Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

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ion 2.0 September 2016

DIVISION 2: SURFACE MAINTENANCETable of Contents11.4 Reactive Maintenance.571.4.1 Description of Reactive MaintenanceTables.58Introduction.31.4.2 Observations.581.1 Introduction.51.4.3 Possible Responses to Observations.581.2 Stormwater Management Practices.91.5 Maintenance Event Procedures.631.2.1 Stormwater Tree Trench.101.5.1 General.641.2.2 Rain Garden and Stormwater Basin.121.5.2 Pre-maintenance Event.641.2.3 Stormwater Bump-out.151.5.3 During Maintenance Event.641.2.4 Stormwater Planter.181.5.4 Post-maintenance Event.651.2.5 Infiltration/Storage Trench.201.6 General Requirements.671.2.6 Stormwater Wetland.241.6.1 Documentation.681.2.7 Stormwater Swale.261.6.2 Health and Safety.681.2.8 Stormwater Tree.281.6.3 Access Requirements.691.2.9 Green Roof.301.6.4 Permits and Approvals.691.2.10 Pervious Pavement.321.2.11 Green Wall.341.6.5 Personnel Training, Experience, andIdentification.701.2.12 Cistern/Rain Barrel.361.6.6 Equipment.701.2.13 Blue Roof.381.6.7 Materials.711.2.14 Green Gutter.401.6.8 References.711.2.15 Stormwater Drainage Well.421.3 Routine Maintenance.451.3.1 Description of Routine MaintenanceTables.462Surface Maintenance.752.1 General Site Care .762.1.1 Trash, Sediment, and Organic DebrisRemoval.762Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 2: SURFACE MAINTENANCE3.3 Waste Disposal.1552.1.2 Erosion Control and Repair.782.1.3 Concrete, Pavement, Masonry andModification.8044.1 Routine Maintenance.1662.1.4 Settling Repair.824.2 Restorative Maintenance.1662.1.5 Graffiti Removal.834.3 Winter Maintenance.1682.1.6 Painting.844.4 Decanting.1692.1.7 Hardware Care.842.1.8 Winterization.864.5 Waste Disposal.16952.2 Vegetation Maintenance.97Appendices.1735.1 Personnel Classifications.1742.2.1 Weed Control.985.1.1 Requirements.1742.2.2 Mowing and String Trimming.1105.1.2 Surface Maintenance Personnel.1752.2.3 Dead and Damaged VegetationRemoval.1145.1.3 Subsurface Inspection andMaintenance Personnel.1752.2.4 Pruning, Thinning, and CuttingBack Vegetation.1165.1.4 Pervious Pavement MaintenancePersonnel.1752.2.5 Pest and Disease Management.1195.2 Points of Contact.1762.2.6 Mulching.1222.2.7 Soil Management.122Pervious Pavement Maintenance.1655.3 Sample Hydrant Operation Report.1776Glossary.1792.2.8 Planting and Transplanting.1232.2.9 Seeding.1262.2.10 Watering.1283Subsurface Maintenance.1413.1 Jetting/Vactoring/Inspection.1423.2 Decanting.155Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual3

Introduc ondivision1

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION6Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduc onThe City of Philadelphia relies in part on Green Stormwater Infrastructure(GSI) systems—comprised of one or more decentralized stormwatermanagement prac ces (SMPs) such as rain gardens, stormwater treetrenches, and green roofs—to reduce stormwater volume and pollutantsdelivered to the City’s combined sewer system.Division 2Provides general procedures, standard operating procedures,equipment, and materials for executing specific tasks forsurface maintenace, related to both general care and vegetationmanagement.An effec ve and rigorous maintenance program is crucial for the longterm sustainability and func on of GSI systems. Because many GSIsystems incorporate vegeta on, they can change over me as plantcommuni es grow and establish. In urban environments in par cular, GSImay be subject to temperature extremes, pollu on, heavy sediment andtrash accumula on, and an aggressive weed community—all of whichcan create a challenging environment for plants. Furthermore, sedimentand trash, if allowed to accumulate, can create unsightly condi ons andencumber the func onality of the SMP. Proper maintenance can ensurethat GSI systems remain effec ve, beau ful, and safe for many years tocome.Division 3This document describes rou ne maintenance tasks for surface andsubsurface features and contains 6 major divisions:Consists of appendices which provide supplementary materialsincluding personnel classifications, points of contact, and asample hydrant operation report.Provides general procedures, standard operating procedures,equipment, and materials for executing specific tasks forsubsurface maintenance.Division 4Provides general procedures, standard operating procedure,equipment, and materials for executing specific tasks for perviouspavement maintenance.Division 5Division 1Division 6Provides a brief description of each type of SMP included inPhiladelphia’s GSI program; tables of recommended routineand reactive maintenance tasks and associated frequencies; anoverview of maintenance event procedures; and an overview ofgeneral requirements.Contains a glossary with definitions for common technical termsused throughout this document.Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 7

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION8Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual - For Internal PWD Distribu on Only

