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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012Design and Analysis of Progressive ToolCh.Mastanamma 1, K.Prasada Rao 2,Dr. M.Venkateswara Rao31. PG Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla, Guntur, India2. Asst.Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla, Guntur, India3. Prof. & H.O.D , Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla, Guntur, IndiaABSTRACTDesign and development of Progressive tools for the sheet metal component is oneimportant phase in sheet metal manufacturing. Sheet metal press working process byprogressive tools is a highly complex process that is vulnerable to various uncertainties suchas variation in progressive tools geometry, strip layout, die shear, material properties,component and press working equipment position error and process parameters related to itsmanufacturer. These uncertainties in combinations can induce heavy manufacturing lossesthrough premature die failure, final part geometric distortion and production risk.Identification of these uncertainties and quantifying them will facilitate a risk freemanufacturing environment, which goes a long way to minimize the overall cost ofproduction. FEM based modelling of press working process is a very effective tool toovercome the above uncertainties.1. INTRODUCTIONThe progressive die performs aseries of fundamental sheet metal workingat two or more stages during the pressrunning to produce a production part as thestrip stock moving through the die surface.Press working from the optimum diesdesign and its making has been thepurpose of mass production in themanufacturing field.The design and manufacture ofpress tools, or punches and dies, is abranch of production technology that hasextended into many lines of engineeringmanufacture over the past seventy years.There is no doubt that the accuracyachieved by new ideas in design andconstruction applied by the press tooldesigner, coupled with increased speed andrigidity of the presses etc, used have allcontributed towards maintaining this formof metal tooling well to the force as ameans of obtaining pleasing, yet strong,durable articles that can withstand severeday-to-day usage.Four factors are essential contributions tofirst-class press work. operation planningExcellent tool designAccurate tool makingKnowledgeable press settingAccording to upper factors, thispaper is aimed at the optimum die designthrough the FE analysis, Pro-E.Furthermore the aim of least defects couldbe obtained mostly by revision through thetryout.2. PROGRESSIVE TOOLProgressive tool performs two ormore operations at different stages in eachstroke. The stock strip is advanced througha series of stations that form one or moredistinct press working operations on thestrip to get the component.3. COMPONENT ANALYSISwww.ijert.org1

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012MaterialThicknessShear strengthTemper gradeSupply conditionGeometry tolerance: Mild Steel (St-42): 2 mm: 35kg/mm2: Hard: Strips: IS2102PROPERTIES It has a bright and fine finish. It can withstand heavy loads, as itis tough. Welding of this material does notchange its chemical structure. It has a scale free material. Fine or bright for electroplating.Fig: 4.2a Detailed Drawing of Top Plate4. DESIGN CALCULATION4.1 COMPONENT DATAMaterial: mild steel (St-42)Supply conditions: stripsTemper grade: hardShear stress: 35 kg/mm2Geometry tolerance: IS2120Fig: 4.2b Detailed Drawing ofBottom Plate4.3 ASSEMBLEDTOOLSVIEWOFPROGRESSIVEFig: 4.1 Component Diagram4.2PROGRESSIVE TOOLS DETAILED DRAWINGwww.ijert.org2

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012TOOL SPECFICATIONPRESS CAPACITYTYPE OF PRESSPITCHSTRIP WIDTHCLEARANCESHUT HEIGHT OF THETOOLDAYLIGHT OF THE TOOLTYPE OF DIE SETTYPE OF STRIPPERMETHOD OF FEEDINGTYPE OF STROKENO. OF SLIDE40 TONESMECHANICAL32.00 MM74.00 MM0.06 MM/SIDE190.00 MMFig : 2D Diagram of Die Block for TheoreticalCalculation96.00 MMREAR AND FRONT PILLERSOLID TYPEMANUALFIXEDSINGLE ACTION5.2 TOP HALFTop half includes as for calculationand analysis purpose as top plate, punch backplate and punch plate. Assuming that the Top5. THEORETICAL DEFLECTION AND STRESSplate is considered to be on parallels. TheCALCULATIONshoe deflection is calculated using thestrength of material formula,5.1 DIE BLOCKdeflection,δ FL3/48EIWhere,F 80% of cutting forceAssuming that the die block (die plate) isconsidered to be as fixed beam. The shoe 209419.3 Ndeflection is calculated using the strength ofL 254 mm,E 2.1 x 105 N/mm2material formula for fixed supported beam,Deflection,I bh3/ 6.85 x 106 mm4δ FL3/192EIWhere, F 80% of cutting force 0.8 xWhere, b 286 mm,h 66 mm26177.41 kgf 209419.3 Nδ (209419.3x2543)/(48x2.1x105x6.85 x 106)L 222 mm, E 2.1 x 105 N/mm2 4.97 µmI bh3/12 6.29 x 106 mm4Stress, p F/AWhere, b 176 mm, h 35 mm 9.73 x 106 N/m2δ (209419.3 x 2223)/(192 x2.1x105x6.29 x 106) 13.49µmStress, p F/Ap 209419.3 / (176 x 35) 5.98 x 107 N/m2Fig : 2D Diagram of Top Plate for TheoreticalCalculationwww.ijert.org3

