (1979). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Berger v. United States, 295 U.S. 78, 55 S. Ct. 629 (1935). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38*Byrne v. Nezhat, 261 F.3d 1075 (11th Cir. 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Caban-Wheeler v. Elsea, 71 F.3d 837 (11th Cir. 1996). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22*Hope v. Pelzer, 536 U.S. 730, 122 S. Ct. 2508 (2002). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Nationalist Movement v. City of Cumming, Ga.,92 F.3d 1135 (11th Cir. 1996). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22*Padgett v. Donald, 401 F.3d 1273 (11th Cir. 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Rodriquez v. Chandler, 382 F.3d 670 (7th Cir. 2004). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55*Russell v. United States, 429 F.2d 237 (5th Cir. 1970). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-40Smith v. Doe, 538 U.S. 84, 123 S. Ct. 1140 (2003). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S. Ct. 2052 (1984). . . . . . . . . . . . . 20*Thompson v. Nagle, 118 F.3d 1442 (11th Cir. 1997). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Tome v. United States, 513 U.S. 150, 115 S. Ct. 696 (1995). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49United States v. Acosta, 769 F.2d 721 (11th Cir. 1985). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-v

CASES (continued):PAGE*United States v. Alexander, 850 F.2d 1500 (11th Cir. 1988),reversed and remanded on other grounds,492 U.S. 915, 109 S. Ct. 3236 (1989). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39*United States v. Ambert, 561 F.3d 1202 (11th Cir. 2009). . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 29-31*United States v. Apodaca, 843 F.2d 421 (10th Cir. 1988). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42United States v. Ardley, 242 F.3d 989 (11th Cir. 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22*United States v. Barsanti, 943 F.2d 428 (4th Cir. 1991). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39United States v. Bell, 988 F.2d 247 (1st Cir. 1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220, 125 S. Ct. 738 (2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28United States v. Bursey, 416 F.3d 301 (4th Cir. 2005),cert. denied, 546 U.S. 1139, 126 S. Ct. 1154 (2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21*United States v. Byrne, 435 F.3d 16 (1st Cir. 2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61*United States v. Byun, 539 F.3d 982 (9th Cir.),cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 771 (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 29*United States v. Caporale, 806 F.2d 1487 (11th Cir. 1986). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37*United States v. Carter, 410 F.3d 1017 (8th Cir. 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39United States v. Chastain, 198 F.3d 1338 (11th Cir. 1999),cert. denied, 532 U.S. 996, 121 S. Ct. 1658 (2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 37-38United States v. Crawford, 407 F.3d 1174 (11th Cir. 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17*United States v. Dansker, 537 F.2d 40 (3d Cir. 1976). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56- vi

CASES (continued):PAGE*United States v. Dennis, 237 F.3d 1295 (11th Cir. 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37United States v. Dodge, 554 F.3d 1357 (11th Cir. 2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26*United States v. Dodge, 597 F.3d 1347 (11th Cir. 2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-27United States v. Drury, 396 F.3d 1303 (11th Cir. 2005),cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 159 (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17United States v. Edouard, 485 F.3d 1324 (11th Cir. 2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16*United States v. Fiallo-Jacome, 874 F.2d 1479 (11th Cir. 1989). . . . . . . . . . . . 23United States v. Frazier, 178 F.3d 1287 (4th Cir. 1999). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23United States v. Gold, 743 F.2d 800 (11th Cir. 1984). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38United States v. Gonzalez-Lopez, 548 U.S. 140,126 S. Ct. 2557 (2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55United States v. Griffin, 699 F.2d 1102 (11th Cir. 1983). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20*United States v. Guidry, 456 F.3d 493 (5th Cir. 2006),cert. denied, 549 U.S. 1139, 127 S. Ct. 996 (2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47United States v. Hallock, 941 F.2d 36 (1st Cir. 1991). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55United States v. Hawkins, 905 F.2d 1489 (11th Cir. 1990). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17*United States v. Hinckley, 550 F.3d 926 (10th Cir. 2008),cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 2383 (2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 31*United States v. Hollow Horn, 523 F.3d 882 (8th Cir. 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47United States v. Holmes, 595 F.3d 1255 (11th Cir. 2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16- vii

