DOCUMENT RESUME ED 424 926 The Effects Of Parent .

3y ago
465.03 KB
48 Pages
Last View : 1m ago
Last Download : 4m ago
Upload by : Melina Bettis

DOCUMENT RESUMEED 424 926AUTHORTITLEPUB DATENOTEPUB TYPEEDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORSPS 027 024Luchuck, Vickie LynneThe Effects of Parent Involvement on Student Achievement.1998-08-00.46p.; Master's Thesis, Salem-Teikyo University.Masters Theses (042)Dissertations/ThesesMF01/PCO2 Plus Postage.*Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; *ElementarySchool Students; Parent Child Relationship; *ParentInfluence; *Parent Participation; *Parent SchoolRelationship; Parent Student RelationshipABSTRACTThis study investigated the relationship between parentinvolvement in elementary school and student achievement. Subjects wererandomly selected students (from second through fifth grade classrooms in aWest Virginia elementary school), and their parents. Parents completed theParent Involvement Check-up scale, and student achievement was measured bythe Stanford Achievement Test. Findings indicated that parent involvementcontributed to greater academic gains by their children. Recommendations forincreasing greater parental involvement in schools were made based on thefindings. (A copy of the Parent Involvement Check-Up Scale is appended.Contains 64 references.) ***********************************Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be madefrom the original ***************************************

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONUnice of Educational Research and ImprovementEDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONCENTER (ERIC)*s.This document has been reproduced asThe Effects of Parent Involvementon Student Achievementreceived from the person or organizationoriginating it.0 Minor changes have been made toimprove reproduction quality.Points of view or opinions stated in thisdocument do not necessarily representofficial OERI position or policy.A ThesisPresented to theFaculty of the Graduate SchoolSalemTeikyo UniversityIn Partial FulfillmentOf the Requirements for the DegreeMaster of Arts in EducationbyVickie Lynne LuchuckAugust, 1998PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE ANDDISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HASBEEN GRANTED BYTO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)12

Salem-Teikyo UniversitySalem, West VirginiaThis thesis submitted by Vickie Luchuck has been approved meeting the researchrequirements for the Master of Arts Degree.A/CuiAE. ib. van derDateiessena,attAitc azgkOhrEDateGLMAllisterDaBen Guido.Thesis Committee ChairGraduate Program DirectorProfessor of EducationAdjunct Professor of Education3

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to show a correlation between parent involvementand student achievement. Data presented in the t-tests and correlational study rejected thenull hypothesis and accepted the alternate. Children whose parents have been involved intheir education have shown greater gains academically.An abundance of literature that supports this statement identifies the types ofinvolvement, defines the barriers, and offers proven suggestions for improving parentinvolvement.4

AcknowledgementsI wish to acknowledge my peers who have encouraged me to undertake this task.I acknowledge Dr. G. van der Giessen for offering encouragement and support. Theparents who participated willingly with this project are greatly appreciated.I wish to acknowledge and praise my daughter and son for their understandingand patience with me. Finally, without my aunt's undying support and thoughtfulness Iwould have not been able to research and study an issue that is so important to me.5

Table of ContentsChapter 1IntroductionIntroductionStatement of the ProblemResearch n of TermsImportance of StudyChapter 212223334Review of the LiteratureAn OverviewParent Involvement DefinedTypes of Parent InvolvementEpstein's FrameworkThe Benefits of Parent InvolvementImpact of Parent InvolvementBarriers to Parent InvolvementIncreasing Levels of Parent InvolvementConclusionChapter 3781414161821Research sInstrumentationSummaryChapter Summary316

Chapter 5Summary, Conclusions, and RecommendationsReferencesAppendicesParent Involvement Check-Up Scale732

Chapter 1:IntroductionIntroductionParent involvement in children's education has been proclaimed for years as beinga very important predictor of student achievement (Jesse, 1997). The literature andavailable research is consistent in showing that meaningful parent involvement results ingains in student achievement (Sattes, 1985). National organizations have placed parentinvolvement as a high priority within their platforms. Since seventy percent of student'swaking hours, including weekends and vacations, are spent outside school the schoolsetting (Clark, 1990) it is imperative that parents are involved in their child's educationfor success.Congress, in its 1994 "Goals 2000: Educate America Act" policy legislated thatpartnerships be formed between families and schools. Federal Title I regulations requiredrevised mandates for "specific family-school connections" (Epstein, 1996, p. 5) in orderto obtain federal funds for programs.The National PTA believes that strengthening the connection between familiesand the nation's schools is so vital that they have pushed to make it one of America'sNational Education Goals. The Goal declares that by the year 2000 every school inAmerica will promote partnerships that increase parents "involvement and participation18

