Geoscience Education In The Boy Scouts Of America

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JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCE EDUCATION 60, 159–167 (2012)Geoscience Education in the Boy Scouts of AmericaRachel Hintz1,a and Barbara Thomson2ABSTRACTBoy Scout geoscience education is not ‘‘desk’’ education—it is an informal, hands-on, real-world education where Scoutslearn through activities, trips, and the outdoors, as well as in meetings and in the merit badge program. Merit badgerequirements, many of which meet National Science Education Standards for Earth and Space Science, give boys foundationalexperiences and familiarity with geoscience topics. Earning a Geology merit badge at any location resulted in a significant gainof content knowledge (P 0.001). The combined treatment groups for all location types had a 9.2% gain in contentknowledge, but the amount of content knowledge acquired through the merit badge program varied with location. Thelongitudinal posttest scores, with a 15.0% increase from the attributed average pretest score, were higher than the posttestscores from any location except summer camp. No gains were seen in the control group; age and grade were not significantfactors. Combining interview data with quantitative data indicates that Scouts who participate in the Geology merit badge arebetter prepared for school geoscience classes. Participation in the Geology merit badge provides geoscience experiences and‘‘familiarity’’ with geoscience concepts that allow Scouts to create and retain geoscience knowledge. Ó 2012 NationalAssociation of Geoscience Teachers. [DOI: 10.5408/09-192.1]Key words: Boy Scouts, Boy Scout education, experiential education, free-choice education, Geology merit badge,geoscience education, hands-on, informal education, merit badge, outdoor education, science education, Scouts,ScoutingGEOSCIENCE EDUCATION IN THE BOYSCOUTS OF AMERICAearned 489,419 Geology merit badges; Boy Scouts earned19,525 Geology merit badges during 2007 alone. Between1911 and 2008, Scouts earned 1,023,560 Soil and WaterConservation merit badges, including 13,630 in 2007 (BSA,2008c).A boy is not a desk animal. He is not a sitting-down animal. . . He is a boy—God bless him—full to the brim of funand fight and hunger and daring and mischief and noiseand observation and excitement. If he is not, he isabnormal. (Baden-Powell, 1920)Purposes of the StudyThe Boy Scouts have always emphasized education,especially in the natural sciences. The educational agendahas an active, outdoor component emphasizing outdoorlearning through camping, hiking, and other outdooractivities (Nicholson, 1940; BSA, 1998). Lord Baden-Powell,the founder of the Boy Scout Movement, associated thestudy of nature—animate, inanimate, biology, plants, andanimals—with the pursuit of happiness.The aims of the study are to determine whetherparticipating in Boy Scout activities, particularly the Geologymerit badge, helps boys increase their geology contentknowledge and prepares them to do better in schoolgeoscience classes by providing experiences, memories,and knowledge upon which the boys can build furtherknowledge.The sciences, the Geology merit badge, the Conservation merit badge, the Astronomy merit badge, all ofthose piqued my curiosity, and, I think, helped lead meinto this career program. (Sherman Lundy, geologist)INTRODUCTIONThe Boy Scouts of America (BSA) organization may beone of the largest providers of long-term informal scienceeducation and geoscience education in the United States,because Boy Scouts make up 14% of the population of boysbetween the ages of 11 and 18 (BSA, 2008c). According tothe BSA director of research, 898,320 boys were enrolled inthe traditional Boy Scout program as of December 31, 2009.Between 1911, when the merit badge program wasestablished in the United States, and 2008, Boy ScoutsBackground on ScoutingLiterature ReviewLittle research on Scouting exists in science educationliterature. A science education study was conducted withCub Scouts in Great Britain, but according to the director ofresearch for the BSA, who researches and collects information printed about the Boy Scouts, the BSA has no record ofresearch on science education or geoscience education in theBSA. In a study conducted to ascertain Scout interests, boysin the BSA indicated that participation in Scouting helpsincrease their interest in science, because they are exposedto, and experience, science at many levels and in manylocations (BSA, 2005).Received 3 December 2009; revised 29 October 2010; accepted 30 October 2010;published online 13 June 2012.1Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, 9128 CarriageLane, Pickerington, Ohio 43147, USA.2Teaching and Learning, The Ohio State University, 333 Arps Hall, 1945N. High Street, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.aAuthor to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail:[email protected] Tel.: 614-589-1014.1089-9995/2012/60(2)/159/9159Q Nat. Assoc. Geosci. Teachers

