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CIBA TM Series 2019 No.15Training manual onBiofloc Technology for Nursery andGrowout Aquaculture24 - 28 September 2019Published byDr. K. K. VijayanDirector, ICAR-CIBACourse Co-ordinatorDr. A. PanigrahiPrincipal Scientist, CCD, ICAR-CIBASponsored byOrganized byICAR - CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE75, Santhome High Road, R. A. Puram, Chennai – 600 028Tamil Nadu, India

Training manual: Biofloc Technology for Nursery and Growout AquacultureBrackishwater aquaculture for food, employment and prosperityPublished byDr. K.K. Vijayan, Director, ICAR-CIBACourse CoordinatorDr. A. Panigrahi, Principal Scientist, CCDCourse FacilitatorDr. C.P.Balasubramanian, Principal Scientist, HOD-CCDCo-cordinatorsDr. M. Jayanthi, Dr. S. Kannappan, Dr. P. Nila Rekha, Dr. T. Ravisankar, Dr. J. Syamadayal,Dr. R. Saraswathy, Dr. S.K.Otta, Dr. K. P. Kumaraguru Vasagam, Dr. P.S. Shyne Anand,Dr. Sujeetkumar, Mr. K.P. Sandeep, Dr. T.N. Vinay, Dr. N.S. Sudheer, Mr. I.F. Biju,Mr. R. AravindPrepared and Edited byDr. A. Panigrahi, Dr. S.K. Otta, Dr. K.P. Kumaraguru Vasagam, Dr. P.S. Shyne Anand,Mr. I.F. Biju, Mr. R. AravindCite as: Panigrahi A, Otta S. K., Kumaraguru Vasagam K. P., Shyne Anand P. S., Biju I. F.,and Aravind R. Training manual on Biofloc technology for nursery and growout aquaculture,CIBA TM series 2019 No. 15, 172 pp.DisclaimerAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording orotherwise, without the prior written permission of Director, ICAR-CIBA.The author and publisher are providing this book and its contents on an “as is” basis andmake no representations or warranties of any kind with respect to this book or its contents.In addition, theauthor and publisher do not represent or warrant that the informationaccessible via this book isaccurate, complete or current.Except as specifically stated in this book, neither the author or publisher, nor any authors,contributors, or other representatives will be liable for damages arising out of or inconnection with the use of this book.

CONTENTSTopicsSl. No1Innovative culture practices in brackishwater aquaculture withecosystem approachPage No1-8K. K. Vijayan and A. Panigrahi234567891011Biosecurity and Best Management practices in shrimp aquacultureC. P. Balasubramanian, P. Shyne Anand and A. PanigrahiIntroduction to biofloc technology: Principles, prospects and challengesDr. A. PanigrahiBiofloc technology: Standard operating procedurePanigrahi. A, Saranya C, Kumaran M and Rashmiranjan DasIntegration of submerged substrates in biofloc based systemP. S. Shyne Anand and Sujeet KumarEmerging diseases in brackishwater aquaculture in IndiaS. V. AlavandiMicrobial role in biofloc systemSujeet KumarDesign consideration of biofloc production systemsP. Nila Rekha, Neethu K. C. and A. PanigrahiBiofloc technology for water quality management in aquacultureSaraswathy R, Muralidhar M, A Panigrahi, N. Lalitha and P. KumararajaBMP for pond soil managementM. Muralidhar, R. Saraswathy and A. PanigrahiAeration requirements in biofloc based shrimp culture systemsM. Jayanthi and A. -6768-74Nutrition and feeding strategy in a biofloc system12J. Syama Dayal, K. Ambasankar, K. P. Kumaraguru Vasagamand A. Panigrahi75-81Biofloc meal could be a sustainable ingredient in aqua feed1314151617K. P. Kumaraguru Vasagam, K. Ambasankar, J. Syama Dayaland K. P. SandeepCurrent status of aqua feed industry in India and CIBA’s initiative innewer feed TechnologiesAmbasankar J. Syama Dayal, K. P Kumaraguru Vasagam, Sandeep K. Pand P. Nila RekhaBiofloc shrimp farming and health management strategiesSubhendu Kumar Otta, Sudheer N. S. and Akshaya PanigrahiEffect of bio-flocs on the shrimp immune systemA. Panigrahi, C. Saranya, Vinay T. N., S. K. Otta and Ashok Kumar JApplications of biofloc technologyAnil Ghanekar82-8687-9394-9697-103104-107