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012I bh3/12 1.17x 105 mm45.3 BOTTOM PLATEAssuming that the bottom plate is consideredWhere, b 176 mm,h 20 mmto be on parallels. The shoe deflection isδ 9.26µmcalculated using the strength of materialStress,formula for parallels supported beam,δ FL3/354EIDeflection,p F/Ap 52354.8 / (176 x 20) 1.487 x 107 N/m2Where, F 80% of cutting force 209419.3 NE 2.1 x 105 N/mm2I bh3/12 3.35 x 106 mm4Where, b 286 mm,h 52 mmFig :2D Diagram Stripper Plate for TheoreticalCalculationδ 5.26µmStress,5.5 GUIDE PILLARp F/AThep 209419.3 / (326 x 52) 4.37 x 107 N/m2diameterofguidepillaris 1.1 to 1.3 x thickness of die plate 1.1 x 35 38.5 mm 22 mm. Hence theguide pillar diameter is safe dimension.Assuming that the guide pillar as a cantileverFig : 2D Diagram Bottom Plate for TheoreticalCalculationbeam vertical load. So guide pillar is asconsider as a one side is fixed and other end isfree column construction,5.4 STRIPPER PLATEAssumingFrom strength of material for columnfixedstrippertobeconsidered as a fixed beam support.The fixedstripperplatedeflectionandstressconstruction of one end is fixed and other endis free type, crippling load as P π2 E I / 4 l2isWhere E 2.1 x 105 N / mm2calculated using the strength of materialformula,I π d4 /64Deflection, δ FL3/192EIF 10% to 20% of cutting force 52354.8 Nd 22 mm, l 142 mmL 222 mm, E 2.1 x 105 N/mm2P 73872.53 N 10000 Nwww.ijert.org4

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012The applying load is also within crippling load.Hence the applied load is safe for design.Deflection of piercing punch,Deflection, δ P l / A E 8.022 µmStress,d Ø8 mm , Scp 3.50 x 108 N/m2δp Pp L / Ap EPp Compressive force for piercing operationp P / A 2.63e8 N/m2 14074.32 NL 55 mm,Ap 50.27 mm2,E 2.1 x 105 N/mm2δp 3.15 µmFig : 2D Diagram Piercing Punch forTheoretical CalculationFig : 2D Diagram Guide Pillar for TheoreticalCalculation5.6b Oblong piercing punch5.6 PUNCHESAssuming that the oblong piercingpunch as consider as one end is fixed and5.6a Piercing punchcompressive force is acting on other end. HereAssuming that the piercing punch asforcuttingoperation(oblongpiercingconsider as one end is fixed and compressiveoperation) 80% of cutting force is acting onforce is acting on other end. Here for cuttingpunch as compressive nature.operation (piercing operation) 80% of cuttingWe know that the compressive forceforce is acting on punch as compressiveon the punch is equal to the shear force onnature.sheet metal.We know that the compressive forceon the punch is equal to the shear force onCutting force on oblong piercing punch,Sco cuttingforce/Cross sectional area of punchsheet metal., Po 27559.81 NCutting force on piercing punchAo 118.27 mm2,E 2.1 x 105 N/mm2Scp cutting force/cross sectional area ofpunchL 55 mmScp 4 π d t Ss / π d2 4 t Ss /dScp 2.89 x 108 N/mm2Where, t 2mm,Ss 35 kgf/mm2δo Po L / Ao E 7.57 µmwww.ijert.org5

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012and bottom plate), die plate, punches(piercing punch, oblong punch, notchingpunch and blanking punch), stripper plate,guide pillar and guide bush are includeFig : 2D Diagram Oblong Piercing Punch forstructuralTheoretical Calculationanalysistoestimatethedeflection and stresses.5.6c Blanking punchTo carry out the analysis, 3D-SolidAssuming that the blanking punch asmodel of the all functional elements areconsider as one end is fixed and compressivemodeled in PRO-E 4.0 software. The typesforce is acting on other end. Here for cuttingof elements chosen for analyses are givenoperation (blanking operation) 80% of cuttingbelow.The element shown below is usedforce is acting on punch as Cutting force on blanking punch,Scn cuttingforce/Cross sectional area of punchPb 109599.84 NAb 2094.64 mm2 , E 2.1 x 105 N/mm2L 55mmFig: 6.1 Solid 45 3-D 8 NoddedScb 6.54x 107 N/mm2Hexahedral Structural Solid ElementDeflection of blanking punch, δb 1.75 µmThe element shown above is usedfor steady state structural analysis. SOLID45 have a quadrilateral displacementbehavior and are well suited to modelirregular meshes. Eight nodes having threedegrees of freedom at each node define theelement: Translations in the nodal x, y andFig : 2D Diagram Blanking Punch forz directions.Theoretical CalculationThe element also hasplasticity, creep, large deflection and large6 ANALYSISstrain capabilities.The objective of the analysis of thefunctional elements like die set (top platewww.ijert.org6

