Preparing Preceptors To Teach Critical Thinking

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Preparing Preceptors To TeachCritical Thinking

Why are we here?Identify Barriers that make it difficult forpreceptors to challenge students incritical thinking Identify strategies that can helppreceptors challenge students in criticalthinking Discuss solutions to these problems How rubrics can be used

First things First: What is Critical Thinking? Definitions: “reflective and reasonable thinking that is focused ondeciding what to believe or do” 1 purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results ininterpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as wellas explanation of the evidential, conceptual,methodological, criteriological, or conceptualconsiderations upon which that judgment is based” 2 disciplined, self-directed thinking that exemplifies theperfections of thinking appropriate to a particular modeor domain of thought”3

Critical Thinking Skillsvs.Critical Thinking Disposition Critical Thinking Skills are the cognitiveprocesses that are involved in criticalthinking Critical Thinking Disposition is theattitudes, habits of mind or internalmotivations that help us use criticalthinking skills.

Critical Thinking SkillsReflection Evaluation Analysis Synthesis Application Interpretation Integrating Recognize Assumptions

Critical Thinking DispositionsTruth seeking Open mindedness Inquisitiveness Maturity of Judgment Desire to be well informed Fair mindedness Willingness to entertain other’sviewpoints

Barriers to Teaching CriticalThinking in the Clinical Setting Educators must be critical thinkersthemselves in order to teach criticalthinking.4Preceptors are busy and have little incentiveto make the effort to teach criticalthinking.5,6Lack of pedagogical instruction especially inregards to critical thinking7,8Inappropriate or insufficient feedback9Student attitude towards critical thinking10

Strategies to overcome thesebarriers1. Developing preceptors ability to teach criticalthinking112. Mentoring12-153. Developing interpersonal communicationsskills8,94. Use Rubrics to help Preceptors recognize thecritical thinking skills that you are trying toemphasize so that they can specifically helpthe student to perform these skills.16

Developing preceptors ability toteach Critical ThinkingCurrently in athletic training, we do not knowthe effectiveness of preceptordevelopment.11,19,21,22 There are specific techniques that preceptorscan use to challenge students in critical thinking: Debriefing, Reflective Journaling, Case Studies,Modeling, Higher Order Questioning Preceptors who were taught how to teachcritical thinking skills, resulted in increasedability to influence the students ability to thinkcritically.11

Developing preceptors ability toteach Critical Thinking Develop preceptors abilities throughmultiple workshops throughout the year22,23Use online discussion boards to allowpreceptors to ask questions and shareexperiences related to teaching criticalthinking.24 Set critical thinking goals for clinicalexperiences

Mentoring Mentoring helps preceptors increasebehaviors that promote active learning bystudents while decreasing behaviors that aredetrimental to effective clinicaleducation.21,25Mentoring helps preceptors recognize the“teachable moment.”25Henning and Weidner demonstrated thatfirst year graduate assistants needsignificantly more mentoring than moreexperienced preceptors.20

Improve InterpersonalCommunication SkillsGood communication allows the preceptor toprovide the positive learning environmentnecessary for enhancing critical thinking skills.9,13 Good communication skills are needed to createa dialogue that invites questions, reflection, andencourages open-mindedness.20,26 Interpersonal communication skills improveability to give quality feedback8,9 Communication skills are necessary to helpstudents understand the effort necessary forcritical thinking and the benefits of the effort.

Using Rubrics to Promote Learning Rubrics are seen as scoring tools, but they canbe so much more. Rubrics divide an assignment into itscomponent parts and objectives and describesin detail what are acceptable and unacceptablelevels of performance. Rubrics explain the salient points of emphasisthat will be expected for the student and thatthe preceptor must observe.