181920Ecosystem based biofloc shrimp farming: nursery rearing experiencesA. Panigrahi, Shyne Anand P.S., Saranya C. and Biju I. FInsights into the biofloc based shrimp grow out technology108-112A. Panigrahi and T. Govind Raj113-118Controlling aquatic pathogens through bft: w.r.t luminescence causingVibrio harveyi119-124Kannappan S, Yuvaraj S and A. Panigraghi21222324Role of microalgae, isolation and identification in biofloc culture systemR. Aravind, K. P. Sandeep and A. PanigrahiAquamimicry: an innovative organic approachA. Panigrahi, R. Aravind and Biju I. F.Economics of bio floc based farming125-133134-138T. Ravisankar, Akshya Panigrahi and Anil Ghanekar139-146PRACTICALS147-171

INNOVATIVE CULTURE PRACTICES IN BRACKISHWATERAQUACULTURE WITH ECOSYSTEM APPROACHK. K. Vijayan and A. PanigrahiE mail: [email protected] aquaculture is a “sun rise sector” in India, which plays a crucial role in socioeconomic expansion and is considered as influential income and employment generator. In the lastthree decades (1980–2010), world aquaculture production has expanded by almost 12 times,atanaverageannualrate of 8.8 percent (FAO, 2010). Brackishwater aquaculture in India especiallyhas evolved as a commercial enterprise with an impressive annual growth rate of 6-7 percent.However, along with intensification of commercial shrimp culture, industry started to face issueslike spiralling price of commercial feed, diseases outbreaks, sustainability concern etc. Hence, theconcepts of delivering high production with sustainable approach through evolvingeco-friendlytechnologies started getting momentum worldwide. Modern, industrial aquaculture couldstrengthen its social and ecological roots by articulating its evolution along a sustainabilitytrajectory and by adopting fully the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ecosystems approachto aquaculture (EAA; Soto et al., 2007). While acknowledging the economicgains and employmentopportunities provided by shrimp sector, it is essential to recognize that the growth of brackishwateraquaculture in India is skewed towards monoculture of shrimp. During 2014 -15 shrimpaquaculture has shown a tremendous growth (30.64%) and achieved highest production(4,34,558MT).Ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) is a strategy for the integration of the activitywithin the wider ecosystem in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, andresilience of interlinked social and ecological systems” (Soto et al., 2007). The present articleprovides innovative aquaculture practices for Indian brackishwater aquaculture keeping in mindthe ecosystem approach, its principle, relevance and conceptual framework.Ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA)The Fisheries and aquaculture department of FAO recognized the need of development ofecosystem based management for aquaculture in the line of the code of conduct for responsiblefisheries in the year 2006. EAA is defined as “a strategy for the integration of aquaculture with thewider ecosystem such that it promotes sustainable development, equity and resilience of interlinkedsocial-ecological systems”. FAO suggested three objectives for the ecosystem approach ofaquaculture: human wellbeing, ecological wellbeing and ability to achieve these by effectivegovernance, and these can be measured at farm, region and global level. EAA works on threeinterlinked principles. These three principles are operated at three levels, farm level, watershed orregion level and globe level (Figure 1 a & b). These three principles are:1

Principle 1“Aquaculture development and management should take account of the full range ofecosystem functions and services, and should not threaten the sustained delivery of these to society”Development of aquaculture within the acceptable limits of environmental variable requiresan understanding about the carrying capacity of the ecosystem and ecosystem functioning. Anyaquaculture pond orcage is the ‘aquaculture ecosystem’ and the ecosystem where this productionsystem is embedded is the wider ecosystem. The resilient or carrying capacity of this ecosystemshould bedefined.Principle 2 “Aquaculture should improve human well-being and equity for all relevantStakeholders”Aquaculture should promote food security and environmental safety. Here food security doesnot suggest that it should solve the problems of hunger, particularly area where aquaculture isanewactivity. However, it should promote livelihood and generate employment opportunity.Aquaculture development should ensure that it benefits are properly shared among allthestakeholders.Principle 3 “Aquaculture should be developed in the context of other sectors, policies and goals”This principle acknowledge the opportunity of integrating or linking aquaculture with otherproducing sector to promote material and energy recycling and optimal use of resources.Aquaculture does not take place in isolation, although its impact to other human activities is ratherlesser than agriculture and industry.Figure 1 a) Ecosystem based approach to aquaculture-guiding principles and scales.b) Sustainable intensification.Ecosystem approach to brackishwater aquaculture (EABA) in IndiaConsidering the full range of ecosystem functions and management has traditionally beenpracticed in brackishwater aquaculture in India, which is closely associated with the principle one.Further, there has been research initiation to refine the technique and document the currentpractices. In this system effluents and residues from the farming system has been recycled and usedas resource.2

