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AGROFORESTRY IN ACTIONUniversity of Missouri Center for AgroforestryAF1017 - 2012Growing and MarketingElderberries in MissouriBy Patrick L. Byers, Andrew L. Thomas, Mihaela M.Cernusca, Larry D. Godsey and Michael A. Gold; Universityof Missouri.The American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis, alsoknown as Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) isnative to much of eastern and midwestern NorthAmerica. The plant is a medium to large multiplestemmed shrub, bush or small tree (Fig. 1). ElderberryFigure 2: The blossoms of the American elderberryproducts is on the rise. European elderberry (Sambucusnigra) is grown as a commercial fruit crop in Europeand elsewhere. The American elderberry, however,appears to be a better candidate for commercialproduction in Missouri. This guide outlines productionpractices and market information for Americanelderberry based on research and growers’ experiencesin Missouri.Figure 1: The American Elderberry plantis commonly found growing in a range of habitatsthroughout Missouri, but it prefers moist, well-drained,sunny sites and is often found along roadside ditchesand streams. Elderberry is a beautiful plant withshowy flat cymes of white flowers in June followed bybright purple to black berries in late summer (Figures2 and 3). Ornamental forms are important landscapeplants, and elderberry has been grown for generationsas a backyard fruit. Based on identified market sizeand demand, opportunities exist to increase both theproduction and processing of elderberry across thevalue chain. At present, usage of both fruit and flowersfor wine, juice, jelly, colorant and dietary supplement1Figure 3: The fruit of the American

It is important to note that elderberry remainssignificantly underdeveloped as a commercial crop. Notvery much is known about several aspects of elderberryproduction, including managing elderberry pests anddiseases, yield and economic potential, soil fertilitymanagement, and productive longevity of elderberryplantings. While elderberry has excellent potential as aviable commercial crop for Missouri, producers mustunderstand that there are inherent risks to growing anovel crop for which all the answers are not known.Site Selection and PreparationAs might be expected from a species with widedistribution, elderberry thrives on a range of soils.However, soils that are moderately fertile and withadequate surface and internal water drainage arebest for commercial production. To increase successwhen planting on soils with drainage issues, it isrecommended that planting rows be formed into“berms” (raised ridges) prior to planting (Fig. 4).Pre-plant soil testing is recommended to evaluate thesoil pH and nutrient levels. Adjust pH level to 5.5-6.5,phosphorus level to 50 lbs/acre, and potassium levelto 200-300 lbs/acre. Although elderberry tolerates coldtemperatures following bud break, it is best to selectsites that are elevated relative to surrounding land toreduce the risk of damage from spring frost. Elderberryrequires full sun for optimum production. Controlproblem perennial weeds such as bermuda grass,johnson grass, blackberry and poison ivy before plantingelderberry. Establish a non-competitive ground coverin the alleys between rows to facilitate operations in theplanting. Elderberry is a freestanding bush and does notneed trellising.the same very narrow genetic pool. In general, thesenortheastern cultivars have not performed as well inMissouri trials compared with more recent selectionsfrom the Midwest. Elderberry seedlings are availablefrom the Missouri Department of Conservation StateNursery; these are excellent for wildlife and ecologicalrestoration plantings but are not recommended forcommercial fruit production where consistent, highquality fruit is desired. Wild locally-growing plantsthat consistently produce abundant fruit may also beworth propagating and evaluating. A portion of thecommercial fruit crop, especially in the Midwest, isharvested from wild plants; however, fruit quality isvariable.Elderberry cultivars tested in MissouriMissouri cultivars (University of Missouri/Missouri StateUniversity)‘Bob Gordon’ (*2011). Selected from the wild near Osceola,MO. Produces large clusters of berries on first year shoots,as well as smaller clusters on older shoots. Mediumto large berries. Ripens with Adams 2. Tends to havependulous cymes that resist bird predation. This cultivarhas performed well for Missouri producers.