Hops 2013 Irrigation - Extension Buffalo County

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Matt StasiakPeninsular Agricultural Research StationUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonCollege of Agriculture and Life Sciences

Water Light Energy Air (CO2 & O2) Temperature Absence of toxins Nutrients

Water Light Energy Air (CO2 & O2) Temperature Absence of toxins NutrientsPrecipitation– NE WI 30-32” / yearConservation– Weed control– MulchingIrrigation– Supplemental

SoilPlantEnvironmentalManagementall contribute toamount of moistureavailable for plant humb/8/80/Surfacewater cycle.svg/260px-

Soil Type Root Distribution External StressWindHumidityTemperaturePrecipitation Frequency Irrigation Amount &Frequency

SandTexture SandSand.05-1 mm Silt.002-.05 mm Clay .002 mmSiltClaySiltMicro-particlesMicroporesClaySoil Classificationclayloamsilt loamsandy loamSandSilt

Water AvailabilitySoil Water ContentSandBound WaterLoamAvailableWaterClayField Capacity

Physical & chemical process bind clay-silt-sandtogether.Organic matter and soil structure Soil flora and fauna activity dependant on organic matter. Bacteria, fungi, algae, earthworms, beetles, etc. Fungal threads, gums fats & waxes bind particles together.Macro-particles and macroporesSoil clods & granualesSoil aeration and permeabilitySurface vegetation or mulch

Improvement in surface waterinfiltration after two season of‘mow and throw’.Infiltration .9

Soil Moisture in Herbicide Strip With andWithout Side Delivered Mulch30% increase

Natural DistributionSoil TypePoor distribution inheavy (clay) soils.More extensive in coarsesoils.Physical LimitationsHard pansBedrockPlant Species & Cultivar02’6’

Wind Humidity Temperature PrecipitationFrequency

Inches PrecipitationRainfall Distribution – Door County, WI

Inches PrecipitationRainfall Distribution – Door County, WI2012

Actual irrigation required due nRequirementFurrow(50% loss)Sprinkler(25% 7418.49Average consumptive use and net irrigation requirement for orchards in the WillametteValley in acre-inches. OSU Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 628

Lower water usage50% less that sprinkler Lower energy requirementOperating pressure and volume Efficiency - only what ‘crop’ needs Less potential for disease damage Reduced weed pressure & mowing costs More readily adaptable to hilly terrain

Management, initial investment & operating costs Only what ‘crop’ needsLimited application volume can also be a negative No frost protection CloggingParticulates, algae, mineral precipitates

How much?Species & cultivarPlant ageWhen?Critical periodsTimingWhere?PlacementSupplemental Irrigation in a Humid Climate

Differences between speciesAnnual crop – apple - hopRoots spread & depthDown to to 15 ft3-6’ beyond drip lineVine age

PLANT AGE123456-20GAL/PLANT/DAYCROPHop12.53 - 4?3 - 4?3 - 4?3 - 4?Dwarf Apple121.51.523Grape1235815Melons3-----

Newly planted vines 7 gallons of water/week.Best to split into 2 applications.‘Rule of Thumb’.Increase volume by 50% each year.(more vigorous, greater increase)Amount needed for vines varies with age.

Emitters Point sourceHistorically used in low densitycrops (1-2 gph) InlineT-tape, ‘drip-in’Increased use in high densityorchards (0.2-0.3 gph per foot)12” ----- 24” ----- 36” ----- 48”

Need to supply 25% root volume Young vines.1-2 feet from the crown.3-4 feet of slack at installation. Mature vines .Maintain distance from crown toavoid root rot.Additional emitters or lines maybe required.

TREE AGE123456-20GAL/PLANT/DAYCROPHop12.53 - 4?3 - 4?3 - 4?3 - 4?Dwarf Apple121.51.523Grape1235815Melons3-----

1st yearHops888 vines/acre(3.5x14’ spacing)Need to supply:1 gal/vine/day 7 gal/weekUsing:1 gph emitter per vinepoint sourceemitters

1st yearHops888 vines/acre(3.5x14’ spacing)Need to supply:1 gal/vine/day 7 gal/weekUsing:1 gph emitter per vinepoint sourceemitters7 g/wk1 gph 7 hr/week3-4 hrs at 2x per week

1st yearHops888 vines/acre(3.5x14’ spacing)Need to supply:1 gal/vine/day 7 gal/weekUsing:0.735 gph per vine(3.5/2*.42)In-lineemitters2’ spacing, 0.42 gph

1st yearHops888 vines/acre(3.5x14’ spacing)Need to supply:1 gal/vine/day 7 gal/weekUsing:0.735 gph per vine(3.5/2*.42)In-lineemitters2’ spacing, 0.42 gph7 g/wk.735 gph 9.5 hr/week5 hrs at 2x per week

Critical Periods Young plants Flowering Avoid water loggingIn Midwest - typically June through early September

Start early before soil dries- Increase lateral spread- Avoid ‘catch up’TimingPan evaporationTensiometersElectrical resistanceDry Soil Resistance

Scheduling with pan evaporationEvaporation/weekRainfall/weekNet water loss/week2.2 inches- 0.7 inches1.5 inches75- 100% replacement depending on cropBest in arid climates and coarse (sandy soils)

Tensiometers Measure energy status of soil water. ‘Soil Moisture Tension’ (negativepressure). Expressed as bars or centibars.