160R. Hintz and B. ThomsonLearning and Knowledge ConstructionPrevious learning is important for new knowledgebuilding, because encoding depends on previous knowledgeand is most successful when it links to multiple aspects of anindividual’s experience (Bell, 2001). However, learning mustinvolve the use of memories to connect ideas or solve realworld problems (Falk and Dierking, 1997). Nonformaleducational experiences, which include many Scoutingactivities, link experience with reality (Silberman-Keller,2003).BSA is a form of free-choice education. Each boy whoenters the Scouting movement may choose to become BoyScout; may choose how fast, or whether, he advances inrank; may choose which merit badges to work on; and insome instances, may choose among options in fulfillment ofa requirement for a merit badge.Scouts are taught using a hands-on approach (Jarman,2005; Nicholson, 1940). This hands-on approach works wellwith the tactile, kinesthetic needs of boys (Hlawaty, 2002;Honigsfeld and Dunn, 2003); boys are highly tactile andprone to tinkering, wishing to master and quantify theirphysical environment (Heard, 2000). Knowledge presentedin school classrooms is often decontextualized and inert(Schugurensky, 2006). By tinkering with objects in thelearning environment, boys gain confidence, authority, and awillingness to explore further (Heard, 2000). When learningis associated with doing, knowledge is acquired within thecontext of the activity; thus, it is active and vital (Schugurensky, 2006).When learners do hands-on science, they directlyinfluence their cognitive development by constructingknowledge about events and circumstances. Cognitivedevelopment is also influenced indirectly by hands-onscience, because memories are formed that can be recalledin later knowledge construction (Wellington, 1990).Jarman (2005) identified Scouting as an understudiedenvironment in which informal science education occurs.Jarman further emphasized that the science experiences inScouting ‘‘exemplify science ideas encountered within theschool curriculum.’’ In addition, Jarman theorized that ifScouts can remember their experiences and relate them totopics presented in formal school activities, the experiencesmay connect for the Scouts and help them to develop ‘‘deepconceptual understanding.’’ In informal education, the‘‘experience is everything’’; experiences that are just for funcan have significant consequences (Stocklmayer and Gilbert,2002). Jarman identified four contexts in which science istransmitted in UK Scouting: the Progressive TrainingProgram (which corresponds to rank advancement requirements for U.S. Scouts); proficiency badges, (similar to U.S.Scouting merit badges); special events, such as visits toscience centers or working on environmental projects; andincidental learning, in which science learning is not theprimary goal of the activity but is a potential outcome of aparticular activity or experience ( Jarman, 2005; BSA, 1998).Geoscience education in the BSA falls into three of thesecategories: merit badges, special events, and incidentallearning; however, geoscience knowledge is not a rankadvancement requirement (BSA, 1998). The experiencesScouts have while doing optional geoscience-related meritbadges, camping, canoeing, hiking, backpacking, caving,exploring, working on projects, and doing other activitiesprovide them with personal experiential knowledge that canJ. Geosci. Educ. 60, 159–167 (2012)be used to construct knowledge both at the time of theexperience and in later formal school activities.Scouting provides boys with field-based activities. Fieldbased geoscience experiences enrich education by stimulating interest and natural curiosity, providing a sense of scale(both time and dimension), and challenging students tomove beyond simple recollection of facts (Garrison andEndsley, 2005; May and Gibbons, 2004).Merit Badge PamphletsThe BSA program includes experiential activitiesthrough which boys are involved in a variety of learningexperiences. A printed educational curriculum is available toevery Boy Scout in the form of the Boy Scout Handbook andmore than 120 merit badge pamphlets on a variety of topics.The BSA educational material, edited and published by theBSA, is produced by experts in each subject (Steele, 2008).Merit badges, although not created to meet National ScienceEducation Standards (National Research Council, 1996),align with the standards and provide boys with manyopportunities to learn geoscience (available in Supplementary Table 1 at: Tenmerit badges have earth/space requirements meeting grades5–8 National Science Education Standards, and 11 meritbadges have earth/space requirements meeting grades 9–12National Science Education Standards. (Energy is not agrades 5–8 earth/space standard.) Boys are not required tocomplete any merit badges unless they wish to advance inthe Boy Scout program; merit badge participation allows freechoice in both participation and choice of topic. For a boy toearn a merit badge, he must complete the listed requirements published in the specific BSA merit badge pamphlet.All boys desiring to earn the Geology merit badge mustcomplete the universal requirements