‘Wyldewood’ (*2010). Selected from the wild near Eufaula,OK. Produces large clusters of berries on first year shoots,as well as smaller clusters on older shoots. This is a large,vigorous, upright shrub. Medium to large berries. Ripens7-10 days later than Adams 2. Wyldewood is a productivecultivar for the Midwest.New York cultivars (New York Agriculture ExperimentStation)‘Adams 1’ and ‘Adams 2’ (*1926). Selected from the wild inNew York. Medium berries, with Adams 2 berries slightlysmaller but more productive than Adams 1.‘York’ (*1964). Cross of Adams 2 and Ezyoff. Produces thelargest berries among American cultivars. Ripens earlierthan Adams 2 in Missouri.Nova Scotia cultivars (Kentville Research Station, NovaScotia)‘Johns’ (*1954). Long grown in northeastern US. Medium tolarge berries, several days earlier than Adams.‘Kent’ (*1957). Seedling of Adams 1. Medium to largeberries. Ripens 7-10 days earlier than Adams 2.Figure 4: A bermed elderberry plantingCultivar SelectionSeveral cultivars of American elderberry arecommercially available. Most are selections developedin New York and Nova Scotia many decades ago,and virtually all of these cultivars were derived fromUniversity of Missouri Center for Agroforestry‘Nova’ (*1959). Seedling of Adams 2. Medium to largeberries. Berries sweeter than Kent or Victoria. Ripensearlier than Adams 2.‘Scotia’ (*1959). Seedling of Adams 2. Medium to largeberries. Berries sweeter than Kent or Victoria.‘Victoria’ (*1957). Seedling of Adams 2. Medium to largeberries. Ripens 3-6 days earlier than Adams 2.*year cultivar released2

In addition to cultivars derived from the Americanelderberry, the European elderberry may also offerpotential for production. However, trials in Missourihave indicated that European elderberry may not be aswell-adapted to midwestern environmental conditionsas American elderberry.begins (Fig. 6). The root cuttings are placed horizontallyin a flat or pot, covered with ¾ to 1 inch of a light soilor soilless medium and kept warm and moist. Often, asingle root cutting will produce 2-3 plants.PropagationElderberries may be propagated by several means.Rooting dormant hardwood cuttings is a relatively easyand cost-efficient method for propagating large numbersof plants (Fig. 5). Collect vigorous, 2-4 node cuttingsfrom the previous season’s growth before budbreak,which typically occurs by early February. Be surethat the cuttings are not cold-damaged and are free ofdefects. Cuttings may be rooted immediately or storedunder refrigeration for 4-6 weeks for later rooting.A dip of the basal end of the cutting in a commercialrooting powder (0.1% IBA) may increase rooting. Placethe basal node(s) below the surface of a well-drainedsoil or sterilized commercial potting medium. Keepcuttings warm and moist but not wet. The cuttings willusually break bud and begin growing several weeksbefore rooting, but they should be well-rooted within sixweeks.Figure 6: Elderberry root cuttingsElderberry may also be propagated from seed. Caution:seedling plants will exhibit variability in yield, fruitquality and plant performance. Seeds should becleaned upon harvest and require stratification (wintertreatment) before they will germinate. Planting theseeds directly outside in fall, either in pots or in anursery bed, works well. Keep evenly moist overwinter, and they should germinate in late spring.EstablishmentFigure 5: Hardwood cuttings in individual containersSprouted hardwood cuttings and softwood cuttings areeasily rooted, provided high humidity is maintainedaround the cuttings until rooted. An intermittent mistsystem works well. A rooting hormone dip may bebeneficial. Cuttings of 2-3 nodes root well. Remove aportion of the foliage to keep cuttings from wilting;leaving only the 2 basal leaflets of each compound leafusually works well. Softwood cuttings typically rootwell until about July 1; rooting percentage drops as thesummer progresses.Elderberry plantings are commonly established usingeither dormant, bare root one-year plants dug from anursery or recently propagated container-grown plants.Dormant plants may be planted in early spring. Activelygrowing greenhouse plants should not be planted inthe field until late April