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012Material Properties6.2 MESHED MODELSMaterial properties such asmodulus of elasticity, poison’s ratio aretaken asModulus of elasticity,E 2.1 1011 N/ m2Poisson’s ratio,ν 0.3 to 0.5Boundary ConditionsHere Ux UY Uz, 0. Thus all thefunctional elements like top half, die plate,Fig: Top Half Meshed with Load andstripper plate, guide pillar, guide bush,Boundary Conditioned FE Modelpunches (piercing punch, oblong piercingpunch, notching punch and blankingpunch) and bottom plate are fully restrictedto move in any of X, Y, Z directions atspecified place or nodes.LoadsLoad for some function elements likeFig: Die Plate Meshed with Load andBoundary Conditioned FE Modeltop half, bottom plate and die plate areapplied on Fz positive direction ofmagnitude as 80% of cutting force asvertical. And for punches like piercingpunch, oblong piercing punch, notchingpunch and blanking punch are applied onFz positive direction of magnitude ascalculated cutting force of that operation asFig: Stripper Plate Meshed with Load andBoundary Conditioned FE Modelcompressive load on surface. And also forguide pillar load applied is on Fx positivedirection of magnitude as 10 to 20% ofcutting force as thrust load and Fz positivedirection of magnitude of 80 to 90% ofcutting force as vertical load. Elementtype:structural solid brick 8node 45.Application: structural analysis.Fig: Guide Pillar Meshed with Load andBoundary Conditioned FE Modelwww.ijert.org7

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012Fig: Blanking Punch Meshed with Load andBoundary Conditioned FE ModelFig: Piercing Punch Meshed with Loadand Boundary Conditioned FE ModelFig: Oblong Piercing Punch Meshed withLoad and Boundary Conditioned FEModelFig: Bottom Plate Meshed with Load andBoundary Conditioned FE Modelwww.ijert.org8

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 20127. RESULTSAnalysis resultDeflection Stress2µmN/mCalculated valueDeflection Stress2µmN/mSl.NoDescriptionThicknessmm1Top half42 8 165.418.91e74.979.73e62Die plate35 e89.261.48e74GuidepillarØ 22 X1847.683.17e68.022.63e85Blankingpunch69.88 X55 X29.882.514.69e81.756.54e76Oblongpunch55 X 21X68.431.37e97.572.89e87PiercingpunchØ 8 X 552.984.87e83.153.50e88Bottomplate326 X256 X 524.063.13e85.264.37e7www.ijert.org9

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)ISSN: 2278-0181Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012products for progressive working.’ Journal of8. CONCLUSIONThe individual components ofMaterials Processing Technology, Volumeprogressive tool were modelled in Pro-110, Issue 1, March 2001 Pages 36–46.Engineer 4.0. Each individual file was4. H. S. Ismail, S. T. Chen and K. K. B. Hon.imported to Ansys12.0 software through‘Feature-Based Design of Progressive PressInitialSpecificationTools.’ International Journal of Machine(IGES) format. The following conclusionsTools and Manufacture, Volume 36, Issue 3,were made.March 1996, Pages 367-378.GraphicsExchange5. Chul Kim, Y.S. Park, J.H. Kim, J.C. Choi.1.Theresultsobtainedthrough‘A study on the development of computer-analysis are approximately nearer to theaided process planning system for electrictheoretical values. This demonstrates that theproductanalysis carried out was correct.operations.’ Journal of Materials Processing2. It is also observed that the design ofwithbendingandpiercingTechnology, Volume 130–131, 20 Decemberprogressive tool is safe as all the stress values2002, Pages 626–631.were less than the allowable stress of the6. Sang B. Park. ‘An expert system die design for electron gun gridparts.’ Journal of Materials ProcessingREFERENCES1. Seon-BongTechnology, Volume 88, Issues 1-3, 15 AprilLee,Dong-HwanKim,1999, Pages 216–221.Byung-Min Kim. ‘Development of optimal7. S. Kumar, R. Singh. ‘A low costlayout design system in multihole blankingknowledgeprocess.’ Journal of Materials Processingprogressive die design.’ Journal of MaterialsTechnology 130–131 20 December 2002,Processing Technology, Volumes 153–154, 10Pages 2–8November 2004, Pages 958–964.2. Sung-Bo Sim, Sung-Taeg Lee, Chan-Ho8. Dallas. D. B. ‘Progressive Die Design andJang. ‘A study on the development of centerManufacture.’ McGraw-Hill Book Company,carrier type progressive dies for U-bendingNew York, 1962.partMaterials9. Donaldson, Goold, Lecain. ‘Tool Design.’Processing Technology, Volumes 153–154,Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, NewNovember 2004, Pages 1005–1010.York, 1988.process.’Journalofbasesystemframeworkfor3. J.C. Choi, Chul Kim. ‘A compact andpractical CAD/CAM system for the blankingor piercing of irregular shaped-sheet metalwww.ijert.org10

The progressive die performs a series of fundamental sheet metal working at two or more stages during the press running to produce a production part as the strip stock moving through the die surface. Press working from the optimum dies design and its making has been the purpose of mass production in the manufacturing field. The design and manufacture of press tools, or punches and dies, is a .

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