Traditional brackishwater aquaculture system in IndiaIn the coastal states like Kerala, West Bengal, Karnataka and Goa, traditional brackishwateraquaculture prevails which are classical examples of integrated aquaculture, essentially falls underthe framework of EABA. It is practiced in two forms 1) Temporal integration of rice with shrimp2) Simultaneous integration of rice and fish culture. In this type of system, tall, salt tolerant ricevarieties are cultured during the monsoon season (summer monsoon: June to Nov) in the fieldsbordering the backwaters of Kerala, and during the post monsoon and summer season shrimps arecultivated. In the later during the rainy season when salinity is negligible, rice and brackishwaterfishes are cultivated simultaneously. Chemical fertilizers or pesticides are notused.The economic return of rice-fish/shrimp integrated system indicates that rice and fish followedby shrimp provides significantly high economic returns. Presently, the traditional system ismodified by stocking with hatchery reared seed and supplementary feeding. The recent researchalso attempts to use improved salinetolerantrice varieties to circum vent the low productivity oftraditional ricevarieties, to enable increased economic returns to the farmer. The availability ofhatchery produced seeds of penaeid shrimps and fin fishes such as sea bass, pearl spot andincreasing knowledge about this ecosystem provides an opportunity to optimize the sustainabilityand economic viability of this type of farming practices.Research efforts at CIBAOver the years, ICAR-CIBA has generated significant information on shrimp, fish, crabhatchery and grow-out production, nutrition and feed-technology, disease diagnosis andmanagement to address the growing needs of brackishwater aquaculture sector and provided aplatform for interaction with stakeholders. These technologies have the ecosystem approach basedfootprints and are discussed here.Polyculture based production systemICAR-CIBA carried out several experiments to evaluate the production potential ofpolyculture of brackishwater fin fishes and shell fishes. In an experiment to evaluate the polyculture in an extensive system, farm level performance of two systems were evaluated: shrimp withmullets (Mugil cephalus, Liza parsia and L. tade), and shrimp milk fish (Chanos chanos). In the180 day culture experiments, it was found that the production is similar in both systems. However,tiger shrimp out performed in mullet-shrimp system than the milk fish shrimp system. It indicatesthat the mullet is more compatible with shrimp than milk fish. Further, this study also concludesthat resource poor farmers can adopt this system as the input cost and expenditure is low.Organic production system for brackishwater speciesOrganic aquaculture is a process of production of aquatic plants and animals with the use ofonly organic inputs in terms of seeds, supply of nutrients and management of diseases. Organic3

production system is an ecosystem based approach to aquaculture.Organic foods have a separateniche market and many farmers are attracted to these farming practices due to lower cost ofproduction and better economic returns. In India, INDOCERT provides certification for organicproduction systems. Although organic aquaculture is in a very nascent stage in India, its traditionalsystem is close to the organic way of farming.Organic Aquaculture: periphyton based farmingCIBA has attempted research effort to enhance the production and sustainability of shrimpfarming within the frame work of EABA. Periphyton based farming is an attempt in this direction.Periphyton refers to the entire complex of attached aquatic biota on submerged substratescomprising phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms and detritus. The study conducted byCIBA clearly indicates that periphyton has a beneficial effect on growth and production of shrimp.Better growth rate with a productivity of 1640 to 2796 kg/ha/crop at a stocking density 8-12individuals/m2 was observed. Further, the rate of return over operational cost was higher inperiphyton-based system (92%) compared to the conventional farming (54%). This level ofimprovement of pond production with cheap on farm resources enhance the productivity of shrimpponds without deteriorating ecosystem.Integrated multi-tropic Aquaculture (IMTA)Integrated Multi-Tropic Aquaculture is the farming of different aquaculture species to getherin a way that allows one species’ wastes to be utilized as feed for another. Farmers can combinefed aquaculture (e.g., fish, shrimp) with inorganic extractive (e.g., seaweed) and organic extractive(e.g., shellfish) aquaculture to create balanced systems for environment remediation(biomitigation), economic stability (improved out put, lower cost, product diversification andriskreduction) and social acceptability (better management practices) (Barrington et al., 2009). Thisforming model can be developed for augmenting the average productivity of open waterbodies.Bio secured zero water exchange shrimp farming technology (BZEST)Bio secure zero-exchange system for shrimp represents an emerging technology that providesa high degree of pathogen exclusion with minimal or zero water exchange. This zero waterexchange shrimp farming system is an evolving culture practice with use of probiotics (Panigrahi,et al. 2007) and zero tolerance to banned chemicals and antibiotics. CIBA has developed a BZESTfor application in the shrimp farming sector, which is characterized by the improved productivityand better FCR. This BZEST system is amenable for control of disease through Best ManagementPractices and preservation of waterresources.Bio-floc based technology for brackishwater speciesThis is a relatively new technology to support high density, better water quality, waterconservation, bio security, lower feed requirement and reduce the production cost. The concept ofbiofloc technology work saround the formation of dense heterotrophic bacterial community.4