or early May, after the risk offrost has passed. Plantings are best established beforetemperatures warm in late May. Elderberry plantingsmay also be established by placing unrooted dormanthardwood cuttings directly in the field in early spring;however, rooting and survival can be erratic and thismethod of establishment is generally not recommended.Root cuttings (pencil diameter or slightly smaller, 4-6inches long) may be dug in late February before growthPlanting rows are typically spaced 10-12 feet apart,with plants spaced 4 feet apart in the planting row.Within two to three years, the rows will be completelyfilled in as shoots develop from the rapidly-spreadingelderberry root systems. Remove all flowers during theestablishment year to prevent fruit development and toencourage development of roots and structure. A partialcrop can be expected the year after planting if plants arevigorous and healthy, with a full crop expected in threeyears. Elderberry plants will likely remain productivefor at least five years, but the full productive life of anelderberry planting is not

Other insect pests in elderberry include the larvae offall webworms (Hyphantria cunea) and cecropia moth(Hyalophora cecropia), both of which may defoliateplants, and aphids. The currant borer, a clearwingmoth (Ramosia tipuliformis or Synanthedon tipuliformis),and elder shoot borer (Achatodes zeae) have also beendocumented as damaging elderberries but have not beenassociated with severe economic damage in Missouri.A bacterial leaf spot disease tentatively identified asPseudomonas viridiflava (Fig. 11) has caused economicdamage to elderberry in Missouri. Little is known aboutthis disease or how to manage it.Birds of several species will feed on elderberry fruitand can cause significant crop losses; those selectionswith pendulous (down-hanging) cymes appear to beless attractive to birds. Netting or scare tactics can helpprotect the elderberry crop from bird depredation.Weed ManagementElderberries present challenges relative to weed control.The plants are multi-stemmed, and new shoots ariseannually from the crown and roots, leading to problemsrelated to herbicide use. In particular, non-selectivepost-emergent herbicides must be used with caution.Annual weeds may be managed with a combinationof mulching, hand weeding and herbicides. Perennialweeds can become a persistent challenge withelderberry, and growers must practice regular removalof weeds at an early stage of development. Severalherbicides are presently labeled for elderberry; consultlabels for up-to-date information on herbicide use onelderberry.Harvest and Postharvest HandlingElderberry blossoming takes place in June in Missouri,and flowering cymes harvested for fresh use ordrying are clipped when all flowers are open (Fig. 13).Individual flowers are easily removed from the cyme byrubbing over screens. The flowers may then be dried orfrozen for future use.Figure 11: Bacterial spot on elderberry foliageAn elderberry rust disease identified as Pucciniabolleyana can cause economic damage (Fig. 12). In minorinfections, galls should be pruned out and destroyed;more aggressive control measures may be necessary insevere cases. Sedges are the alternate host of this fungus;however, it is unknown if destroying sedges in thevicinity of elderberry plantings may be helpful.Figure 13: Harvest elderberry blossoms when all flowers areopenFigure 12: Elderberry rust on leaf blade (l) and petioleSeveral viruses have been identified in elderberry. Thetomato ring spot virus has been associated with severedecline of plants in New York, but the impact of thisand other viruses in Missouri is unknown. Research isunderway to better understand viruses associated withelderberries.University of Missouri Center for AgroforestryElderberry fruit harvest takes place in late July, Augustand early September. At present, the Missouri elderberrycrop is harvested by hand. Entire cymes are clipped andharvested when all berries are fully colored (Fig. 14).The cymes on the current season’s shoots ripen severaldays later than cymes on older wood. Plants that werepruned to the ground the previous winter will usuallyripen fruit over 2 to 3 weeks, whereas plants with shoots6

