Instant Notes: Sport And Exercise Psychology

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Sport and Exercise Psychology

The INSTANT NOTES seriesSeries Editor: B.D.Hames, School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,University of Leeds, Leeds, UKAnimal Biology 2nd editionEcology 2nd editionGenetics 2nd editionMicrobiology 2nd editionChemistry for Biologists 2nd editionImmunology 2nd editionBiochemistry 2nd editionMolecular Biology 2nd editionNeuroscienceDevelopmental BiologyPlant BiologyBioinformaticsSport and Exercise PhysiologyChemistry seriesConsulting Editor: Howard StanburyOrganic Chemistry 2nd editionInorganic Chemistry 2nd editionPhysical ChemistryMedicinal ChemistryAnalytical ChemistryPsychology seriesSub-series Editor: Hugh Wagner, Dept of Psychology, University of CentralLancashire, Preston, UKPsychologyCognitive PsychologyPhysiological PsychologySport and Exercise PsychologyForthcoming titlesSport and Exercise Biomechanics

Sport and Exercise PsychologyD.F.ShawDepartment of Psychology, University of CentralLancashire, Preston, UKT.GorelyDepartment of Sport and Exercise Sciences,Loughborough University, Loughborough, UKandR.M.CorbanWaikato Institute of Technology, Centre for Sportand Exercise, Hamittan, New ZealandBIOS Scientific PublishersTaylor & Francis Group

Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2005First published 2005This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to”All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or byany electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includingphotocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission inwriting from the publishers.A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN 0-203-32556-7 Master e-book ISBNISBN 1 85996 2947 (Print Edition)Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers4 Park Square, Milton Park,Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK and270 Madison Avenue, New York,NY 10016, USAWorld Wide Web home page: www.garlandscience.comGarland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers is a member of the Taylor & Francis GroupDistributed in the USA byFulfilment CenterTaylor & Francis10650 Toebben DriveIndependence, KY 41051, USAToll Free Tel.: 1 800 634 7064; E-mail: taylorandfrancis@thomsonlearning.comDistributed in Canada byTaylor & Francis74 Rolark DriveScarborough, Ontario M1R 4G2, CanadaToll Free Tel.: 1 877 226 2237; E-mail: tal fran@istar.caDistributed in the rest of the world byThomson Publishing ServicesCheriton HouseNorth WayAndover, Hampshire SP10 5BE, UKTel: 44 (0)1264 332424; E-mail: brary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataShaw, D. (Dave), 1947–Instant notes in sport and exercise psychology/D.Shaw, T.Gorley, and R.Corban.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 1-85996-294-7 (pbk.: alk. paper)1. Sports—Psychological aspects. 2. Exercise—Psychological aspects. I. Gorley, T. (Trish)II. Corban, R. (Rod) III. Title.GV706.4.S52 2005796.01–dc22 2004017152Production Editor: Andrew Watts

on AIntroduction to psychology, sport and exerciseA1Definitions2A2Psychology and common sense8A3The scientific approach13A4Research methods19A5The qualitative-quantitative issue27A6The history of psychology33A7Theoretical perspectives40SPORTS PSYCHOLOGYSection BCognition and motor behaviorB1Vision50B2Indirect and direct theories of motor control55B3Motor learning63B4Attention and concentration in sport70B5Memory and decision making in sport79B6Imagery84Section CMotivationC1Introduction to motivation90C2Cognitive evaluation theory97

viC3Achievement goal theory103C4Attribution theory109C5Confidence114C6Goal-setting theory121Section DMoods and emotionsD1Definitions126D2Mood and performance130D3Anxiety: the basics137D4Multi-dimensional anxiety theory145D5Catastrophe theory151D6Reversal theory159D7Other theories166Section EIndividual differencesE1Introduction to individual differences171E2Personality and sport177E3Problematic issues182Section FInterpersonal processesF1Social cognition186F2Conformity and compliance197F3Obedience to authority202F4Pro-social behavior207F5Anti-social behavior214Section GGroup processesG1Groups and teams223G2Social facilitation231G3Social loafing236G4Leadership241G5Cohesiveness247