CASES (continued):PAGE*United States v. Kerr, 778 F.2d 690 (11th Cir. 1985). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48*United States v. LaVallee, 439 F.3d 670 (10th Cir. 2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43*United States v. Lanier, 520 U.S. 259, 117 S. Ct. 1219 (1997). . . . . . . . . . . 32-33*United States v. Lawrance, 548 F.3d 1329 (10th Cir. 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 31*United States v. LeCompte, 131 F.3d 767 (8th Cir. 1997). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48*United States v. Levy, 416 F.3d 1273 (11th Cir. 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-23United States v. Lyons, 403 F.3d 1248 (11th Cir.),cert. denied, 576 U.S. 1035, 126 S. Ct. 732 (2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45*United States v. May, 535 F.3d 912 (8th Cir. 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29*United States v. Medicine Horn, 447 F.3d 620 (8th Cir. 2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48United States v. Millwood, 961 F.2d 194 (11th Cir. 1992). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20United States v. Nash, 438 F.3d 1302 (11th Cir. 2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16*United States v. Orisnord, 483 F.3d 1169 (11th Cir.),cert. denied, 552 U.S. 1049, 128 S. Ct. 673 (2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45*United States v. Paskett, 950 F.2d 705 (11th Cir. 1992). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38*United States v. Prieto, 232 F.3d 816 (11th Cir. 2000),cert. denied, 534 U.S. 950, 122 S. Ct. 345 (2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49*United States v. Reed, 887 F.2d 1398 (11th Cir. 1989). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38, 41*United States v. Rogers, 587 F.3d 816 (7th Cir. 2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47- viii

CASES (continued):PAGE*United States v. Seymour, 468 F.3d 378 (6th Cir. 2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47*United States v. Silvestri, 409 F.3d 1311 (11th Cir. 2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22*United States v. Sipe, 388 F.3d 471 (5th Cir. 2004). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43United States v. Spencer, 592 F.3d 866 (8th Cir. 2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41United States v. Straub, 508 F.3d 1003 (11th Cir. 2007),cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 40 (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16*United States v. Swanson, 483 F.3d 509 (7th Cir.),cert. denied, 552 U.S. 981, 128 S. Ct. 455 (2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28*United States v. Torres, 573 F. Supp. 2d 925 (W.D. Tex. 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . 29*United States v. Volpe, 224 F.3d 72 (2d Cir. 2000). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61United States v. Williams, 527 F.3d 1235 (11th Cir. 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17United States v. Yates, 438 F.3d 1307 (11th Cir. 2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22*United States v. Young, 585 F.3d 199 (5th Cir. 2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-30United States v. Zinn, 321 F.3d 1084 (11th Cir.),cert. denied, 540 U.S. 839, 124 S. Ct. 97 (2003). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16United States v. Zuniga, 579 F.3d 845 (8th Cir. 2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-31*Wheat v. United States, 486 U.S. 153, 108 S. Ct. 1692 (1988). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Williams v. Allen, 598 F.3d 778 (11th Cir. 2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20- ix

STATUTES:PAGEAdam Walsh Child Protection Act of 2006, 42 U.S.C. 16901 et seq. . . . . . . . . 4, 2942 U.S.C. 16911(1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2542 U.S.C. 16911(5)(A)(i). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2542 U.S.C. 16911(5)(A)(ii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2542 U.S.C. 16911(5)(A)(iii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2642 U.S.C. 16911(7)(I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2542 U.S.C. 16911(14). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2542 U.S.C. 16912. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2842 U.S.C. 16913. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2842 U.S.C. 16913(b)(1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2542 U.S.C. 16919. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2842 U.S.C. 16920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2818 U.S.C. 242 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passim18 U.S.C. 2241. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6018 U.S.C. 2242. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6018 U.S.C. 2243. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60*18 U.S.C. 2244 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 58-59*18 U.S.C. 2246 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 58-5918 U.S.C. 2246(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5918 U.S.C. 2250. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2918 U.S.C. 3282(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3918 U.S.C. 3401. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 U.S.C. 3402. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 21-x