MarketingIn contrast to Europe, elderberry is neither well knownnor widely utilized in the U.S. To date, there have beenfew studies published on the U.S. elderberry market,and this is especially true for the specialty food andwine market.5, 13 Recent market reports suggest thatelderberry sales are subject to wide swings based oncurrent issues.1 Market research at the University ofMissouri demonstrates that the elderberry industry hashigh growth potential and is presently dominated bysmall scale producers, with the exception of a few largescale entrepreneurs and innovators.5Existing elderberry producers have focused their effortson introducing elderberry and its uses to consumers,creating awareness about the products and the industry.The industry is vertically integrated. Most playersparticipate in multiple stages of the value chain (Fig.15): propagate their own plants, grow elderberry, andproduce some value-added products (wine, juice orjelly).Figure 14: Elderberry fruit are harvested when all berries inthe cyme are fully coloredof mixed age will ripen over a 3 to 4 week period.Harvest plants at weekly intervals. Harvest early in theday for best fruit quality. CAUTION: Be careful whenpicking elderberries from the wild, as the railroad androad crews often spray just before they are ready forharvest. Yields may range from 2 to 4 tons per acre formature bearing plantings, though higher yields havebeen recorded. Harvested fruit is highly perishable;refrigerate at 32-40 F as soon as possible after harvest.Fresh individual berries are difficult to separate fromthe cyme without tearing and loss of juice. Whole cymesmay be frozen, and individual berries separated fromthe stems by hand shattering or by placing the frozencymes in a fruit de-stemmer. Berries may be storedfrozen for a few months before processing; however,research has shown that the health-giving anthocyanins(purple pigments) in elderberry are fragile and easilydestroyed by long-term storage, repeated freezing andthawing cycles, and over-processing, resulting in brownfruit (and brown products) with reduced health benefits.The harvest of fruit for specific purposes, such aswinemaking or for dietary supplements, may bescheduled based on fruit quality parameters; however,little research has been conducted to determine idealjuice characteristics for specific products. Typicalelderberry juice characteristics include total solublesolids levels of 11-12 Brix, juice pH of 4.5-5.0, and juicetitratable acidity in terms of malic acid of 0.60-0.70 g/100ml.7Figure 15: The elderberry value chainA lack of mechanized harvest equipment results in alabor intensive process. Limited industry-wide qualitystandards create challenges for both growers and valueadded producers. The supply of American elderberryis limited, and processors have faced supply shortages,although this is changing rapidly with a large increasein acreage over the past 3 years and additional acreagecoming on line. Some value-added producers producetheir own fruit; others rely on imported concentrateand/or pay a higher price to obtain a local

Import prices have increased over the past few years,and imported concentrate is becoming harder to obtain.Following national trends, locally produced elderberriesare preferred over imports. Additional plant and fruitsupply is needed for the existing industry players tooperate at full capacity and grow.Products SoldA variety of elderberry products are created and sold inthe U.S.: seeds, cuttings, plants in pots, fresh and frozenelderberries, dried flowers, wine, juice, concentrate,extract, syrup, jelly, jam, food colorants, vinegar, fudge,barbeque sauces, salad dressing, carbonated beverages,cordials, juice blends, yogurt and pie.Fresh or frozen elderberries are sold through differentoutlets for various uses: to wineries for winemaking, infarmers markets or online to individuals, and to dietarysupplement manufacturers. Wine is sold primarily atwineries and retail outlets. Because the wine industry istightly regulated, most elderberry wine is sold inside thestate borders. Demand for elderberry wine is increasing,driven by increased consumer interest in personalhealth. The Internet is helping increase sales. Elderberryvalue-added products are sold directly to consumersand to wholesale outlets and health food stores. Salesare primarily local. Dietary supplements are mostly soldnationwide, direct to health food stores and to healthfood store distributors.Demand TrendsWhile elderberry is a new