listed in the Geologymerit badge pamphlet, in addition to completing one of fouroptions of study: (1) surface and sedimentary processes(category A), (2) energy resources (category B), (3) mineralresources (category C), and (4) earth history (category D).Field-based experiences ‘‘provide stimuli for continuedpursuit of natural philosophy and as catalysts for teamwork, mentoring, and sharing knowledge with others’’(Garrison and Endsley, 2005). Many requirements for theGeology merit badge, including the universal requirementsand the requirements for each option, include field visits asone of the options for completing the requirement. The visitchoices available in the Geology merit badge include (1)visiting with a professional in a geology-related field; (2)visiting and studying a stream; (3) visiting an operatingdrilling rig and talking with an onsite geologist; (4) visitingan active mine, quarry, or sand or gravel pit; (5) visiting ascience museum or a university geology department display;or (6) visiting a local structure built with fossiliferous rocks(BSA, 2008a).RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe researchers, using a pretest–intervention–posttestdesign, attempted to discover (1) whether participation inthe BSA Geology merit badge program engendered Scoutgeoscience knowledge, (2) whether the amount of geoscience knowledge gained varied by location, and (3) whetherScouts retained geoscience content knowledge acquiredthrough participation in the Geology merit badge.

J. Geosci. Educ. 60, 159–167 (2012)Interviews were conducted to illuminate how participation in the Boy Scouts influenced Scout geoscienceknowledge, to determine whether participation in theGeology merit badge was influential in determininglongitudinal posttest scores, and to learn whether Scoutswere able use knowledge and experiences gained whiledoing the Geology merit badge to construct knowledge intheir geoscience classes in school.HYPOTHESESScouts who participate in the Geology merit badge,regardless of location, will increase their geoscience knowledge compared with Scouts who do not participate in theGeology merit badge (control group), as shown bydifferentials between pre- and posttest scores (P 0.05).(Null hypothesis: The differentials between pre- and posttestscores of Scouts earning the Geology merit badge will equalthe differentials between pre- and posttest scores of Scoutsnot earning the Geology merit badge.)Scouts doing the Geology merit badge at any locationacquire the same content knowledge by using the sameeducational material. The amount of content knowledgeacquisition will not vary by location. Content knowledgegain will be equal at all locations, and the differentialsbetween pre- and posttest scores will be equal (P 0.05).(Null hypothesis: The content knowledge acquired by Scoutsearning the Geology merit badge at different locations willvary, as shown by the differentials between pre- and posttestscores of Scouts.)Scouts succeed in formal geoscience education bybuilding on their Boy Scout geoscience experiences andstudies, especially their Geology merit badge experiences.Scouts who have earned the Geology merit badge will showan increase their geoscience content knowledge beyond thatof Scouts who only participate in school geoscience education, as shown by differentials between the assigned pretestscore and the posttest scores of Scouts who had previouslytaken the Geology merit badge compared with the pre- andposttest score differentials of Scouts who had not taken theGeology merit badge (P 0.05). (Null hypothesis: Thedifferentials between the assigned pretest score and posttestscores of Scouts who previously earned the Geology meritbadge will equal the differentials between pre- and posttestscores of Scouts not earning the Geology merit badge.)Interview data will illuminate how boys use their BoyScout experiences, including their merit badge experiences,to construct knowledge in their school geoscience classes.METHODSThis study combined qualitative and quantitative methods. A variety of data sources were used to verify theresearch findings through triangulation, member checks,and transferability (Corbin and Holt, 2005; Talburt, 2004).Two populations were studied: a population that participated in the quantitative section of the research and aninterview population that participated in the qualitativeresearch. The researcher who collected the data passed thecriminal background check required by the BSA to workwith Boy Scouts (BSA, 2008b). Informed consent wassecured from all participants and the parents of youthparticipants.Geoscience Education in the Boy Scouts of America161Socioeconomic factors were not included, because BSAdoes not track enrollment by socioeconomic status on eitherthe local or the national level. According to a spokespersonfrom the local council, Boy Scout recruitment activities aresimilar in all parts of the country, and according to collectedmembership information, local membership is comparableto other councils in the Midwest.Quantitative MethodsThe quantitative portion of the research, using