Influence Of Dietary Supplementation Of Fermented Coffee .

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International Seminar on Promoting Local Resources for Food and Health, 12-13 October, 2015, Bengkulu, IndonesiaInfluence of Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Coffee Husk on Intakeand Performance of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Infected GoatIrma Badarina, Heri Dwi Putranto, and Endang SulistyowatiDepartement of Animal Science, Agricultural Faculty, Bengkulu UniversityEmail: [email protected] aim of this research was to explore potency of solid substrate of P. ostreatus from coffee husk on theperformance of GINs infected Goat. Eighteen local goats, Kacang Goat, infected gastrointestinal nematodes wereallocated in three different groups i.e. T0 (No chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation offermented coffee husk), T1 (No chemical anthelmintic treatment, animals supplied with fermented coffee husk),T2 (Chemical anthelmintic treatment). All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grassesalong with 40% concentrate mixture for a period of 45 days. No statistically significant differences were observedin dry matter consumption and weight gain (P 0.05). Dry matter intake on T0 is the lowest. The weight gain ofT2 is the highest followed by T1. The lowest weight gain is in T0. The haemoglobin (Hb) is significantlydifferent (P 0.05). Hb in T1 and T2 were bettter than T0. The Hb in T0 were under the normal range. Thegeneral performance of infected GINs goat supplied fermented coffee husk was satisfactory.Thesupplementation of fermented coffee husk could improve the performance of goat.Keywords: Fermented coffee husk, intake, performance, goat, GINsINTRODUCTIONGastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most pathogenic and widely distributed bloodsucking abomasal of sheep and goats. GIN infections occasionally depress feed intake, utilization andproduction (mortality and weight loss), and impair tissue deposition and sceletal growth (Rowe et al.,1988; Parkins and Holmes, 1989). Therefore, nematodes infection can cause the economic losses(Batubara, 2004).The interaction between animals and environment caused nematodes infection cannot beavoided. The customary mode of control of the GINs has been based on the repeated use of chemicalanthelmintics. However, drug resistance has become an important issue in small ruminant husbandry,especially when anthelmintics are applied at high levels and increasing frequency and inappropriatedoses (Pandey et al. 2001; Sissouma et al. 2011). The price of chemical anthelmintics are quiteexpensive and the fear of residual effect in the animal tissues restricts use of chemical in feeds. Thus,alternative environment friendly sustainable novel strategies are required, which could reduce theexclusive reliance on anthelmintic treatment.A potential alternative to chemical anthelmintics is the solid substrate of P.ostreatus especiallyfrom coffee husk. Badarina et al. (2014) reported that the level of lymphocyte increased and the levelof eosinophil decreased in the group of goat supplemented with coffee husk fermented withP.ostreatus. This result indicated that solid substrate of P.ostreatus based from coffee husk couldenhance the immunity and decreased the parasite infection on animals. Pleurotus ostreatus has beenknown for it active compound that can modulate the immune system (Zhang et al., 2007). Solidsubstrate from coffee husk contained the secondary metabolic compounds such as saponin, tannin,alcaloid, flavonoid, glicosides and triterpenoid (Badarina et al., 2013b). These compounds have theability to control the GINs. These bioactives compund were also invented in chemical anthelmintics(Zafar et al., 2004).The aim of this research work was to explore potentiality of solid substrate of P.ostreatus fromcoffee husk on the performance of GINs infected Goat.300 Proceeding ISEPROLOCAL. ISBN: 9786029071184