Tension (Bars)Oven DryWilt PointField Capacity% H2 O Filled Space10,000 015 Unavailable 25.33Available 50Lost toDrainageSaturation1 Bar (kPa) -.15psi015 Bars -2 psi10010,000 Bars -1450 psi

Monitor with tensiometersPlace 1/3 & 2/3 root depthSprinklerBegin 40-50 cb12”DripMaintain between 10-50 cbWet - DrySand 10-40Loam 20-80Clay 30-10018”

Well, stream or pond? ParticulatesLess likely with well water pH, dissolved solids & elementsCalcium, Magnesium & Iron All water sources contain bacteria or elements thatsupport bacterial growthCan lead to ‘bacterial slime’ Algae from surface water

Filters needed depend on water source Coarse screen filtersProtect pumps from surface water trash Fine mesh screen filtersSlotted plastic, perforated/mesh stainless, or nylon

Filters needed depend on water sourceSand filters for surface water - high ‘organic’ matter

Using Irrigation Water Tests to Predict and Prevent Clogging of Drip Irrigation Systems.Storlie, C. 1995. Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extension Fact Sheet, FS793.

Calcite (scale) formationSolubleCaCO3 CO2 H2O Ca(HCO3)2CalciumcarbonateWeak acidpH and temperaturedependantPrecipitateCalciumbicarbonate

Acid treatmentCitric, phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloricPrevention of Mg & Ca scaling, bacterial slime (Fe)– Continuous injection to lower pH to just below 7.0.Scale removal– ‘Slug’ injection with pH 3.0-4.0.– Flush after sitting in line 1-2 hours.Chlorine injectionAlgae, bacterial slime (Fe)– Continuous injection to maintain 1-2ppm.

Chemical injection to reduce algae and precipitates. Type – venturi, metering, proportioner Fertilizer use can be cut by 50%. All require backflow prevention to protect watersource.SuctionMeteredflow

Nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, boron, and zinc canbe effectively supplied through fertigationBenefits over broadcast fertilizing include: Increased nutrient absorption Reduced fertilizer need Reduced leaching Reduction in water usage due to the plant's resultingincreased root mass's ability to trap and hold water Precise timing and application rates

Production CostYIELD(tons/a)No Irrigation

Field layoutMainlineSupply to fieldsSubmain (header)Within fieldLateralsTo the treeEmittersFlow Rate

TREE AGE123456-20GAL/PLANT/DAYCROPHop12.53 - 4?3 - 4?3 - 4?3 - 4?Dwarf Apple121.51.523Grape1235815Melons3-----

MatureHop888 vines/acre(3.5x14’ spacing)Need to supply:3 gal/vine/day 21 gal/weekUsing:1 gph emitter per vine888 vines/acre x 1 gph 888 gallons per hour

Required main and submain sizefor various flow rates.Pipe Flow Rate(gpm)Minimum PipeSize (inches)1. 0 - 41/28 - 12122 - 301½30 - 50270 - 1103110 - 1904190 - 4506Sufficient flow?888 vines/acre x 1 gph 888 gallons per hour14.8gal/min.1 ACRE7.4gal/min.1/2 ACRE

Required main and submain sizefor various flow rates.Pipe Flow Rate(gpm)Minimum PipeSize (inches)1. 0 - 41/28 - 12122 - 301½30 - 50270 - 1103110 - 1904190 - 4506Sufficient flow?888 vines/acre x 1 gph 888 gallons per hour14.8gal/min.1 ACRE7.4gal/min.1/2 ACRE

Required main and submain sizefor various flow rates.Pipe Flow Rate(gpm)Minimum PipeSize (inches)1. 0 - 41/28 - 12122 - 301½30 - 50270 - 1103110 - 1904190 - 4506Sufficient flow?888 vines/acre x 1 gph 888 gallons per hour14.8gal/min.1 ACRE7.4gal/min.1/2 ACRE

Pump requirementsNeeds to be sufficient to bring water to the surface andmove against gravity and friction.Combination of Flow rateGallons per minute each section to be irrigated. ‘Head’ - total energy needed supply emittersElevation – water source to highest lateral.Friction – supply lines, valves, filters, etc.

Professional Design Engineer Water source – well, pond, existing pumps, etc. Electrical supply – voltage, etc. Total flow rate Vine age & cultivar Row and plant spacing Field dimensions – row lengths Terrain Automation Chemical injection

Roberts Irrigation Company, Inc.1500 Post RdP.O. Box 490Plover, WI 54467Ph: 800-434-5224www.robertsirrigation.netTrickl-eez Company4266 Hollywood Rd.St. Joseph, MI 49085Ph: 800-874-2553www.trickl-eez.comSpring Brook Supply11291 Lakewood Blvd.Holland, MI 49424Ph: 616-396-1956www.springbrookirrigation.com

Designing A Drip/Trickle Irrigation System: Part 1&2 — Water Needs, Emitters,and Management. Albert R. Jarrett Professor of Agricultural pdfFertigation of Apple Trees in Humid Climates. Terence Robinson and WarrenStiles. 2004. New York Fruit Quarterly. Vol.12 tes.pdfUsing Irrigation Water Tests to Predict and Prevent Clogging of Drip IrrigationSystems. Storlie, C. 1995. Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extension FactSheet, p?pid FS793Treating Drip Irrigation Systems with Chlorine. Storlie, C. 1997. RutgersCooperative Research and Extension Fact Sheet, p?pid FS795How to Reduce Clogging Problems in Fertigation. Guodong Liu and GeneMcAvoy. 2012. Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative ExtensionService, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, HS1202http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1202

Roberts Irrigation Company, Inc. 1500 Post Rd P.O. Box 490 Plover, WI 54467 Ph: 800-434-5224 www.robertsirrigation.net. Treating Drip Irrigation Systems with Chlorine. Storlie, C. 1997. Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extension Fact Sheet, FS795. .