pre- andposttests, was used to determine the amount of geologycontent knowledge engendered in the Scouts completing theGeology merit badge and to determine whether Scoutsretained this content knowledge gain.Quantitative Research ParticipantsThe three self-selecting populations in the Geologymerit badge portion of the study (n 139) included boyswho were members of the control group (n 36) and took apre- and a posttest but did not work on earning the Geologymerit badge; boys who were members of the longitudinalstudy (n 23) and had, at some time since becoming aScout, earned the Geology merit badge and participated inthe study by taking a posttest; and boys who earned theirGeology merit badge (n 80) and took a pretest and aposttest.Quantitative Research SettingsData collection sites for the Geology merit badgeincluded three Boy Scout summer camps,a landmark site,a merit badge college conducted at a communitycollege and quarry, andthe meeting sites for two Boy Scout troops.The Boy Scout camp areas were all located in roofedshelters with no walls. The landmark site had an educationalarea in which to collect the data. The pretest at the meritbadge college was administered in a classroom; the posttestwas completed at a quarry. The two Boy Scout meeting siteswere in church activity rooms. The summer camp programwas 5 hours in the course of 1 week, the 1-day program atthe landmark lasted 3 hours, the 1-day merit badge collegeprogram was 6 hours, and the troop programs were 6 hours over the course of 2 or 3 months.Quantitative Research Data CollectionAll Scouts earning the Geology merit badge used thesame educational material; pre- and posttest data werecollected from Scouts earning the badge in differentlocations. Face validity was achieved by matching theinstrument questions to the requirements in the Geologymerit badge handbook. The content validity of the instrument constructed for this investigation was determined by apanel of expert judges in the fields of geology and scienceeducation. Construct-related evidence of validity was seen inthe posttest score gain after Scouts completed the Geologymerit badge. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained through a pilot study in which the correlationbetween paired pre- and posttest scores was significant atthe 95% confidence level (n 16).

162R. Hintz and B. ThomsonJ. Geosci. Educ. 60, 159–167 (2012)TABLE I: Research design.LocationPretestMerit BadgePosttestCampNo badge (control group)Previous badge (longitudinal group)OOAverage of all pretest scores across control andtreatment groupsX (earned badge previously)OOXOCurrent badgeLandmarkOXOMerit badge collegeOXOTroop eventOXOAs random sampling was not feasible, the quantitativedesign for testing the efficacy of the Geology merit badgepamphlet in engendering geoscience content knowledgewas a combination of quasi-experimental designs developedby Campbell and Stanley (1963). Scouts in the control groupand Scouts who participated by taking the Geology meritbadge during summer camp took their pre- and posttests atthe same time, at the beginning and at the end of thesummer camp week. Scouts who had already taken theGeology merit badge were given the posttest to determinewhether there were long-term geoscience content knowledge differences between Scouts who had taken the Geologymerit badge and Scouts who had not (Campbell and Stanley,1963). Scouts who did the Geology merit badge at weekendevents and at summer camps and Scouts taking the meritbadge with their troops were given pre- and posttests. Thecombined results from all locations were compared to seewhether there was a significant difference in science contentknowledge between the Scouts earning the Geology meritbadge and the control group of Scouts who did not earn thebadge. The results from each type of location were comparedto see whether there was a significant difference in sciencecontent knowledge acquisition by type of location. Thelongitudinal results were compared with the control resultsto determine whether Scouts retained content knowledge.Table I shows the experimental data collection design,modeled after Campbell and Stanley (1963), where Orepresents testing and X represents completion of theGeology merit badge. The table indicates what data werecollected, where data were collected, and whether a meritbadge was awarded. Pre- and posttest data were collectedfrom all locations to determine whether location made adifference in content knowledge gained.The use of a nonequivalent control group for the Scoutstaking the Geology merit badge at summer camp wasdesigned to control for internal sources of invalidity ofhistory, maturation, testing, instrumentation, selection, andmortality but not for interaction of selection and maturation.As neither the control nor the experimental/treatmentgroups was chosen for extreme scores, regression to themean was not an issue. The experimental group deliberatelysought exposure to the treatment by taking the Geologymerit badge; the control group consisted of Scouts attendingsummer camp and taking merit badges other than Geology.The probability