Using Rubrics to Promote LearningRubrics indentify expectations of the educationalcontent that the student should learn They explain the areas in which the preceptorshould instruct the student Rubrics can also help indentify weaknesses andstrengths of the student to help further developmentof critical thinking skills during their educationalprogram. They may help the preceptor with their own criticalthinking

Solutions for overcoming barriersto critical thinking1st barrier: Educators must be critical thinkers toteach critical thinking.Applicable strategies: Developing preceptors ability to teach criticalthinking11 Mentoring12-15 Developing interpersonal communications skills8,9 Use Rubrics to help Preceptors recognize the criticalthinking skills that you are trying to emphasize sothat they can specifically help the student to performthese skills.16

Solutions for overcoming barriersto critical thinking2nd barrier: Preceptors are busy and have littleincentive to make the effort to teach criticalthinkingApplicable strategies: Developing preceptors ability to teach criticalthinking11 Mentoring12-15 Use Rubrics to help Preceptors recognize thecritical thinking skills that you are trying toemphasize so that they can specifically help thestudent to perform these skills.16

Solutions for overcoming barriersto critical thinking3rd barrier: Lack of pedagogical instructionespecially in regards to critical thinkingApplicable strategies: Developing preceptors ability to teachcritical thinking11 Use Rubrics to help Preceptors recognizethe critical thinking skills that you are tryingto emphasize so that they can specificallyhelp the student to perform these skills.16

Solutions for overcoming barriersto critical thinking4th barrier: Inappropriate or insufficient feedbackApplicable strategies: Developing preceptors ability to teach criticalthinking11 Mentoring12-15 Developing interpersonal communications skills8,9 Use Rubrics to help Preceptors recognize thecritical thinking skills that you are trying toemphasize so that they can specifically help thestudent to perform these skills.16

Solutions for overcoming barriersto critical thinking5th barrier: Student AttitudeApplicable strategies Mentoring12-15 Developing interpersonal communicationsskills8,9 Use Rubrics to help Preceptors recognizethe critical thinking skills that you are tryingto emphasize so that they can specificallyhelp the student to perform these skills.16

Creating Rubrics Basic Parts of a Rubric: Task Description Scale Dimensions Optional (but recommended): Description of dimensions

Case Study ExampleDefinesproblemAsks goodquestionsSelectsproperinformationto solve theproblemFormulatesgoodhypothesisRecognizesbiases andassumptionsDraws validconclusionsReflectsand/or selfcorrectsExcellent (6-7points)Problem is clearlydefinedCompetent (4-5points)Problem is partiallydefined or confusingin its statementNeeds Work (0-3points)Problem not clearlydefinedQuestions arepertinent,evaluative, and/orprobingSelected only andall necessaryinformation tosolve problem.Mostly processquestions, but somesystems questionsProcess questions onlySelects somenecessaryinformation and/orsome unnecessaryinformationHypothesis is stated,but only partially fitsthe availableinformation, is onlypartially relevant.Selects informationrandomlyBiases andassumptions arestated, but unclearPartially validconclusion drawnDemonstrates somereflectionNo biases orassumptions notedHypothesis isclearly stated,based on theavailableinformation andrelevant.Clearly statesbiases andassumptionsValid ypothesisis absent,confusing, or irrelevant.Invalid conclusiondrawnNo reflectiondemonstrated

Disposition ExampleEmerging (5-6Excelling (9-10 points) Achieving (7-8 points) points)Developing (3-4 points) Beginner (0-2 points)Only seeks a one or aOccasionally seeksfew forms andmultiple forms andsources ofsources of information, information withbut is unaware of bias little to no care forbiasAlways seeks manyforms and sources ofinformation andidentifies biasSometimes seeksConsistently seeksmultiple forms andmany forms andsources ofsources of informationinformation, but isand identifies biasnot aware of biasAlways seeks manypossible view pointsConsistently seeksmany possible viewpointsRegularly asks higherorder questionsOccasionally askshigher orderSometimes asksquestions, but mosthigher order questionsquestions aredescriptiveMostly descriptivequestions and rarelyasks higher orderquestionsRarely asks questionsIndentifies appropriateinformation in order tosolve a problem orcome to a conclusion ormake an fair mindedinterpretation based onthe informationNot all information isIndentifies appropriateappropriate butinformation, butconclusions orconclusions,interpretation frominterpretations arethe information isonly partially validvalidNot all information isappropriate leading toinvalid or only partiallyvalid conclusions orinterpretationsRandom informationleading to invalid orpartially validconclusions orinterpretationsTruth seekingSometimes seeksOccasionally seeksmultiple view points multiple view pointsGenerally only asingle view pointOpen-mindednessInquisitivenessAnalyticity

References1. Ennis, R. A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. EducationalLeadership, 1985; October: 44-48.2. Facione, P. Critical thinking: Assessment of expert consensus for purposes ofeducational assessment and instruction. Millbrae, CA: California AcademicPress, 1990.3. Elder, L., & and Paul, R. Critical thinking: Competency standards essential forcultivation of intellectual skills, Part 1. . Journal of Developmental Education, 2010;34(2): 38-39.4. Rezaee, M., & Ahmudi, A. Critical thinking in higher education: Unfulfilledexpectations. BRAIN, 2012; 3(2): 64-73.5. Snyder, L., & Snyder, M. Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. TheDelta Pi Epsilon Journal, 2008; L(2): 90-99.