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONStormwater Management Prac cesdivision1.2Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual - For Internal PWD Distribu on Only9

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONSMPS CURRENTLY IN PRACTICE BY PWD1.2.1 STORMWATER TREE TRENCHDescrip onA stormwater tree trench is a subsurface infiltra on/storage trench,typically filled with stone, which is planted with one or more trees. Treesare planted within soil pits throughout the trench to allow the tree rootsto access water stored in the system. Stormwater runoff is conveyedto the trench via green inlets and perforated distribu on pipes. Greeninlets are typically fi ed with pretreatment devices to prevent trash anddebris from entering the stormwater tree trench. Stormwater infiltratesinto the stone trench and is either further infiltrated into the underlyingsoil and/or slowly released back to the exis ng sewer system viaperforated underdrain pipe conveyance. Trees help reduce the volume ofstormwater runoff through evapotranspira on.Stormwater tree trenches are o en constructed beneath sidewalks andadjacent to streets to capture street runoff. Figure 1-1 provides examplesof stormwater tree trench SMPs. Figure 1-2 shows typical stormwater treetrench features.Figure 1-1. Examples of Stormwater Tree Trenches in Philadelphia10 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONStormwater Tree TrenchFigure 1-2. Stormwater Tree Trench with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 11

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.2 RAIN GARDEN AND STORMWATER BASINDescrip onA rain garden or stormwater basin is a vegetated area designed tocollect runoff from impervious surfaces such as roofs, walkways, streetsand parking lots, allowing water to be evapotranspired by vegeta on,infiltrated into the ground and/or slowly released back to the exis ngsewer system via underdrain pipe conveyance. The bo om soil layer maybe constructed over a stone storage area.Rain gardens are shallow areas that are commonly planted with a varietyof na ve grasses and shrubs and are o en integrated into surroundinglandscape features. Stormwater basins are o en vegetated with mowedgrass or a mix of naturalized meadow vegeta on. Figure 1-3 providesexamples of rain gardens and basins. Figures 1-4 and 1-5 show typical raingarden and stormwater basin features.Figure 1-3. Examples of Rain Gardens and Stormwater Basins inPhiladelphia12 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONRain GardenFigure 1-4. Rain Garden with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 13

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONStormwater BasinFigure 1-5. Stormwater Basin with Typical Features14 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.3 STORMWATER BUMP-OUTDescrip onA stormwater bump-out is a vegetated curb extension that interceptsgu er flow. A bump-out is composed of a layer of stone that is toppedwith soil and plants. An inlet or curb-cut directs runoff into the bumpout structure where it can be stored, infiltrated, and taken up by theplants through the evapotranspira on process. Excess runoff is permi edto leave the system and flow to an exis ng inlet. Aside from managingstormwater, bump-outs can also help with traffic-calming, and whenlocated at crosswalks, they can provide a pedestrian safety benefit byreducing the street crossing distance and by providing a barrier forpedestrians wai ng at crosswalks.Stormwater bump-outs are usually located within the public right-of-wayeither mid-block or at intersec ons, and are commonly planted with avariety of grasses and flowering perennials. Figure 1-6 provides examplesof stormwater bump-out SMPs. Figures 1-7 and 1-8 show typicalstormwater bump-out features.Figure 1-6. Examples of Stormwater Bump-outs in PhiladelphiaGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 15

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONMid-Block Stormwater Bump-outFigure 1-7. Stormwater Bump-out with Typical Features16 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONCorner Stormwater Bump-outFigure 1-8 Stormwater Bump-out with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 17

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.4 STORMWATER PLANTERDescrip onA stormwater planter is a specialized structure that is typically installed inthe sidewalk area and designed to manage street and sidewalk runoff. Astormwater planter o en contains curb edging and/or fencing as barrierprotec on. The stormwater planter is filled with stone, and topped offwith soil and plants. The top of the soil in the stormwater planter islower in eleva on than the sidewalk, allowing for runoff to flow into theplanter through an inlet or curb cut at street level. These planters managestormwater by providing storage, infiltra on, and evapotranspira on ofrunoff. Excess runoff is typically directed into an overflow pipe connectedto the exis ng sewer system.Stormwater planters are o en integrated into sidewalks or plazas, and canalso be found at building downspouts. They are commonly planted witha variety of na ve grasses, flowering perennials, and shrubs. Figure 1-9provides examples of stormwater planter SMPs. Figure 1-10 shows typicalstormwater planter features.Figure 1-9. Examples of Stormwater Planters in Philadelphia18 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONStormwater PlanterFigure 1-10. Stormwater Planter with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 19