STATUTES (continued):PAGE18 U.S.C. 3583(d). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2728 U.S.C. 1291 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2RULES:Federal Rule of Evidence 403(d)(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46*Federal Rule of Evidence 413. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-46*Federal Rule of Evidence 413(d)(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46SENTENCING GUIDELINES:U.S.S.G. §2H1.1(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 57U.S.S.G. §2H1.1, comment (n.1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 60MISCELLANEOUS:Note, Advisory Committee on Rules of Evidence, Rule 403. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Eleventh Circuit Pattern Jury Instructions – Criminal 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Fifth Circuit Pattern Jury Instructions 2.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Seventh Circuit Pattern Jury Instructions – Criminal 18 U.S.C. 242. . . . . . . . . . . 43- xi

TABLE of RECORD REFERENCES in the BRIEFBrief Page #Docket #3, 4, 36, 39,42Superseding Indictment2158Government’s Objections to Presentence InvestigationReport, December 19, 2007635, 8, 9, 10,11, 50Transcript of Jury Trial,October 29 - November 1, 2007, Volume I of III865, 6, 7, 8,10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15,35, 60Transcript of Jury Trial,October 29 - November 1, 2007, Volume II of III874, 15, 42,43Transcript of Jury Trial,October 29 - November 1, 2007,Volume III of III884, 59Sentencing Transcript, March 6, 2008904, 21Appellant’s Brief, District Court924Memorandum Opinion of District Court AffirmingConviction10151, 52, 53,54Transcript of Evidentiary Hearing, October 20, 200911651, 52, 53,54Transcript of Evidentiary Hearing, October 22, 2009118

IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALSFOR THE ELEVENTH CIRCUITNo. 09-11978UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,Appelleev.JOHN PILATI,AppellantON APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTFOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMANORTHWESTERN DIVISIONBRIEF FOR THE UNITED STATES AS APPELLEESTATEMENT OF JURISDICTIONThe magistrate court had jurisdiction under 18 U.S.C. 3401. After the juryreturned a guilty verdict, the magistrate judge sentenced John Pilati on March 6,2008, and entered final judgment against Pilati on March 7, 2008. ER 75.1 Pilatifiled a notice of appeal on March 10, 2008. ER 76. The District Court’s1This brief uses the following abbreviations: “ER at ” refers to Pilati’sexcerpts of record and lists the document number on the district court docket sheet,followed by a page number of the document, if applicable. “SER at ” refersto the government’s supplement excerpts of record. Br.refers to appellantPilati’s brief to this Court.

-2jurisdiction arose under 18 U.S.C. 3402, Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 58(g)and United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama Local Rule73.1(c). The District Court affirmed the magistrate court’s judgment against Pilation April 7, 2009. Pilati filed a notice of appeal on April 20, 2009. This Court’sjurisdiction arises under 28 U.S.C. 1291.STATEMENT OF THE ISSUESPilati raises a number of issues on appeal to this Court that he did not raiseon appeal to the district court. The government will argue below that Pilati waivedall issues on appeal except for the one issue he raised on appeal to the districtcourt. In the alternative, if this Court finds that Pilati has properly raised these newissues, the government will argue that these claims fail.1. Whether Pilati waived argument in this Court on every issue except thatraised on appeal to the district court.2. Whether the magistrate court’s order that Pilati register as a sex offenderunder the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) waspermissible.3. Whether the sufficiency of the evidence supported Pilati’s convictions.4. Whether the magistrate court committed evidentiary errors.5. Whether Pilati was denied his counsel of choice.