viiG6Group decision making253G7De-individuation259G8Home advantage264G9Inter-group processes271EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGYSection HPsychological effects of physical activityH1Psychological well-being278H2Mental health286H3Negative outcomes292Section IMotivation for physical activity: Descriptive approachesI1Determinants of exercise298I2Participation motivation304Section JTheories and models of exercise behaviorJ1Cognitive-behavioral theories309J2Process models of exercise318J3Ecological models324INTERVENTIONS: Applying sport and exercisepsychologySection KConsultancy in sport and exercise psychologyK1Consultancy: Basic issues328K2Listening skills335K3Questioning339K4Giving feedback346K5Counseling skills350K6The consultancy process354K7Baseline assessment360Section LL1Performance enhancementIssues of motivation367

viiiL2Issues of arousal and anxiety373L3Issues of concentration383L4Issues of confidence391Section M Special issuesM1Stress and coping395M2Injury401M3Burnout and over-training407M4Drugs in sport413Further reading417References421Index436

QMRFMSCI16 personality factor questionnaireathletic coping skills inventoryAllied Dunbar National Fitness Surveycognitive behavioral therapycausal dimension scale IIcentral pattern generatorscompetitive state anxiety inventory 2cognitive somatic anxiety questionnaireelectroencephalographEysenck personality Inventoryfive-factor modelgroup environment questionnairegeneralized motor programgalvanic skin responsehealth belief modelinteraction process analysisindividual zone of optimal functioningknowledge of performanceknowledge of resultsleadership behavior in sportlateral geniculate nucleuslifespan interaction modelLeast preferred co-workerlong-term memorymovement imagery questionnairemental readiness formmultidimensional sports cohesiveness inventory

TDSTEOSQTMASTOPSTPBTRATSCITSMmental skills trainingneed for achievementnational history modelpositive and negative affect scaleprogressive muscle relaxationprotection motivation theoryprofile of mood statespsychological skills inventory forsportspsychological skills trainingpsychological well-beingrapid eye movementrational emotive therapystate anxiety inventorysport anxiety scalesports competitive anxiety teststages of change instrumentsports cohesiveness questionnairesocial cognitive theoryself-efficacy questionnairesocio-economic statussports imagery questionnairestress inoculation trainingsystem for the multiple level observation of groupssports orientation questionnairestimulus-responsestate sport confidence inventoryspecific serotonin re-uptake inhibitortrait anxiety inventorythematic apperception testtelic dominance scaletask and ego orientation in sport questionnaireTaylor manifest anxiety scaletest of performance strategiestheory of planned behaviortheory of reasoned actiontrait sport confidence inventorytelic state measure

xiTTMVIEtranstheoretical modelvalence instrumentality expectancy theory

PREFACEThe popularity of sport and exercise psychology as a subject of study continuesto grow. It attracts those who want to work in the expanding sport, leisure andhealth industries, whether in relation to the performance enhancement ofcompetitors at one end of the continuum or to promoting exercise and healthylifestyles in the population generally. It also attracts those who simply want tostudy an interesting subject.The primary aim of the book is to provide a study guide and revision aid forsport and exercise psychology. A secondary aim is to provide some of the crucialbasic psychology that underpins sport and exercise psychology that is oftenmissing in current texts. It is our view that before you can be a good sport and/orexercise psychologist you have to become a good psychologist. With this in mindwe have made it possible for the reader to access the core psychology as well asthe sport and exercise specific information they need.As the popularity of sport and exercise psychology increases, so too does thenumber of introductory textbooks on the subject. Instant Notes in Sports andExercise Psychology takes a different approach from most of these in that it isessentially a revision aid, rather than an elaborate textbook. We have extractedfrom the material generally covered in sport and exercise psychology courses,those facts and theories that are essential to the student facing examinations andtests. Similarly, our illustrations, rather than being colorful pictures or cartoons,are restricted to those that aid the understanding of the material, being mostlysimple line drawings presented in a way that makes them easy for the student toreproduce in course assessment situations. While this book should help thestudent to pass exams, for those who wish to delve deeper, we have providedspecific references throughout and a further reading list of key texts for eachsection.The topics covered in the book have been selected on the basis of ourknowledge of sport and exercise psychology syllabuses internationally, and onour experience of many years of teaching the subject in universities in the UK,Australia and New Zealand. The book is divided into 13 sections with a total of66 topics. Each topic begins with a Key Notes panel containing concisesummaries of the central points, which are expanded in the main text of thetopic. To get the most from the book, readers should first learn the material in the