International Seminar on Promoting Local Resources for Food and Health, 12-13 October, 2015, Bengkulu, IndonesiaMATERIALS AND METHODSAnimals and TreatmentsThis research was done at Outdoor Laboratorium Departement of Animal Science AgriculturalFaculty, Bengkulu University. Eighteen local goats called Kacang Goat of male sex, similar age ( 10month) and body weight (9.23 1.71 kg) were used. All the goats were selected from the tradisionalfarmer and infected gastro intestinal nematodes (GINs).All the goats were allocated in three different groups i.e. T0 (No chemical anthelmintic treatmentand no supplementation of fermented coffee husk), T1 (No chemical anthelmintic treatment, animalssupplied with fermented coffee husk), T2 (Chemical anthelmintic treatment). The gastrointestinalnematodes infection are ensured by Faecal egg counts (FECs). FECs were made using the modifiedMcMaster technique (Anonymous, 1984). All goats were housed individually with facilities forindividual feeding. They were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40%concentrate mixture for a period of 45 days to meet their nutrient requirements. Goats were fed twicedaily in amounts adequate to ensure 3.5% dry matter of body weight at the day. The diet was arrangedto fulfill the nutrient for goat with crude protein 11-12% and TDN 60% (Kearl, 1982).Fermented coffee husk was incorporated in the diet of treatment (T1) as much as 15% ofconcentrate mixture (Badarina et al., 2013a). The concentrate diet composed mainly of cassava waste,coconut meal, soybean wastes meal, rice bran and crude palm oil. The formulation and chemicalanalysis of concentrate shown in the Table 1.Table 1. Ingredients of concentrate and chemical composition of concentrate.IngredientSoybean wastes mealRice branCoconut wastes mealCassava wastesCrude Palm OilTotal(% of DM)34.8823.2623.2611.636.97100.00Dry Matter(%)Ash (%)Crude Protein (%)Crude Fiber (%)Ether extract (%)Total Digestible Nutrient (%)85.0510.3815.3330.945.6671.96The weight gain evaluated before and after treatment. The dry matter intake were measureddaily. The profile of Haemoglobin (Hb) was measured at the end day of research.Coffee Husk Cultivation with Pleurotus ostreatusCoffee husks were solar dried until its moisture content 10-15%. The cultivation method and thecomposition of solid substrate was done according to Herliyana et al. (2008) with slight modification.The substrate consisted of 82,5% of coffee husk, 15% rice bran, 1,5% gips and 1,0% CaCO3. Theclean water was added into the substrate as much as 65-70% (v/w). All the component was compostedfor 24 hours and then placed into poly propilene bags as much as 400 gram per bag. The baglogs weresterilized on 121oC for 30 minutes. After cooling, each bags was inoculated aseptically with P.ostreatus grain spawn and incubated in a dark room at 23-24oC and approximately 80% relativehumidity. Each spawned bag was closed with a small sterile cotton plug inserted in the middle of itsopening. All bags were placed in incubating room, after 60 days the substrate was fully colonized andprimordia started to appear. The fully colonized substrate were solar dried and ready to use as feedsupplement. The nutrient content of coffee husk substrate is presented in Table 2.Proceeding ISEPROLOCAL. ISBN: 9786029071184 301

International Seminar on Promoting Local Resources for Food and Health, 12-13 October, 2015, Bengkulu, IndonesiaTable 2. Nutrient contents of coffee husk substrate fermented by Pleurotus ostreatusNutrient ComponentPercentage (%)Dry MatterAshCrude ProteinCrude fiberEther afeinΒ-glucan (%w/w)Ca (%)P (%)Fe (%)Zn .040.180.204.251.280.080.1112.00Badarina et al. (2013)Data AnalysisAll statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed to analyses variances (Steel andTorrie, 2003). Means among treatment were compared by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).Statistical differences are expressed at P 0.05.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe effect of each treatment on performance of goats are presented in Table 3. The dry matterintake, weight gain and haemoglobin (Hb) by goat during the trial are given in the Table 3. Nostatistically significant differences were observed in dry matter consumption between treatment(P 0.05).Table 3. Dry matter consumption, weight gain and haemoglobin (Hb) of GoatsItemsThe dry matter consumption (g/day)Weight gain (kg)Haemoglobin (g/dl)T0691.31 128.231.18 0.875.55 1.90aTreatmentsT1792.01 128.791.55 0.698.62 1.52bT2801.34 159.282.20 1.729.2 2.46bDry matter intake on T0 is the lowest. There was no statistically significant difference of weightgain among the treament. In spite of such this, the weight gain of T2 is the highest followed by T1.The lowest weight gain is T0. The haemoglobin (Hb) is significantly difference (P 0.05). Hb in T1and T2 are bettter than T0. The Hb in T0 were under the normal range.The result of this research showed that the daily intake of dry matter (DM) affected by treatment.The result indicated that T1 ( No chemical anthelmintic, supplied by fermented coffee husk) and T2(Chemical anthelmintic treatment) improved feed consumption. It was possibly related to the improvedthe health of the animal on T1 and T2. The intake of DM by goats were within the normal range andthe amounts more than 3.5% dry matter of body weight at the day (Kearl, 1982). This indicates thatall the experimental diets were palatable and the animal got sufficient supply of nutrients.The improving the health of animal in T1 and T2 possibly related to the effect of fermentedcoffee husk and chemical anthelmintic as control of GINs. Feeding fermented coffee husk (T1) in GInematode infected goat improved Hb value as the same as T2 (chemical anthelmintic treatment). Thereduced Hb values in T0 possibly related to nematode infection. The reduced Hb in infected animal302 Proceeding ISEPROLOCAL. ISBN: 9786029071184

