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ChildDevelopmentfor Early YearsStudents andPractitioners9781526466891 C.indd 500 NEAUM 4E FM.indd 108/01/2019 14:3607/02/2019 12:49:42 PM

Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to supportthe dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a globalcommunity. SAGE publishes more than 1000 journals and over800 new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas.Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data,case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by ourfounder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitabletrust that secures the company’s continued independence.Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Melbourne00 NEAUM 4E FM.indd 207/02/2019 12:49:42 PM

ChildDevelopmentfor Early YearsStudents andPractitionerssally neaum4th edition9781526466891 C.indd 600 NEAUM 4E FM.indd 308/01/2019 14:3607/02/2019 12:49:42 PM

Learning MattersAn imprint of SAGE Publications Ltd1 Oliver’s Yard55 City RoadLondon EC1Y 1SPSAGE Publications Inc.2455 Teller RoadThousand Oaks, California 91320SAGE Publications India Pvt LtdB 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial AreaMathura RoadNew Delhi 110 044SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd3 Church Street#10-04 Samsung HubSingapore 049483Editor: Amy ThorntonSenior project editor: Chris MarkeProject management: Deer Park ProductionsMarketing manager: Lorna PatkaiCover design: Wendy ScottTypeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, IndiaPrinted in the UK 2019 Sally Neaum and Rose EnvyFirst published in 2010 by Learning Matters LtdSecond edition published in 2013Third edition published in 2016Fourth edition published in 2019Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes ofresearch or private study, or criticism or review, aspermitted under the Copyright, Design and PatentsAct, 1988, this publication may be reproduced,stored or transmitted in any form, or by anymeans, only with the prior permission in writingof the publishers, or in the case of reprographicreproduction, in accordance with the terms oflicences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.Enquiries concerning reproduction outside theseterms should be sent to the publishers.Library of Congress Control Number: 2018965495British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British LibraryISBN 978-1-5264-6688-4ISBN 978-1-5264-6689-1 (pbk)At SAGE we take sustainability seriously. Most of our products are printed in the UK using responsiblysourced papers and boards. When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used asmeasured by the PREPS grading system. We undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability.00 NEAUM 4E FM.indd 407/02/2019 12:49:43 PM

ContentsThe author viiAcknowledgements iXIntroduction xiSection 1: E arly childhood context and policy 1 2Children and childhood: a historicalperspective The current policy context of early years Section 2: Children’s development 345 6 132141Holistic development 43Children’s development 52Development in the Early YearsFoundation Stage 84Factors affecting children’s learningand development 97 v00 NEAUM 4E FM.indd 507/02/2019 12:49:43 PM

ContentsSection 3: Applying child developmentin practice 7 8 Supporting children’s learning anddevelopment 125Observing and assessing children’slearning and development 146Section 4: Enhancing practice andunderstanding 9 10 161Reflecting on children’s learningand development 163Starting from the child: matchingprovision to children’s developmentand learning needs 178Thinking, questioning andchallenging: a critical approachto the early years 19511 Index 123219 vi00 NEAUM 4E FM.indd 607/02/2019 12:49:43 PM

Children and1childhood:a historicalperspectiveTH IS C HA PTE RThis chapter enables you to understand: different concepts of children and childhood through history;the nature–nurture debate in child development;our current understandings of children and childhood;child development as a combination of observable biological development and socialexperience within a specific social, cultural and historical context; the importance of seeing child development in a holistic way; how to be critically aware of the conceptualisation of children in literature, reports andframeworks associated with children and childhood.IntroductionHave you ever thought about what it means when we talk about children or childhood? What is your understanding of what it means to be a child or have achildhood? What is child development? Where have these understandings comefrom? How do these understandings influence approaches to children? Considerationof these issues will allow early years practitioners to engage in critical thinking aboutcurrent concepts of children and childhood and how they influence our thinking andpractice. This chapter will enable you to understand different ways of seeing children and childhood and explore how this informs our current understanding of childdevelopment.Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there has been a series of changesof focus in our understandings and perceptions of children and childhood. Academicdisciplines such as science, medicine, psychology and sociology, and changes inthe influence of faith in society, have had a powerful influence over how society isconstructed. Concepts of children and childhood are part of these changes andre-conceptualisations. 301 NEAUM 4E CH 01.indd 307/02/2019 12:54:29 PM