in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children," according toRichard W. Riley, U.S. Secretary of Education (National PTA, 1997).Statement of the ProblemParents are their children's first teachers. The single most important factor in achild's achievement in school and life is the home background (Nedler, 1979). Parentinvolvement is critical to successful students. Effective methods of parent involvementmust be implemented in schools to assure the academic success of children.Research QuestionsThe purpose of this study was to determine whether parent involvement inelementary school had a positive effect on student achievement. The goal was to showwhether those parents actively involved with their children's education promoted greatergains in academic achievement than those parents who did not show involvement withtheir children did.HypothesisHo: There were no significant gains in academics for students whoseparents were involved in their education.HI: Children whose parents have been involved in their education haveshown greater gain academically.29

AssumptionsThe following assumptions were made in this study: the sample was of anadequate size to obtain valid results, and the data obtained from the parent involvementlikert scale were typical of parent involvement responses. It was also assumed that theSAT9 tests were a valid measure of student achievement. Additionally, it was assumedthat the instruments used to analyze data were valid, and the time frame for the study wasadequate.LimitationsLimitations that may have affected the study include the following: limitedpopulation from which to select groups, inflated SAT9 test scores, or high scores on theparent involvement likert scale. The population from which the study was conducted waslimited to Lumberport Elementary School, using data from liken surveys returned byparents. Inflated SAT9 scores could have been the result of excessive preparation for thetests. Teaching techniques were not considered. Over eagerness to show involvement onthe part of parents could have inflated the scores on the parent involvement likert scales.Parents who have been involved were more likely to return the completed scales.Definitions of TermsAcademic achievement the yardstick used to measure school effectiveness (Sattes,1985).Parent involvementthe involvement of parents in their children's education byparticipating in various activities at home and at school (Jesse, 1996).3

Partnershipthe joining of parents and educators in various ways to promote thesuccess of involved children (Chrispeels, 1996).PTA Parent Teacher Association, refers to parents and teachers who work togetherproviding benefits for school children (National PTA, 1997).SAT9Stanford Achievement Tests, edition nine.Importance of StudyReviewing literature and performing tests to determine whether parentinvolvement increases academic achievement assists in developing successful programsfor students, parents, and teachers. Schools with certain federally funded programs arerequired to have parent involvement programs enacted; therefore, knowledge of effectiveparent involvement assists with successfully developed and implemented activities.4ii

Chapter 2:Review of the LiteratureAn Overview"Common sense tells us that getting parents involved in the education of theirchildren is a good thing." (Gullatt, 1997, P. 36) With that statement in mind, the studywas undertaken to show whether parent involvement in fact does increase student'sacademic achievement. An abundance of research during the past decade has supportedthat statement. Parents who are involved with their children's education do promotegreater achievement (Wherry, 1997).Thus, the purpose of this literature review has been to define "parentinvolvement" and its changing paradigm to "partnership" (Jesse, 1997). Additionally, thepurpose was to examine the types of parent involvement as described by researchers,analyze a well-known parent involvement framework, discuss the need for parentinvolvement in children's education, note the impact of positive parent involvement, listthe common barriers of parent involvement, and to observe ways to increase parentinvolvement.Parent Involvement DefinedEarly on, parent involvement was defined primarily as parents participating inactivities within the school walls, and only when wanted by the school (Coulombe,512

1995). Parent involvement, according to Vandergrift and Green (1992) has twoindependent components, one being parents as supporters, the other component beingparents as active partners.As reforms in education have required more accountability, the definition ofparent involvement has shifted to mean the active and knowledgeable involvement ofparents from birth throughout the elementary and secondary education of their children.It has changed from a parent focus to family focus, from family to community agencies,and from the ever-eager parents only to the hard-to-reach or at-risk parents. Parentinvolvement has changed from professional (teacher or administrator) agendas to familypriorities, and from a deficit view of primarily urban families to a greater emphasis on theintrinsic strengths of families (Davies, 1991).The shift in definition has brought about the belief that most parents do really careabout their children and have important perspectives about their children. Additionally,parents are capable of learning new techniques that they can use. Further, it is believedfamilies do have strengths and many family forms do exist (Liontos, 1992). Althoughnon-traditional families are much more common than they were forty years ago,alternative family structures of today are effective, and, thus, should be recognized assuch (Jesse, 1997)."Parental involvement is reading to preschool children. It is getting children readyfor school every morning. It is volunteering at the school. It is serving on collaborativedecision making committees, and it is lobbying legislatures to advocate for children"(Jesse, 1997, p. 2). Parent involvement takes many forms.6