of selection interaction may have beenincreased, because boys who selected to take the Geologymerit badge may have had more geoscience interest thanboys who did not select to do Geology. Using thenonequivalent control group did not control for externalsources of invalidity, such as the interaction of testing andintervention. But because the Scouts were not randomlypulled out of a program to participate in an intervention,these threats were less than they would have been in a trueexperimental design with random assignment to intervention and control groups (Campbell and Stanley, 1963).Separate control groups for Scouts taking the merit badgefor a weekend or troop event were not possible; the controlgroup from summer camp was used as the control for alltreatment locations/groups. Maturation and outside influence at troop events and for the longitudinal sample weremore likely than during the 1-day events at the landmarkand merit badge college or during the 1-week events atsummer camps. The possibility exists that some Scoutsparticipating in the troop events or in the longitudinalsample were exposed to geology content knowledge in aschool setting before taking the posttest.Quantitative Research InstrumentThe pre- and posttest consisted of 23 multiple-choicequestions, including 4 questions about three diagrams(Geology Assessment is available at: The questions and distractors were selectedto align with the rocks and minerals option of the Boy ScoutGeology merit badge. These questions were designed to testknowledge of the rock cycle and associated processes, rockand mineral structure, mineral identification tests, andprinciple of superposition.Qualitative MethodsInterviews with Scouts provided qualitative informationused to determine whether participation in the Boy Scoutprogram engenders earth science content knowledge andprepares Scouts to construct geoscience knowledge, as wellas to determine whether Scouts perceived interactionbetween geology content learned in Scouting and geologycontent learned in school.Qualitative Research ParticipantsInterview data (n 4) were collected from older Scouts,because they had more experience with Scouting andtherefore had been exposed to more science in the BoyScouts than younger Scouts had. Interviewees included threehigh school juniors and one senior; three of the Scouts were16 years old, and one was 17. All four Scouts had achievedLife Scout Rank and were working toward their Eagle Rank.The oldest Scout was preparing for his Eagle Board of

J. Geosci. Educ. 60, 159–167 (2012)Review; the younger Scouts were finishing their last Eaglerequired merit badges. The Scouts were all from differenttroops and locations in the metro area of a capital city, andtwo were casual school acquaintances.Qualitative Research SettingsData were collected in the Midwest. The intervieweeschose the location for their interview. The settings for theinterviews varied and included the home of one of theinterviewees, a neighborhood pool where one of theinterviewees worked, and public education locations. Interviews were conducted using the Boy Scout policy of nounsupervised one-on-one interaction.Qualitative Research Data CollectionInterviews, to collect qualitative data, were conducted todemonstrate the effectiveness of the Geology merit badge inpreparing Scouts to succeed in formal geoscience educationand to determine whether Scouts used their geoscienceknowledge data in school geoscience classes.RESULTSQuantitative Research ResultsThe Scouts making up the control group (n 36,average age 12.9 years) took pre- and posttests at thesame times and places as did the boys who did the Geologymerit badge at the camps. The control group varied in age,grade, and Scout rank but did not differ significantly (P 0.001) from any treatment groups.The pre- and posttest differential scores of the controlsample were compared to the pre- and posttest differentialscores of the combined treatment groups (n 80)(Supplementary Table II, available at The combined treatment groups improvedtheir test scores by 2.1 questions, with a significant 9.2% gainin content knowledge (P 0.001).Content knowledge gain, as shown by pre- and posttestdifferential scores, was compared by location. Twenty-twoboys (average age 13.0 years) in two troops participatedand earned their Geology merit badge by working with amerit badge counselor as a troop. Eleven boys at three camps(average age 13.0 years) earned their Geology merit badgeand participated in the study. Thirty-three boys (average age 12.3 years) participated in the study at the landmarklocation, and there were 14 participants (average age 13.0years) at the merit badge college.Using SPSS, a univariate analysis of variance fullfactorial model, which consisted of all interactions exceptgrade, because age and grade were highly correlated, wasperformed. The interactions included treatment group,location, time length, Scout rank, and age. No interactionswere deemed significant; therefore, a main effects model wasproduced. The treatment location, Scout rank, and age wereput in as main effects. Treatment locations