-36. Whether the magistrate court erred in calculating Pilati’s sentence.STATEMENT OF THE CASE1.Course Of ProceedingsOn May 3, 2007, a five-count superseding indictment was filed againstPilati, alleging various civil rights violations. At the time of the offenses, Pilatiwas the District Attorney of Franklin County, Alabama.Count 1 charged that in or about March 2001 through June 2001, Pilati,while acting under color of law, fondled the scrotum and penis of ShaneTrowbridge, willfully depriving Trowbridge of his right to be free fromunreasonable search in violation of 18 U.S.C. 242. ER 21 at 1. Count 2 chargedthat in or about May 2001, Pilati, while acting under color of law, fondled thetesticles, penis, and buttocks of Justin Hall, willfully depriving Hall of his right tobe free from unreasonable search, in violation of 18 U.S.C. 242. ER 21 at 2.Count 3 charged that in or about April 2002, Pilati, while acting under color oflaw, forced Alan Malone to disrobe and fondled Malone’s scrotum and buttocks,willfully depriving Malone of his right to be free from unreasonable search inviolation of 18 U.S.C. 242. ER 21 at 2. Count 4 charged that on or aboutDecember 16, 2002, Pilati, while acting under color of law, stroked the testicles ofAdam Yarbrough, willfully depriving Yarbrough of his right to be free from

-4unreasonable search in violation of 18 U.S.C. 242. ER 21 at 3. Count 5 chargedthat on or about February 2004, Pilati, while acting under color of law, forcedDaniel Maxwell to disrobe until he was completely naked and then touchedMaxwell’s genitals, willfully depriving Maxwell of his right to be free fromunreasonable search in violation of 18 U.S.C. 242. ER 21 at 3.On November 1, 2007, the jury returned a guilty verdict on all counts. SER88 at 603 (Trial Tr. Vol. 3); ER 75 at 1. On March 6, 2008, the magistrate courtsentenced Pilati to 42 months imprisonment. ER 90 at 36-37 (Sent. Tr.); ER 75 at2-3. As a special condition of supervised release, the magistrate required that Pilatiregister as a sex offender under the notification provisions (SORNA) of the AdamWalsh Child Protection Act of 2006, 42 U.S.C. 16901 et seq. ER 90 at 37; ER 75at 5.Pilati filed a notice of appeal to the district court on March 10, 2008. ER 76.Pilati only raised one issue on appeal, that the magistrate court erred by imposingSORNA registration. ER 92 at 5-6. The District Court rejected his argument andaffirmed the magistrate court on April 7, 2009. ER 101.

-52.Statement Of The Factsa.BackgroundJohn Pilati served as District Attorney of Franklin County, Alabama, from January1999 through April 2004. ER 87 at 199, SER 87 at 198 (Trial Tr. Vol. 2). In 2000,Pilati established a misdemeanor drug testing program under which defendants agreed tosubmit to urinalysis. ER 87 at 171, SER 87 at 201-203, 205-206, 423; ER 86 at 93, SER86 at 77 (Trial Tr. Vol. 1). Pilati maintained the list of the individuals in the program,decided when someone was called in for a test, and performed most of the tests. SER 87at 206-207, 209.The evidence at trial established that, on a number of occasions, Pilati used thedrug tests as a pretense to touch and fondle the genitals of young men. See pp. 6-17,infra. The jury heard evidence that Pilati fondled the genitalia of six young men(Trowbridge, Hall, Malone, Maxwell, Greg Presley, and Yarbrough) approximately 1416 times. ER 86 at 94, 102, 110-111, SER 86 at 77-80, 95-96, 101, 105 (Malone); ER87 at 174-175, SER 87 at 162-163, 166-170 (Trowbridge); ER 87 at 246-247 (Presley);SER 87 at 394-396 (Hall); ER 87 at 428-429, SER 87 at 423, 427 (Maxwell); ER 87 at323, SER 87 at 322 (Yarbrough). Numerous witnesses testified that these drug testswere unlike those they administered or took. See pp. 14-15, infra.