Types of Parent InvolvementSeveral researchers have identified types of parent involvement. Flaxman andInger (1992, p. 3) "have identified three ways in which parents can become involved inschooling: through direct involvement in school management and choice and by beingpresent in the schools; through participation in special parenting training programs; andthrough family resource and support programs."Following this line of thought, Moore (1991) identified three approaches to parentinvolvement as parents as policy makers, facilitators of children's development, and asvolunteers. Hester, (1989) who emphasizes communication with parents as a majorcomponent of involvement, sees involvement as parents as teachers, facilitators ofchildren's development, and as advocates.As is seen in most circumstances, effective parent involvement is accuratelycharacterized as a quite powerful enabling and enhancing variable in the children'soverall educational success, rather than a necessary condition in itself for success(Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 1995).Providing success for all children, serving the whole child and sharingresponsibility are three common themes for parental involvement as identified by Davies(1991). Further, the National Parent Teacher Association Board of Directors endorsedthe three types of involvement as being: parents as the first educators in the home, parentsas partners with the schools, and parents as advocates for all children and youth (NationalPTA, 1993).The National PTA released six standards for parent involvement. These147

research-based standards, or types of involvement, were created in alliance with otherreform initiatives that encompass children's learning and success (Ramsburg, 1997).These national standards for parent/family involvement programs are voluntaryguidelines provided to help strengthen the parent and family involvement on behalf of allchildren in schools and other programs. The six standards, and their quality indicators,provide local schools, PTA organizations, and communities with the necessarycomponents needed for highly effective parent/family involvement programs (NationalPTA, 1997).These standards include communicating, parenting, student learning,volunteering, school decision making and advocacy, and collaborating with thecommunity (National PTA, 1997). The standards for parent involvement were based onthe six types of parent involvement identified by education researcher Joyce Epstein ofJohns Hopkins University (Ramsburg, 1997).Epstein's FrameworkResearcher Joyce Epstein's framework for parent involvement includes samplepractices, or activities, that help describe involvement greater. Epstein's work alsoincludes the challenges and results expected from implementing the six types ofinvolvement. The six types of parent involvement are: parenting, communicating,volunteering, learning at home, decision-making, and collaborating with the community(Epstein, Coates, Salinas, Sanders, and Simon, 1997).Type one is parenting. Parenting programs assist with parenting skills and aids8

in setting home conditions that will support children as students. They also help schoolsunderstand families. It is the responsibility of schools to help all families establish homeenvironments conducive to supporting children as students. Parent education and othercourses or training for parents, such as general educational development, college credit,and family literacy classes should be available. Family support programs offer assistanceto families for health, nutrition, and other services. Home visits at children's vitaltransition points to pre-school, elementary, middle, and high school should be provided.Annual surveys help families share information and concerns with schools about theirchildren's goals. Other activities include workshops, videotapes, and computerizedtelephone messages (Epstein, et al., 1997).Parent involvement type two is communicating. Effective forms of school-tohome and home-to-school communications about school programs and children'sprogress are designed. Conferences are to be scheduled with every parent at least once ayear, with follow-ups as needed. Language translators must be provided to assist familiesas needed. A regular schedule of useful notices, memos, telephone calls, newsletters, andother communications must be in place. Folders of student work are sent home on aweekly or monthly basis (Epstein, et aL, 1997).Epstein's third type of parent involvement is volunteering. Recruit and organizeparent help and support through annual surveys and questionnaires. School andclassroom volunteer program help teachers, administrators, students, and other parentswith a variety of projects. Parent rooms or family centers provide a place for volunteerwork, meetings, and resources for families. Parent patrols increase student safety(Epstein, et al., 1997).9JL6

Learning at home, the fourth type of parent involvement provides information andideas to families about how to help students at home with homework and othercurriculum-related activities, decisions, and planning skills. Information for families onskills required for students in all subjects at each grade is provided, as is information onhomework policies and how to monitor and discuss schoolwork at home. Familyparticipation in setting student academic goals each year and in planning for college orwork is suggested. Summer learning packets provide activities for students (Epstein, etal., 1997).Decision making, as the fifth type of parent involvement, includes families inschool decisions, and helps develop parent leaders and representatives. Active PTA,PTO, or other parent organizations, advisory councils for parent leadership andparticipation offer decision-making opportunities. Independent advocacy groups lobbyfor school reform and improvements. Networks link all families with parentrepresentatives. Action teams that include a combination of parents and teachers overseethe development of the school's overall program (Epstein, et al., 1997).The sixth type of parent involvement, as outlined by Epstein, is collaborating withthe community. Identify and integrate resources and services from the community tostrengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning and development.Information for students and families on community health, cultural, recreational, socialsupport, and other programs or services are provided through collaboration. Further,information on community activities to link to learning skills and talents, includingsummer programs for students exhibit collaborative efforts are offered. The schoolcommunity offers service to the general community by students, families, and staff10