were deemedsignificant with a 95% confidence level (SupplementaryTable II). The scores of Scouts in the control group duringthe week at summer camp decreased by an average of 1.2questions, a 5.0% decrease. Scouts at summer campincreased their scores by an average of 4.1 questions, a17.8% increase. The Scouts who worked as a troop with amerit badge counselor improved their scores by an averageof 3.0 questions, a 13% increase. The Scouts at the meritGeoscience Education in the Boy Scouts of America163badge college improved their scores by an average of 2.1questions, a 9.0% increase. The Scouts at the landmarkimproved their scores by an average of 0.9 questions, a 4.0%increase. Score increases at all locations were deemedsignificant with a 95% confidence level. Figure 1 shows thepre- and posttest differential in the number of correctanswers at the various treatment locations.The 23 boys in the longitudinal sample completed theGeology merit badge before the study; the time lengthbetween the completion of the merit badge and the posttestwas unknown and varied within the sample. The boys wereof different ages, grades, and Scout ranks. These Scouts tooka posttest; a pretest score, the average sum of the pretestscores across the control and treatment groups, wasattributed. The average age of the longitudinal sample was14.75 years; the average age of the control was 12.9 years.Age and grade level were highly correlated (P 0.984). Aone-way analysis of variance technique measured the effectof age within the treatment groups. Age was not a significantfactor when looking at its effect on the treatment groups(longitudinal versus control) and predicting the scoredifferential. The geology content knowledge gain in thelongitudinal sample (Fig. 2) was significant at a 95%confidence level (P 0.001). The longitudinal sampleposttest scores were, on the 23-question assessment, 3.4questions higher than the attributed pretest average score, a15.0% change. This score increase was higher than scoreincreases at any location except summer camp.Qualitative Research Data and AnalysisScience experiences are naturally embedded in the BoyScout program. Camping and engaging in outdoor activitiesexpose Scouts to many aspects of science, includinggeosciences. These outdoor experiences provide experientialknowledge upon which further knowledge can be scaffolded,in and out of school. The experiences provide a relationshipbetween out-of-school life and school-subject material,making the school material relevant and of more interest.Scout K indicated that the experiential knowledge basethat he gained in outdoor experiences, including camping,was important in helping him learn science in school bymaking his formal science education relevant. Scout Kexplained the effect of outdoor experiences in learningscience by saying:FIGURE 1: Group/location versus pretest–posttestchange in number of correct answers.

164R. Hintz and B. ThomsonJ. Geosci. Educ. 60, 159–167 (2012)school because they caused him to question. Scout J wouldreturn to the classroom with scientific questions based on hisexperiences. His experiences and questions about hisexperiences kept Scout J interested in science and involvedin the classroom.J: I’d say you actually have questions. Being out there in thewilderness, you have questions about what actually is goingon out there, and when you get in school, you actuallydiscover what exactly you were looking at and how thosethings work, not always just how things work . . . but areactually getting to experience them, actually more fun.FIGURE 2: Control versus longitudinal posttest scoredifferential.R: So you, you gained experience and questions that youwere able to look at later.J: Yes.‘‘Experiencing the outdoors helps, and then we learn aboutbotany and different things, different plants, differentanimals. How, like when we’re climbing a mountain, likehow that mountain was formed, like by a volcano, or how itwas started, like a rock. Geology, botany, and animalsciences—different things like that help with science. . . .Personal experience in Scouting is a lot better science thanschool science, ‘cause you actually get the experiential of it.’’R: So, the experience made you more interested in what youwere learning at school?Sometimes science knowledge acquisition may be anincidental byproduct of Scouting activities. Scout J felt helearned science incidentally, just by bei

Merit Badge Pamphlets The BSA program includes experiential activities through which boys are involved in a variety of learning experiences. A printed educational curriculum is available to every Boy Scout in the form of the Boy Scout Handbook and

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ASME Materials Division 2019 Fall News 5 2019 Awards Nadai Medalist: The Nadai Medal is awarded in recognition of significant contributions and outstanding achievements which broaden the field of materials engineering. The 2019 Nadai Medalist is Ellen M. Arruda, Tim Manganello/ Borg Warner Department Chair of Mechanical Engineering, and the Maria Comninou Collegiate Professor of Mechanical .