Eventually the system becomes bacterial dominated rather than algae dominated and formsmicrobial flocs by utilizing the waste materials in the pond. Biofloc is the conglomeration of microorganisms (such as heterotrophic bacteria, algae (dinoflagellates & diatoms), fungi, ciliates,flagellates, rotifers, nematodes, metazoans & detritus). Constant aeration and intermittent additionof carbon source as organic matter for the bacteria is needed to prevent the collapse of the system.In a typical brackishwater pond, 20–25% of fed protein is retained in the fish/shrimp, rest iswasted as ammonia and other metabolites. Manipulating the C:N ratio in the pond enhancesconversion of toxic nitrogenous wastes into microbial biomass available as food for cultureanimals. CIBA has initiated efforts to develop a biofloc model suitable for Indian brackishwaterfarming systems. A series of experiments in pilot scale was conducted at CIBA showed measurablegain in the production as well as FCR in tiger shrimp P. monodon farming by following these ecobased techniques (Shyne et al. 2012). Several studies (Panigrahi etal., 2014; Sujeet etal.,2015)indicates that bio-floc with periphyton systems (BPT) increased growth, survival and protectiveresponse.Seaweed integration with brackishwater aquaculture speciesThere are attempts from research organization as well as private sectors to integrate shrimpaquaculture with seaweeds to make the intensive aquaculture more environmentally nondegradable. Pacific Reef Fisheries, Pvt Ltd. started growing sea weed, Ulva spp in the 5 ha raceway of their 98 ha P.monodon farm, and reported that this would be sufficient to remove theNitrogen and Phosphorous from the effluent water from the shrimp farm. Further, the secondarycrop provides additional income. CIBA have initiated research in this direction developing modelfarming with seaweed integration.Carrying capacityCarrying capacity is the major component of the EABA that helps to set upper limits ofaquaculture production within the limits of environment or ecosystem and social acceptability(Ross et al., 2013). Carrying capacity is definedas “Ingeneralterms, carrying capacity for anysector can be defined as the level of resource use both by humans or animals that can be sustainedover the long term by the natural regenerative power of the environment” (FAO, 2010).Aquaculture is a resource based industry, and therefore, it will compete with other allied industries,for example, fisheries, agriculture and tourism. It is therefore, essential to determine the carryingcapacity for the sustainable development tofaquaculture. Carrying capacity has been categorizedinto four: physical, production, ecological and social (McKindsey et al., 2006).1) Physical carryingcapacity quantifies the potential area available for aquaculture in the ecosystem. 2) Productioncarryingcapacity estimates the maximum aquaculture production.3) Ecological carrying capacity determines the magnitude of aquaculture production withoutleading to the detrimental changes to the ecosystem. 4) Social carrying capacity is the amount ofaquaculture that can be developed without major environmental and social impacts. CIBA has5

developed decision support software in visual basic to estimate the maximum allowable farmingarea for a particular creek ordrainagecanal (Muralidhar., 2009). This software helps to determineare liable estimation of impact of shrimp farming and other land use impact in a region undervarious scenarios of increased development.ConclusionCIBA have developed and demonstrated some of the ecobased system of farming based onLow Input Sustainable Aquaculture (LISA); like improved traditional system, Organic farmingsystem; including periphyton based farming, brackishwater polyculture system, Bio-floc, andintegrated farming system involving rice, fish and horticulture. The ecosystem approach toaquaculture is mainly focused on low input based simple technology suited to the local conditions,providing sustainable, economically viable and socially acceptable models. India has vast resourcesof traditional farms which are close to nature which can be easily modified to suite thesetechnologies. Most innovations and development of brackishwater aquaculture show casing theeconomic earnings is mainly due to the “industrial” aquaculture, using SPF seeds, formulatedextruded feeds, aeration and with the use of var

Ecosystem based biofloc shrimp farming: nursery rearing experiences A. Panigrahi, Shyne Anand P.S., Saranya C. and Biju I. F 108-112 19 Insights into the biofloc based shrimp grow out technology A. Panigrahi and T. Govind Raj 113-118 20 Vibrio harveyi Controlling aquatic pathogens through bft: w.r.t luminescence causing