The Cutting Edgeof Plasma PhysicsPresented byDr. Mahmoud Saad AfifyPhysics Department, Faculty of Science, BenhaUniversity
Outlines Introduction Significance of plasma technologies for theworld economy Overview of plasma physics Different sources of knowledge
In 2004, the German government 45 000-60 000 people are directly workingon building and maintaining plasma technologies.Up to half a million employees were working in manufacturing chains thatrequire a plasma treatment step along the production line.In 2004, this amounted to 6-7% of all jobs in the German economy or acontribution to the GDP of almost 160 billion Euros.
Similar estimates and shares can certainly be assumed for other highlyindustrialized countries in Europe, in Asia, the Americas, and forAustralia.For a growth of the German GDP by 28% from 2004 to 2014, it is safe toassume that the contribution of plasma technologies has proportionallyincreased.
For cold plasma methods, their economic potential wasevaluated in a recent Market Research Report, predictinga commercial volume of 2.91 billion USD by 2021.The US currently dominates about 50% of the globalsemiconductor market.
In 2015 the global market for welding products reached 23billion USD and is expected to exceed 31 billion USD in 2021.
Overview ofPlasma Physics
Plasma-etchingFor nanosized sample High-density plasmasources, such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP)and electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma.
charge build-up and UV photon radiation
The defect generation due to chargebuild-up and UV photons werefound to occur at a time constant of10 3 s during plasma etchings.In the future we can use tens-ofmicrosecond pulse-time modulatedplasma etching and er, there is UV radiation and therate of etching is law.
Plasma-LiquidInteractionBiological,Chemical, Material andEnvironmental Applications.
The first challenge deals with the breakdownprocesses and mechanisms in liquids. Thesecondmainchallengeistheunderstanding of the physical and chemicalprocesses occurring at the plasma– liquidinterface.
What are the fluxes andenergies of the various speciesthat the plasma delivers to thecells and tissues? How do human tissues andhuman beings react whensubjected to plasma treatment?
(Micro)biology and medicine How do bacteria and their signalling,spores, fungi and prions behave underplasma exposure? How do animal or human cells behaveunder plasma exposure? How cytotoxic isthe plasma? How do human tissues and humanbeings react when subjected to plasmatreatment?
For classical state we haveEc 1/2 kTThus at T 0, Ec 0, but Ef 0ND 1
The electron temperature inside a fluorescentlight bulb is about 20,000 K. “My, it doesn’t feelthat hot!”!
“warm densematter” (WDM)regimeKBT EfN NsWarm dense matter regimedefines states of matterbetween solids and plasmas.
After the star exhaust the nuclear fuel it becomes white dwarfFig. 3
Neutron stars are created when giant stars die in supernovas and theircores collapse, with the protons and electrons essentially melting intoeach other to form neutrons.
Inertial Confinement Fusion
Recent experimental results on x-ray scattering suggestthat quantum mechanical effects are indeed important indense plasmas
Dust PlasmaIt was initially viewed as a contaminationproblem in semiconductor processing.
Using plasmas as sources ofnew nanomaterials.
Challenges in understanding nanodustyplasmas:nucleation, growth, charging, heating andsurface interactions.
The concept of quantum dusty plasmaobjects as white dwarf stars and the outerenvelope of neutron stars, as well as t Particle
Sputtering of the dustmaterial.
Plasma as MetamaterialThe index of refraction is real and negative if both (") and µ arenegative.
While the studies on plasmas asmetamaterials are currently at the initialstage of development, such structurescould be very promising for variousaerospace applications, including microthrusters, electronics elements and energyconversion devices.
Solar Windthe Solar wind originates from the SolarCorona, expands into the universe andimpacts the Earth’ magnetosphere andionosphere, the two plasma layerssurrounding Earth’s gaseous atmosphere.Solar energetic particle events are important, as theycan arise suddenly and lead to space weather conditionsnear Earth that can be potentially harmful to astronauts.Unraveling the sources, acceleration and transport ofsolar energetic particles will help us better protecthumans in space in the future.
A Bill Gates Venture Aims ToSpray Dust Into TheAtmosphere To Block TheSun. What Could Go Wrong?
Plasma Physics . Plasma-etching For nanosized sample High-density plasma sources, such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. charge build-up and UV photon radiation . In the future we can use tens-of-microsecond pulse-time modul
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2.0 MagMate Cut25 Plasma 6 2.1 Fundamentals of Plasma Cutting 6 2.2 Process operation for transferred arc applications 7 3.0 Plasma cutting components 8 3.1 Plasma cutting power sources 8 3.2 Plasma cutting capacity 8 3.3 Plasma cutting torches (general) 8 3.4 Air supply 9 3.5 Process comparisons 9 3.6 Work return cable assembly 9
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Plasma Etching Page 2 OUTLINE Introduction Plasma Etching Metrics – Isotropic, Anisotropic, Selectivity, Aspect Ratio, Etch Bias Plasma and Wet Etch Summary The Plasma State - Plasma composition, DC & RF Plasma Plasma Etching Processes - The principle of plasma etching, Etching Si and SiO2 with CF4
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Plasma Fundamentals - Outline 1. What is a plasma ? Temperature Debye shielding Plasma frequency 2. The edge of a plasma Sheath physics 3. How to ignite a plasma Ignition, Paschen curve Streamer RF-ignition 4. Transport in a plasma Particle motion Plasma