References6. Walker, S. Weidner, T., Armstrong, K. Evaluation of athletic training studentsclinical proficiencies. Journal of Athletic Training, 2008; 43(4): 386-395.7. Craig, D. Athletic training instructors: a needs assessment of teachingmethodology knowledge and self-perceived competence. Doctoral Dissertation,Colorado State University. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesesdatabase. (UMI No. 3075348). 2002.8. Weidner, T and August, J. The athletic therapist as clinical instructor., AthleticTherapy Today, 1997; 2: 49-52.9. Swan, E. Communicating effectively as a clinical instructor. Athletic Therapy Today,2002; 7(5): 28-33.10. Shell, R. Perceived barriers to teaching critical thinking by BSN nursing faculty.Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 2001; 22: 286-291.

References11. Abrami, P, Bernard, R, Borokhovski, E, Instructional interventions affectingcritical thinking skills and dispositions: A stage 1 meta-analysis. Review of EducationalResearch, 2008; 78(4): 1102-1134.12. Weidner, T and Henning, J. Being an effective athletic training clinical instructor.Athletic Therapy Today, 2002; 7(5): 6-11.13. Weidner, T.G and Henning, J.M. Historical perspective of athletic training clinicaleducation., Journal of Athletic Training, 2003; 37(4 supplement): s222-s228.14. Eberman, L, Kahanove, L, Kahanove, M, et al. Mentorship of new faculty members.International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training, 2011; 16(6): 34-37.15. Groh, N. A supervision program for approved clinical instructors in athletic training.Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 2009. Available fromProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database.

References16. Stevens, D. & Levi, A. Introduction to Rubrics. Sterling,VA: Stylus Publishing,LLC; 2005.17. Hoppe, S. Transitioning from a student to a professional in athletic training: Aphenomenological review of graduate assistants/fellows. Doctoral dissertation,University of Minnesota. 2011. Available from Proquest Dissertations and ThesesDatabase.18. Henning, J and Weidner, T. Roll strain in college athletic training approvedclinical instructors. Journal of Athletic Training, 2008; 43(3): 275-283.19. Jarski, R., K., Kulig and Olson, R. Clinical teaching in physical therapy. PhysicalTherapy, 1990; 70(3,):73-178.20. Weidner TG, Henning JM. Being an effective clinical instructor. Athletic TherapyToday, 2002; 7(5):6-11.

References21.Vanguri, P. & Konin, J. The acquisition of instructional strategies through a foursession athletic trainer clinical instruction workshop. The Internet Journal of AlliedHealth Sciences and Practice, 2008; 6(1):1-7.22. Forneris S.G. & Peden-McAlpine, C. Creating context for criticalthinking in practice: the role of the preceptor. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2009;65(8):1715–1724. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05031.x23. Stemmans, C. and Gangstead, S. Athletic training students initiate behaviors lessfrequently when supervised by novice clinical instructors. Journal of Athletic Training,2002; 37 (4): 275-283.24.Vanguri P. & Konin J. Strategies for facilitating athletic training clinical instruction.The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 2008; 6(4): 1-10.

References25. Stemmans, C. and Gangstead, S. Athletic training students initiatebehaviors less frequently when supervised by novice clinicalinstructors. Journal of Athletic Training, 2002; 37 (4): 275-283.26. Mazerolle, S., Bowman, T., Dodge, T. Clinical instructional methodsemployed by preceptors in the clinical setting. Athletic TrainingEducation Journal, 2012; 7(4): 157-165

Thank you

Critical Thinking Skills vs. Critical Thinking Disposition Critical Thinking Skills are the cognitive processes that are involved in critical thinking Critical Thinking Disposition is the attitudes, habits of mind or internal motivations that help us use critical thinking skills.

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