International Seminar on Promoting Local Resources for Food and Health, 12-13 October, 2015, Bengkulu, Indonesiamay be attributed to the bleeding of abomasum and intestines due to injuries caused by the parasites(Rowe et al., 1988). Fermented coffee husk supplementation to infected goat prevented a markeddecreased in Hb. The haematological counts (Hb) are reflection of the health status of the animal(Kelly, 1974). Changes in haematological characteristics could be used as a measure of the nutritionalor physiological status of the animal (Ekenyem and Madubuike, 2007). Pathak et al. (2013) said thatGIN infection caused extensive abomasal tissue damage, haemorraghe and protein losses andredirected protein synthesis away from growth.The growth of goat at T1 and T2 were slightly better than T0. The result of this researchsuggested general health of infected goat given fermented coffee husk was satisfactory throughout theexperiment. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk could improved the resiliency of goat body.CONCLUSIONThe general performance of infected GINs goat supplied fermented coffee husk was satisfactory.The supplementation of fermented coffee husk could improved the performance of goat.REFERENCESAnonymous. 1984. Manual of veterinary investigation. Vol. 2 reference book 390. Ministry ofAgriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majestry- stationary office, London, pp. 161-187.Badarina, I., D. Evvyernie, T. Toharmat, E.N. Herliyana, L.K. Darusman. 2013a. Nutritive value ofcoffee husk fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus as ruminant feed. Med. Pet. 36(1):58-63.Doi:10.5398/medpet. 2013.36.1.58Badarina, I., D. Evvyernie, T. Toharmat, E.N. Herliyana, L.K. Darusman. 2013b. Antibacterialpotency of fruiting body extract and solid substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus extract onStaphylococcus aureus. In: Program & Abstract Book. International Symposium on TropicalFungi. Bogor.Badarina, I., D. Evvyernie, T. Toharmat, E.N. Herliyana, L.K. Darusman. 2014. The use of coffeehusk fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement improved haematological propertiesin Etawah dairy goat suffered from subclinical mastitis. In:The Proceeding of The secondAsian-Australasian Dairy Goat Conference.pp:155-157 April 25-27th, 2014, Bogor, Indonesia.Batubara A. 2004. Pengaruh waktu rotasi gembala pada rumput Brachiaria brizantha terhadap tingkatinfestasi cacing Haemonchus contortus pada ternak domba. Prosiding. Seminar NasionalTeknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Bogor. Pp: 354-359Ekenyem, B.V. and F.N. Madubuike. 2007. Haematology and serum biochemistry of grower pigs fedvarying of Ipomoea asarifolia leaf meal. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 6: 603-606.Herliyana, E.N., D. Nandika, Achmad, L.I. Sudirman, A.B. Witarto. 2008. Biodegradation of sengonwood sawdust substrate by Pleurotus group fungi from Bogor. J. Tropical Wood Science andTechnology 6:75-84.Kearl, L.C. 1982. Nutrient Requirement of Ruminants in Developing Countries. InternationalFeedstuffs Institute. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Utah State University. Logan, Utah.Kelly, W.R. 1974. Veterinary Clinical Diagnosis. 2nd ed. London : Bailliere Tindall.Pandey, V. S., W. Pralomkram, S. Kochapakdee, and S. Saithanoo. 2001. Benzimidazol resistance inHaemonchus contortus from goat in Thailand. PSU Goat Res. Pub. pp. 337.Parkins, J. J. and P. Holmes. 1989. Effects of gastrointestinal helminth parasites on ruminant nutrition.Nutr. Res. Rev. 2: 227-246.Pathak, A.K, N. Dutta, P.S. Benerjee, A.K. Pattanaik, and K. Sharma. 2013. Influence of dietarysupplementation of condensed tannins through leaf meal mixture on intake, nutrient utilizationand performance of Haemonchus conturtus infected sheep. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28(10) 1448-1468.Rowe, J. B., J. V. Nolan, G. deChaneet, E. Teleni, and P. H. Holmes. 1988. The effect of haemonchosisand blood loss into the abomasum on digestion in sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 59:125-139Sissouma, S., M. Ouattara, M.W. Koné, H.E. Menan, A. Adjou, and L. Ouattara. 2011. Synthesis andin vitro nematicidalactivity of new chalcones vectorised byimidazopyridine. Research paper.African J. of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Vol. 5(18): 2086-2093.Proceeding ISEPROLOCAL. ISBN: 9786029071184 303

International Seminar on Promoting Local Resources for Food and Health, 12-13 October, 2015, Bengkulu, IndonesiaSteel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie. 2003. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2ed. Mc. Graw-Hill BookCo. Inc., New- YorkZafar, I., A.M. Kamran, and N.K. Muhammad. 2002. Anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins. Int. J.Agric. Biol. Vol 4: 438-40 .Zhang, M, S.W. Cui, P.C.K. Cheung Ang, and Q. Wang. 2007. Anti tumor polisaccharides frommushrooms: A review on their isolation process, structural characteristics and anti tumoractivity. Trends in Food Science and Technology 18:4-19.304 Proceeding ISEPROLOCAL. ISBN: 9786029071184

Weight gain (kg) 1.18 0.87 1.55 0.69 2.20 1.72 Haemoglobin (g/dl) 5.55 1.90a 8.62 1.52b 9.2 2.46b Dry matter intake on T0 is the lowest. There was no statistically significant difference of weight gain among the treament. In spite of such this, the weight gain of T2 is

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