Chapter 1 Children and childhood: a historical perspectiveThe frameworks that determine understandings of children and childhood areethical and political choices made within wider ideas, values and rationalities ofa society (Moss and Petrie, 2002). These ethical and political choices determinewhat each society will construct as what it means to be a child and to experiencechildhood within that society at that point in history. As these ethical and politicalframeworks develop and change it is very likely that understandings of children andchildhood within each society will also develop and change.Alan Prout (2005) traces these changes through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He observes that, with regard to children and childhood, there has been ashift in both intellectual processes and material practices. Prout (2005) highlightsthe significant shifts in our understandings of children and childhood which havecome together to form our current conceptualisation of what it means to be a childin our society.The concept of childhood: an overviewIn medieval times children, once they were weaned, were regarded as little adults.There was no distinct phase of life known or understood as childhood. HughCunningham (ND) observes that childhood was not thought to be as importantas we now consider it in the formation of personality and character. The predominant social force was the Church, whose focus was upon the baptism – to freethe child from original sin and receive them into the Church. Children wereregarded as imperfect and sinful and their upbringing usually reflected theseharsh beliefs.From the seventeenth century, in Western countries, a different concept ofchildhood began to emerge. This was heavily influenced by the work of the philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), whose ideas about learning and educationsuggested that there were differences between adults and children. Locke’s workis characterised by his opposition to authoritarianism. He wanted individuals touse reason to search after truth rather than unquestionably accept the opinion of authorities, including the Church, or rely on superstition. One of Locke’smost influential ideas was that we are all born as blank slates (tabula rasa),that we have no innate knowledge, but we acquire what we know after we areborn through sensation and reflection. Similarly, the ideas of philosopher JeanJacques Rousseau (1712–1778) were highly influential in encouraging thinkingabout what is meant to be a child and how children learn and grow and develop.Rousseau proposed that we were all born essentially good and innocent; therefore children should be loved, nurtured and protected. Education, he believed,would support this process by cultivating the good in people. Both philosophers’ideas challenged the notion of original sin and began the process of a different way of thinking about children and childhood. These shifts and changes inour understandings of children and childhood have continued through to thepresent day. 401 NEAUM 4E CH 01.indd 407/02/2019 12:54:29 PM

Chapter 1 Children and childhood: a historical perspectiveACTIV ITY 1 What is meant by original sin? How did this influence the view of children in society?Find out more about the work of Locke and Rousseau. How did their ideas challenge existing understandings of childhood? What impact do you think this had on how children were perceived in society? What is your view on these different conceptualisations of children?Children, childhood and modernityFrom the eighteenth century onwards there were profound political, economic, technological, social and cultural changes in societies throughout Europe. Societies werechanging from predominantly rural agricultural-based societies to ones based onindustrial capitalism. The move was strongly influenced by advances in science andtechnology. These advances precipitated a strong belief in the power of the scientificand technological as a way to understand and control the world, including ourselves. Within this context, encouraged by the work of Charles Darwin, emerged theChild Study Movement. Its aim was to highlight the role of the biological processesin human development. Its approach was scientific: the belief in, and use of, testing, observation and experimentation to discover universal laws expressed as theory.The movement demonstrated, and popularised, the view that children’s conceptionand mental processes differed from those of adults. This supported the conceptualisation of childhood as a different and distinct stage of life from adulthood. Childrenwere conceptualised as being in a more primitive stage of development than adults,both biologically and socially. The development of children therefore became an areafor scientific study and understanding, the outcomes of which, it was hoped, wouldidentify focused interventions that would shape and mould children’s lives.Paediatric medicine and child psychologyProut (2005) identifies two important disciplines that strongly influenced the ChildStudy Movement and focused attention on the biological aspects of being a child: thedevelopment of the science of paediatric medicine and the child psychology movement.Paediatric medicineThe development of the discipline of paediatric medicine was an important part ofthe rise of the scientific study of children. The understanding of childhood disease as 501 NEAUM 4E CH 01.indd 507/02/2019 12:54:29 PM

Chapter 1 Children and childhood: a historical perspectivea separate branch of medicine became formalised in 1901 by the foundation of theSociety for the Study of Diseases of Children. A medical model of children and childhood, in which children’s development can be measured, monitored and managed,thus became part of our conceptualisation of children.Child psychologyAlongside paediatrics, a discipline emerging from the Child Study Movement wasthe development of child psychology. Prout (2005) argues that there were multiple strands of research and investigation that came together to support theunderstanding of children and their development, namely: the work of Skinner onbehaviourism; Bowlby’s work on attachment; Freud and psychoanalysis; the work ofPiaget and the cognitive psychology movement; and an emerging understanding oflanguage development.These psychological understandings came together to create a discipline of child psychology. In this emerging discipline children were examined and tested in order toidentify ‘normal’ ranges of functioning and behaviour that were defined and named.These assertions of what constitutes normal functioning also created the potential fordefining abnormal and pathological behaviour (Prout, 2005). This ‘abnormal’ functioning became the site for intervention and a range of professions developed aroundidentifying children who would benefit from intervention – for example, educationalpsychology. These psychological frameworks for understanding child developmentquickly became part of a general understanding of children and childhood. Thelanguage of psychology such as ‘stages of development’, ‘attachment’ and ‘bonding’ entered everyday talk and practice via the work of child-rearing gurus such asDr Benjamin Spock (Prout, 2005). At this stage in its development child psychologywas predominantly informed by a biological view of child development; children andchildhood were viewed as universal constants. The approach was to think about theindividual child without consideration of the context of their social world. Within thisdiscipline, development, whether typical or atypical, was regarded as a ‘within-child’phenomenon and explanations sought through theories developed within a scientificand/or medical framework.The emergence of a social modelof childhoodTowards the end of the twentieth century there was growing criticism of how childpsychology conceptualised childhood (Prout, 2005). The concern centred on anincreasing awareness of, and sensitivity to, the social context of behaviour. Prout(2005, p.51) observes that at the centre of this critical approach was the notion thatchildren are shaped by their different social contexts and that this cannot be left outof the psychological account.He cites the work of Bronfenbrenner and Vygotsky as having particular importancein the emergence of a social model of childhood. The work of Bronfenbrenner and 601 NEAUM 4E CH 01.indd 607/02/2019 12:54:29 PM