product on the market, ithas a long history and tradition. It has been used forcenturies as a natural remedy and to improve the tasteof grape wine. Memories of grandpa’s elderberry wineor grandma’s elderberry pie are unique to elderberry.Current demand trends are favorable (Fig. 17).5 Wineriesare seeking more local supply. Chefs are increasinglyinterested in elderberries. The health properties ofelderberries attract customers. Organic and locallygrown foods are perceived by consumers as healthierand safer for both people and the environment. Thereare many substitutes for elderberry and elderberryproducts. However, elderberry has distinctive propertiesthat put it in a class by itself.5 Even without FDAapproved medical claims, people perceive elderberry’sunique health benefits. Flavor and taste also differentiateelderberry from similar products. Respondents describethe flavor of elderberry wine as complex and rich with afinish that provides a unique flavor.1% Decreasing21% I don’t know59% IncreasingSome examples of prices received by survey respondentsare provided in Figure 16.5ProductSale PriceCuttings 1-2.50 eachPlants 5.00 ea., 6 for 25.00 0.50/lb (with stems) to winery19% Remaining stableFigure 17: Estimated demand for elderberry over the next fiveyears (survey results from 74 respondents) 1.25/lb pick your ownFresh Berries 3.00/lb de-stemmed for pie-making 5.00/lb to winery (de-stemmed) 11.00/lb to dietary supplementmanufacturersWine 10-14 per bottleJuice 12-17 per 11 oz. bottle retailConcentrate 25 per 375 ml bottle retailFigure 16: Elderberry products and sale pricesUniversity of Missouri Center for AgroforestryConsumer ResearchIn a 2011 study of elderberry juice and jelly products,1,043 households were surveyed throughout the UnitedStates.13 Results show one-third of respondents to befamiliar with elderberry. The most commonly purchasedelderberry products were juice, jelly, and wine products.These products were most often purchased in grocerystores, farmers markets and health food stores. Based onstudy results, marketing strategies were identified thatmay be applied by elderberry firms to stimulate growthin sales and gain competitive advantage, as follows:8

Marketing and Consumer StrategiesElderberry EconomicsSell YourProductsLocallySelling products locally can be a huge advantagefor elderberry producers. Juice and jellyproducts with labels indicating the product hadbeen produced locally were over three timesmore likely to be purchased than products thathad been imported.Advertisethe HealthBenefits ofthe ProductPromoting the health benefits of elderberryproducts will draw in new customers. Juice andjelly products that advertised health claims ontheir labels were twice as likely to be purchasedas products without health claims.GiveOut FreeSamplesHave prospective customers taste your products.Findings suggest that 80% of consumers whosampled an elderberry product also madea purchase. Consumers who sampled orpurchased elderberry products were shownto be willing to pay more for elderberry juiceand jelly products and less likely to purchasetraditional or competing fruit products when anelderberry product option was available.ApproachExisting andPotentialConsumersDifferentlyExisting consumers: Findings indicate thatpeople who have purchased elderberry productsare younger, more educated, and less pricesensitive compared to individuals who havenever purchased elderberry. They stronglyprefer locally produced juices. For thesecustomers, position elderberry juice as a healthyspecialty product. Focus on the product originin advertising elderberry juice to take advantageof consumer preferences for “local” items.Emphasize that unlike other products (e.g., açaíjuice), elderberry juice is produced in the U.S.Potential consumers: Consumers who havenot tried elderberry are characterized by higherprice sensitivity but also an appreciation forlocal products. In this case, introduce elderberryjuice products as value healthy products (similarto cranberry), emphasizing local origin whilemaintaining a lower price. Another optionis to blend locally produced elderberry juicewith cranberry, which is already known andpreferred by consumers in these segments, toease consumer acceptability.FDA StatementRemember that any label claims related to the healthbenefits of elderberry are subject to approval