(Epstein, et al., 1997).Epstein (1996, p. 8) stated "families do not exist in isolation but rather are linkedto informal and formal networks of neighborhoods, communities, and schools from theearliest years." Children's qualities, including learning, are "influenced simultaneously,not sequentially, by multiple contacts" says Epstein (1996, p. 8). The framework's sixtypes of involvement overlap. "It is now time to.move toward studying the interactivenature of these overlapping 'sphere's of influence' (Ames, 1993, p. 11)."As children's first teachers, family members have a profound and continuingeffect on growth and development" (Dianda & McLaren, 1996, p. 11). Parenting skillsmust be taught, they are not inherent. Workshops, support programs, and specific parenttraining programs are needed for families (Epstein & Conners, 1993).Communications must be two-way between home and school. "Principals cankeep the connection relevant by sending out monthly calendars with suggestions foreducational activities, such as 'listen to your child tell a story' or 'take your child to thelibrary' (Gullatt, 1997, p. 36). Using telephones in the classrooms and a monthlytelephone tree dramatically improved communications at a rural school in southern WestVirginia (Funkhouser & Gonzales, 1997). One method of communication will not reachall homes. A variety of strategies that are adapted to the specific families of the schoolmust be used (Liontos, 1992).The traditional role of parent involvement has been the parent volunteer whoworks in the classroom or teacher's workroom. Relationships between homes andschools can be further enhanced by seeking parent

DOCUMENT RESUME. ED 424 926 PS 027 024. AUTHOR Luchuck, Vickie Lynne TITLE The Effects of Parent Involvement on Student Achievement. PUB DATE 1998-08-00 NOTE .46p.; Master's Thesis, Salem-Teikyo University. PUB TYPE Dissertations/Theses Masters Theses (042) EDRS PRICE MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage. DESCRIPTORS *Academic Achievement; Elementary .

Related Documents:

and fabric options protect furniture for years of enjoyment. As Shown on Front Cover: DL9050-MS - Sofa; DL9050-OT - Storage Ottoman; 926-110-S - Rectangular Cocktail Table; 926-245-S -Nesting Tables; 926-710-S Desk / Sofa Table; 926-820-S Slat Back Dining Arm Chair; 926-930-S Corner Media Console. The Modern Mayfair Story

November 2020 VDM Alloy 926 2 VDM Alloy 926 is an austenitic, special stainless steel that was developed by VDM Metals on the basis of the many times proven VDM Alloy 904 L (1.4539). Due to its 6.5 % higher molybdenum concentration, VDM Alloy 926 has a generally improved corrosion resistance and resistance against pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion compared to VDM Alloy

DF CHIP BREAKER The DF chip breaker is the preferred choice chip breaker on P category material finish. M Class tolerance double sided chip breaker, excellent chip flow in finishing cut range while producing excellent surface finish on work material. Steel 424-1989 424-1990 424-1991 424-1992

926.25.103 Butt Hinge Pin Type (No Ball Bearing) PC SSM SS 30 4 672 437 183 910 SPRING HINGES SIZE 6 INCH 927.97.070 Ss Single Action Swing Hinge PC SS M SS 3 0 4 1076 699 541 25 RISING & FALIING HINGES SIZE 4 X 3 X 2 926.79.003 Lift Off Rising Hinge, 102 MX 76 X 2MM Din Left PC SS SS 3 0 4 526 342 151 818 926.79.203 Lift Off Falling Hinge .

DOCUMENT RESUME ED 110 926 CS 002 070 AUTHOR Schroeder, Emma Gene TITLE Directed Studies Reading Program. INSTITUTION Wharton County Junior Coil., Tex. PUB DATE 75 N

DOCUMENT RESUME. ED 424 183 SO 029 529. AUTHOR Cohen, Carolyn TITLE What Service Teaches about Citizenship and Work: The

DOCUMENT RESUME ED 383 424 PS 023 191 AUTHOR Grotberg, Edith H. TITLE The International Resilience Project: Promoting. Resilience in Children. INSTITUTION Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Civitan international. Research Center. PUB DATE [95] NOTE. 56p. PUB TYPE. Reports. Re

accounting techniques, their definitions, process, advantages, and benefits. KEYWORDS: Accounting, Activity Based Costing, Balanced Scorecard, Budgeting, Just in Time INTRODUCTION There is kind of agreement that accounting is the language of business; to figure out the financial position of an organization; identifying the level of gain or loss which is the result of business' operations, and .