Chapter 1 Children and childhood: a historical perspectiveVygotsky, and others, moved the debate about children’s development away from theemphasis on child development purely as an inevitable biological unfolding towardsan understanding that development occurs through the interplay of biology andsocial experience.TH EORY F OC USUrie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005)Bronfenbrenner developed a model that focused on the importance of both biological factors and the social environment in children’s development. He proposed thatwhile a child’s biological development unfolds there is also a complex pattern of interaction with people and social patterns, institutions and the environment around thechild that similarly influences child development. Bronfenbrenner’s work began toreframe the understanding of children, away from the ideas that children and childhood are universal constants that can be observed and defined in a scientific model,and towards a more complex view of children and childhood. This view recognisedthat childhood was experienced differently by different children in different societies.So, while it could be observed that many biological factors remained similar across different societies, differences in children and the experience of childhood were becauseof their social experiences. Bronfenbrenner’s ecology of human development is outlined in Chapter 2.TH EORY F OC USLev Vygotsky (1896–1934)Lev Vygotsky’s (1978) work, similar to that of Bronfenbrenner, emphasised the importance of the social in children’s development. He argued that it is through others thatwe become ourselves. The main premise of his work is the interrelationship betweenthought and language. Language, he argues, forms the basis of thought. Languagedevelopment is dependent on the child’s social cultural experience and is also the primary tool by which we learn. In this way rich and effective language, developed in asocial context, is vital to children’s development and shapes the developing child.The impact of these changes on the way society and its institutions are constructedwas, and continues to be, profound. All of our everyday lives, particularly those of uswho work with young children, have been affected by these shifts and changes in ourunderstanding of children and childhood. 701 NEAUM 4E CH 01.indd 707/02/2019 12:54:29 PM

Chapter 1 Children and childhood: a historical perspectiveThe nature–nurture debateThe nature–nurture debate is one about the relative importance of biology and socialexperience in who we are and who we become.Nature refers to our biology – the genetically programmed process of physical maturation. Nurture refers to all the experiences we have after we are born that influencewho we are and what we know.The medical and scientific view of child development emphasises nature, and asocial model of child development emphasises nurture. The current understandingis that both are significant in children’s growth and development. This reflects thehistorical shifts and changes in our views of children and childhood. What is nowunderstood is that child development, in all areas of learning, is a complex combination of children’s biological maturational processes and their social experiences.For example, children are born with the potential for developing language. It isinnate (nature). However, other aspects of language development, such as the rateof development, the sophistication of a child’s language skill and his or her individual accent and vocabulary are determined by interactive experiences after birth(nurture). This interplay between nature and nurture is different in different areasof development; for example, biological maturation plays a greater part in physicaldevelopment than in social and emotional development. Beaver (1994) shows therelative influences of nature and nurture across the areas of child development. Itis important to remember that these are relative influences; there is no definitiveunderstanding of the relative impact of nature and nurture in the different areas ofchild development. See Figure iet, geChild musthear language(or see it signed)CognitivePowerfulinternal forcesAssimilationAccommodationStimulation andencouragmentvery ament?Environmentof fundamentalimportance;contact,securityThe importance of‘nature’ to differentareas of developmentcan be seen from thesize of the shaded areaFigure 1.1 Chart showing the relative influence of nature and nurture ondifferent developmental areas 801 NEAUM 4E CH 01.indd 807/02/2019 12:54:29 PM

Chapter 1 Children and childhood: a historical perspectiveCAS E S TUD YCatrina is a talented flautist. Her mother is also an excellent flautist. Catrina’s mum usedto play her flute to her as a baby and toddler. Catrina loved listening to the flute andthey would enjoy times together. As she got older Catrina was taken to ‘music makers’, amusic group for toddlers where she developed a wider awareness of music. Catrina’s mumtaught her the basics of flute playing while she was still very young and when she was oldenough she began lessons with a teacher. Catrina and her mum practise most eveningsand really enjoy playing together.ACTIV ITY 2 How much of Catrina’s ability is innate talent? What, if anything, do you think she inherited from her mother? How much of her talent comes from her experiences – for example, exposure to musicat home, at music groups and lessons, regular focused practice, modelled behaviour andencouragement from her family and teacher? What does this tell you about the interplay of nature and nurture in what we know andcan do? What are the implications of these different views for how we think about and organiseprovision in society for children?Contemporary views of childrenand childhoodThe impact of historical shifts and changes in what we know about children’sdevelopment and how it is viewed within the social and cu

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