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.5 INFILTRATION/STORAGE TRENCHDescrip onInfiltra on/storage trenches are subsurface storage areas filled withstone, plas c crates, or pre-cast modular storage systems designedto either infiltrate stormwater or slow its flow into the sewer system.As water enters the trench (usually through a green inlet or perviouspavement), it fills the voids within the system, seeps to the bo om ofthe trench, and soaks into the soil beneath. Excess water that does notinfiltrate into the soil can be slowly released into the sewer system at acontrolled rate.Infiltra on/storage trenches can be located under sidewalks, parkinglots, lawns, or other pervious and impervious recrea onal areas (e.g.,basketball courts, athle c fields, etc.) and can be of varying sizes. Theycan be connected to other SMP types, such as stormwater bump-outs,to receive stormwater overflow from these systems. Some infiltra on/storage trenches have very large drainage areas that collect runoffthrough an intricate series of inlets. Figure 1-11 provides examples ofinfiltra on/storage trench SMPs. Figure 1-12 shows typical infiltra on/storage trench features. Figures 1-13 and 1-14 show different varie es ofstorage systems for infiltra on/storage trenches.Figure 1-11. Examples of Infiltra on/Storage Trenches in Philadelphia20 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONInfiltra on/Storage TrenchFigure 1-12. Infiltra on/Storage Trench with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 21

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONInfiltra on/Storage Trench VarietyFigure 1-13. Infiltra on/Storage Trench with Typical Features22 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONInfiltra on/Storage Trench VarietyFigure 1-14. Infiltra on/Storage Trench with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 23

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.6 STORMWATER WETLANDDescrip onStormwater wetlands are an effec ve tool for removing pollutants fromstormwater runoff. Stormwater wetlands collect runoff and store it ina permanent, shallow pool and marshland vegeta on helps treat thewater and allows pollutants to se le to the bo om. Because stormwaterwetlands seek to imitate the func ons of natural wetlands, these systemscan become aesthe c assets to the community and provide habitat forwildlife.Stormwater wetlands are o en constructed in regions originallydesignated as stormwater basins, within roadside right-of-ways, inareas where na ve soil condi ons do not allow for infiltra on, or wherethe groundwater table is exposed or close to the surface. Stormwaterwetlands can also be created in low-lying areas through the use ofimpermeable liners to induce year-round inundated soil satura on.Wetland vegeta on generally consists of a variety of open water,emergent, low/high marsh, and upland plants. Figure 1-15 providesexamples of stormwater wetland SMPs. Figure 1-16 shows typicalstormwater wetland features.24 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance ManualFigure 1-15. Examples of Stormwater Wetlands in Philadelphia

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONStormwater WetlandFigure 1-16. Stormwater Wetland with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 25

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.7 STORMWATER SWALEDescrip onA stormwater swale is an open vegetated channel designed to conveystormwater runoff. Stormwater swales are typically designed tocontrol stormwater runoff velocity and infiltrate stormwater runoffwhere feasible. Stormwater swales are o en used as pretreatmentor conveyance for another downstream SMP such as a rain garden orstormwater basin. Swales are most o en planted with turf grass andmaintained as lawn areas.Stormwater swales may be located adjacent to roadways and parking lots,upstream of SMPs, or in areas subject to overland flooding. Figure 1-17provides examples of stormwater swale SMPs. Figure 1-18 shows typicalstormwater swale features.Figure 1-17. Examples of Stormwater Swales in Philadelphia26 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONSwaleFigure 1-18. Stormwater Swale with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 27

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.8 STORMWATER TREEDescrip onA stormwater tree is a tree planted in a specialized tree pit installedin the sidewalk area. Stormwater runoff is conveyed to a stormwatertree through sheet flow or a grate that is installed along the curb andconnected to the tree pit. A stormwater tree design that has the plan ngmedia lower than the surrounding eleva on requires a protec ve barrier.Mul ple tree pits can be designed in series to maximize the poten al forstormwater capture, treatment, and infiltra on. Trees help reduce thevolume of stormwater runoff through evapotranspira on.Figure 1-19 provides examples of stormwater tree SMPs. Figure 1-20shows typical stormwater tree features.Figure 1-19. Examples of Stormwater Trees in Philadelphia28 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONStormwater TreeFigure 1-20. Stormwater Tree with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 29

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.9 GREEN ROOFDescrip onA green roof is a vegetated surface installed over a roof surface. A greenroof system is constructed with mul ple layers including waterproofing,a drainage layer, and a layer of engineered plan ng media. Green roofsare planted with specially selected plants that can grow in a thin layerof plan ng media. A green roof is effec ve in reducing the volumeand velocity of stormwater runoff from roofs by temporarily storingstormwater, slowing excess stormwater release into the sewer system,and promo ng evapotranspira on.Figure 1-21 provides examples of green roofs. Figure 1-22 shows a greenroof sec on with typical elements.Figure 1-21. Examples of Green Roofs30 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTIONGreen RoofFigure 1-22. Green Roof with Typical FeaturesGreen Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 31

DIVISION 1: INTRODUCTION1.2.10 PERVIOUS PAVEMENTDescrip onPervious pavement is a

Green Stormwater Infrastructure Maintenance Manual 7 1.1 Introduc on The City of Philadelphia relies in part on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) systems—comprised of one or more decentralized stormwater management prac ces (SMPs) such as rain gardens, stormwater tree trenches, and green roofs—to reduce stormwater volume and pollutants

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