xiiimain text of a topic, and then use the Key Notes as a rapid revision aid. Althougheach topic stands alone, it is the nature of sport and exercise psychology thattopics are interrelated. To help the student see these interrelationships we haveprovided numerous cross-references between topics.The sections have been grouped together under the four main themes ofintroductory issues, sport psychology, exercise psychology and interventions.Introductory issues are dealt with in Section A, which covers the basictheoretical approaches and research methods used in both mainstream and sportand exercise psychology. The second theme is sport psychology, consisting ofsections B through G. These are organized to move from the individual to thegroup level of analysis. Thus, section B focuses on cognitive processes inindividuals, such as perception, attention, memory, imagery, motor control andlearning. Section C looks at the motivation of the athlete and outlines cognitiveevaluation theory, achievement goal theory, attribution theory, self-efficacytheory and goal setting. Section D concentrates on moods and emotions in sportwith an emphasis on theories of the anxiety performance relationship. Section Edescribes the psychology of individual differences and in particular personalityand sport. The final two sections of the sport psychology theme move attentionfrom the individual level of analysis to relationships between people and groups.Section F deals with interpersonal processes and how we perceive others,influence others and are influenced by them. It covers social cognition,conformity and compliance, obedience to authority and interpersonal aggression.Section G looks at the psychology of groups including leadership, cohesiveness,social facilitation, social loafing, group decision-making and inter-groupprocesses.Sections H, I and J make up the exercise theme. Section H focuses on thepsychological benefits of exercise, in terms of increased mental health and wellbeing, and also discusses some negative consequences of exercise such asexercise dependence. In section I the focus is on what determines and motivatesparticipation in physical activity and exercise behavior. Section J covers thevarious theories and models of exercise behavior.The fourth and final theme of the book is interventions. Here we move to aconsideration of practical applications in sport and exercise psychology. Insection K we discuss the consultancy process, including ethical issues, athleteassessment and communication and counseling skills. In section L the focus is onperformance enhancement and practical techniques to help with issues ofmotivation, arousal, anxiety, concentration and confidence. Finally, section Mdeals with issues such as stress, coping, injury, burnout, overtraining and drugs.

Section A—Introduction to psychology, sport andexercise

A1DEFINITIONSKey NotesPlay has been defined as ‘behavior for thepurpose of fun and enjoyment with no utilitarianor abstract goal in mind’. It has been suggestedthat play might serve a number of functionsincluding allowing us to use up surplus energy,it lets us rehearse skills, it serves a recuperativefunction, and it helps us to reduce anxiety.A game is ‘playful competition whose outcomeis determined by physical skill, strategy orchance’. In play, rules are less prevalent than ingames, but the major difference between themis that the latter involves competition.Sport is institutionalized game. Thisinstitutionalization takes four forms. Firstly,sport is highly organized in terms of governingbodies, leagues, sponsors and nts in equipment, clothing andfacilities. Thirdly, it has a symbolic dimensionin the form of ceremony, ritual, display andsecrecy. Lastly, it has an educational aspect.Sport also involves a degree of physicality.Exercise is generally thought of as any form ofphysical activity carried out for the purpose ofhealth or fitness. The main difference betweensport and exercise is competition. Anotherdifference is that exercise typically does notinvolve the same degree of institutionalizationthat characterizes sport.Psychology is the science of behavior.However, psychologists are also concerned toexplore the inner world of people, i.e. mental

SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY 3Key NotesRelated topicphenomena. These inner aspects fall into twobroad categories, thinking and feeling (knownin psychology as the ‘cognitive-affective’distinction). Thus, we can define psychology asthe scientific study of thoughts, feelings andbehavior.With regard to defining sport psychology andexercise psychology we can take the line of leastresistance and simply define them respectivelyas the scientific study of thoughts, feelings andbehavior in relation to either the sporting or theexercise domain. The terms sport psychologyand exercise psychology are often used to meanboth the basic or pure study of sport (orexercise) psychology as an academic discipline,and the application of psychology to thephysical domains of sport and exercise. Theformer endeavor is about the pure science ofdoing research, including theory building andconducting investigations. The second endeavoris concerned with applied issues.The scientific approach (A3)PlayThe term play comes from ‘plega’, the Anglo Saxon for ‘to guarantee, to standup for, to risk for a purpose’. However, most writers have viewed play asa voluntary and deliberate stepping out of real life that is characterized byspontaneity, fun, pleasure and enjoyment. Further, play is seen as lackingstructure and having no obvious purpose or external goal. As such it has beendefined as ‘behavior for the purpose of fun and enjoyment with no utilitarian orabstract goal in mind’ (Vanderswaag, 1972). There are several theories that haveoffered explanations for why people play. The main ones have included thenotion that play serves a relaxation/recuperative function, or that it allows us to useup surplus energy, or to practice or rehearse skills as youngsters that we willneed for survival as adults. In addition it affords us an opportunity to reduceanxiety by letting us confront our fears in a safe environment.GameThe term game has been defined as ‘any form of playful competition whoseoutcome is determined by physical skill, strategy or chance’ (Loy, 1968). Inplay, rules are less prevalent than in games, but the major difference between

4 DEFINITIONSthem is that the latter involves competition. For example, when we are playing at‘ping pong’ we are happy to knock a table tennis ball back and forward for funwithout caring about the score. This is play. When we begin to keep score andcompete, play becomes game.SportSport takes another step away from play in that it is characterized by a highdegree of institutionalization. This institutionalization has been said to take fourmain forms. Firstly, sport is highly organized in terms of governing bodies,leagues, sponsors and managers. Secondly, it involves technologicaldevelopments in equipment, clothing and facilities. Thirdly, it has a symbolicdimension in the form of ceremony, ritual, display and secrecy. Lastly, it has aneducational aspect as evidenced by the presence of coaches, trainers andmanuals. In view of this, sport has been defined as institutionalized game.Working backwards this gives us sport as institutionalized competitive playinvolving physical skill, strategy and chance (Loy, 1968). Returning to the ‘pingpong’ example we might say that by institutionalizing the game of table tennis itbecomes a sport.One final feature of sport is its physical dimension. We tend only to consideractivities as sport if they involve this. For example, few would consider spellingcompetitions or bridge matches as sport. However, it is not always easy to draw afirm distinction on physical grounds. Thus, you might be tempted to suggest thatpool, or snooker, or darts, or even golf, is not really a sport because of theminimal fitness requirements they entail. You might feel fairly safe in arguingthat chess is competitive play, but is not worthy of the title sport, since it has nophysical dimension. However, even in chess top players are known to spendhours practicing the movement involved in taking an opponent’s piece. (This isdone as a psychological ploy to make it look as if the taken piece has beenannihilated.) Clearly it is not as easy as it seems to draw lines of demarcation.ExerciseFinally there is exercise, which is generally thought of as any form of physicalactivity carried out for the purpose of health or fitness. For example, jogging,having a workout on a rowing machine or a bicycle-ergometer, walking the dogand even taking the stairs rather than the lift could all be considered exercise.While there is much overlap between sport and exercise, in that they bothinvolve physical activity, there is at least one crucial difference between them,and that is competition. Exercisers don’t win or lose. Another difference betweensport and exercise is that exercise typically does not involve the same degree ofinstitutionalization that characterizes sport. In general, most people who gojogging are simply exercising, rather than doing institutionalized competitiverunning, i.e. sport. Activities that are increasingly competitive and that involve

SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY 5greater institutionalization move themselves along the continuum from pureexercise to sport. Having said this, just as with the game-sport distinction,drawing hard-and-fast rules is not easy and there are activities that test thesedefinitions. For example, ballroom dancing can be seen as a sport if it is donecompetitively but not if engaged in at the local dancehall purely for pleasure.Similarly, most aerobics classes are not competitive in a formal way, yet thereare teams of exercisers who do compete with other teams.PsychologyPsychology

The INSTANT NOTES series Series Editor: B.D.Hames, School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Animal Biology 2nd edition Ecology 2nd edition Genetics 2nd edition Microbiology 2nd edition Chemistry for Biologists 2nd edition Immunology 2nd edition Biochemistry 2nd edition Molecular Biology 2nd edition Neuroscience

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