-6b.Count 1Trowbridge was arrested for possession of marijuana and drug paraphernalia.SER 87 at 163. He was taken to the police station at Pilati’s request, and Pilati searchedTrowbridge and his friends, who were also arrested. SER 87 at 163, 165. Pilati toldTrowbridge to remove his clothes. SER 87 at 166. After he removed his clothes,Trowbridge testified, Pilati “[l]ifted up my testicles” for about “five to ten seconds.”SER 87 at 168.Trowbridge was sentenced to one year of probation and a six-month suspendedsentence. SER 87 at 169. During 2001, Trowbridge was required to take four drug tests,all of which Pilati conducted. ER 87 at 170. Pilati would call and order Trowbridge totake a drug test. ER 87 at 171. Pilati would take Trowbridge to the hall bathroom at thecourthouse. SER 87 at 172. After entering the bathroom, Pilati would tell Trowbridgeto remove his underwear. SER 87 at 173. Trowbridge testified that Pilati would thencome over and “grab[] me by my testicles and lift[] up on them.” ER 87 at 174-175.Trowbridge testified that he was afraid whenever Pilati would grab his testicles:“I mean, I was 150 pounds maybe. I had this 300-pound man * * * fondling me. It justdidn’t seem right. But, you know, that’s the D.A. I mean, what was I supposed to do,you know?” ER 87 at 176. Trowbridge then would take the urine test. ER 87 at 176.

-7Trowbridge testified that he was drug tested three other times, for a footballscholarship program and employment. ER 87 at 178. In none of those tests did anyonetouch his genitals or require him to remove his clothing. ER 87 at 178.c.Count 2Hall was convicted for trafficking LSD and required to serve two years at theFranklin County Jail, and submit to drug testing. ER 87 at 385-386, SER 87 at 384. Thejailers would call him “into the office, * * * pat [him] down and * * * hand [him] a cup.”ER 87 at 386. Hall “would go into the restroom” then “give [his] sample” and return.ER 87 at 386-387. The jailers never asked him to remove his clothing. ER 87 at 387.Because of Hall’s good behavior and grades in school, he requested early releasein May 2001. ER 87 at 390. Around that time, Pilati came to visit him late at night andinformed him he was there to give him a drug test. ER 87 at 390-392. Hall had neverseen Pilati at the jail at that time of night. ER 87 at 391. No one else was around. SER87 at 393. Pilati took him to the bathroom, closed the door, and told Hall he was goingto search him. SER 87 at 393-394. Pilati told him to remove his pants and underwear.SER 87 at 394. Hall testified that Pilati began to pat him down and then Pilati’s handswent up and down Hall’s legs and into his buttocks. SER 87 at 395. Hall said Pilati alsotouched his penis and genitals, and touched Hall’s testicles slowly. SER 87 at 395-396.Hall said he felt very uncomfortable. ER 87 at 396. Pilati gave Hall a cup and asked

-8Hall to provide a sample. SER 87 at 396. Hall testified that although Pilati had room tomove farther away, he stood inches away from Hall and watched him urinate into thecup. SER 87 at 397.Hall said that while on probationary release, he was subject to drug testing. ER 87at 398. When administering drug tests, his probation officer never had him disrobe, nortouched his genitals. ER 87 at 398-399.d.Count 3Malone was prosecuted for juvenile possession of a controlled substance. SER 86at 74. Shortly after Malone’s arrest, Pilati picked him up from school. SER 86 at 76-77.Pilati brought him into the bathroom and locked the bathroom and the stall doors. SER86 at 78. Pilati asked Malone to remove his “[s]hirt, pants, underwear, socks, andshoes.” SER 86 at 79. Malone asked Pilati why he had to remove all his clothing, andPilati responded that Malone “shut the hell up and do as * * * told.” SER 86 at 80.Malone testified that Pilati handed Malone a cup, put on rubber gloves, and then“fondled my genitals, lifting up my scrotum and lifting up my penis,” “touch[

Dec 14, 2010 · Hart, Matthew, Assistant United States Attorney, United States Attorney’s Office : for the Northern District of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama. 8) Hawk, Benjamin J., Attorney for the United States, United States Department of ; Justice, Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section, Washington, D.C.

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