by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration.10 Consult an attorneyand/or the FDA prior to making health claims related toelderberry products.9The costs and returns for elderberry production areextremely variable. Since elderberry is a wild nativeplant that grows in abundance throughout much of theU.S., it is often harvested from fence lines and road sideswithout an accounting of cost. However, in order forelderberry to become a viable economic crop, it must becommercially produced through dedicated plantings.The economic considerations for commercially producedelderberry have been modeled using the ElderberryFinancial Decision Support Tool (EFDST).12 This modelis based on the costs of establishment, management,marketing and harvesting on an existing commercialelderberry production farm. The model allows usersto modify different elements of the production processand determine how these changes affect the estimatedfinancial returns. Based on the EFDST, establishinga commercially viable elderberry plantation couldcost between 2,500 and 4,500 per acre. However,the model also indicates that the rate of return onthat investment can be as high as 15 percent, and thelandowner can recover that establishment cost as earlyas the third year after establishment.Elderberry Grower’s CalendarTime of YearActionJanuary - earlyFebruaryPrune all plants.Collect cuttings and refrigerate for laterpropagation or place in heated greenhousenow for propagation.Late February early MarchSpray dormant oil to control overwinteringmites and insects.Plant dormant bare-root plants in the field.Propagate cuttings that have been instorage.Late March early AprilFertilize.May 1 (frost-free) Plant newly propagated plants in the field.Mid-spring mid-summerMonitor insects, mites and diseases atleast weekly; be prepared to use controlmeasures if needed.Mulch plants once new shoots haveemerged from soil.Irrigate as needed.JuneHarvest flowers if that is the primaryproduct being produced.Mid-JulyApply bird netting or prepare to deter birdsfrom ripening fruit.Late July - earlySeptemberHarvest fruit.Mid-September- FallContinue to irrigate as needed.Continue to monitor pests and take controlmeasures if needed so plants go into winterin good condition. Remove any stems thatappear to be harboring insect eggs or pupae(especially borers)

Elderberry Orchard Costs*Establishment Costs:Site PreparationInitial # of Stems Per AcrePlanting StockBed PreparationPlanting CostFertilizationPermanent CoverCost/acreHerbicide with Discing908 stems at 4’ x 12’ spacingCuttings (Selected Varieties 908 x 1.65 each)Plastic Mulch/IrrigationHand100 lbs N OrganicGrass MixCost/plant 150.00 0.17 1,498.20 1.65Subtotal: 350.00 226.88 75.00 250.00 2,550.08 0.39 0.25 0.08 0.28 2.81 0.31 1.00 0.06 0.08Subtotal: 280.00 100.00 50.00 68.36 498.36Management Costs:FertilizationPruningWeed ControlDeer ControlCompost (premade)ManualMowingUser DefinedHarvesting Costs:Harvesting MethodCost/lbHand Harvest 964.25 0.20*This is one example of potential orchard establishment, management and harvesting costs. Expenses vary depending on user decisions.For more information, visit erryfinance.phpUniversity of Missouri Center for Agroforestry10

Elderberry Resources1. Blumenthal, M., A. Lindstrom, M. E. Lynch, and P. Rea. 2011. Market report. Herb sales continue growth –up 3.3% in 2010. HerbalGram 90:64–67.2. Byers, P.L. and A.L. Thomas. 2011. ‘Bob Gordon’ elderberry. Journal of the American Pomological Society65(2):52-55.3. Byers, P.L., A.L. Thomas, and M. Millican. 2010. ‘Wyldewood’ elderberry. Cultivar and GermplasmRelease. HortScience 45(2):312-313.4. Cavaliere, C., P. Rea, M. E. Lynch, and M. Blumenthal. 2010. Herbal supplement sales rise in all channels in2009. HerbalGram 86:62–65.5. Cernusca, M.M., M.A. Gold and L.D. Godsey. 2011. Using the Porter model to analyze the U.S. elderberryindustry. Proc. The 12th North American Agroforestry Conference: Agroforestry, a profitable land use. p.191-200.6. Charlebois, D. 2007. Elderberry as a medicinal plant. In: J. Janick and A. Whipkey (Eds.) Issues in NewCrops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, pp 284-292.7. Charlebois, D., P.L. Byers, C.E. Finn, and A.L. Thomas. 2010. Elderberry: botany, horticulture, potential. In:J. Janick (Ed.). Horticultural Reviews Vol 37. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 213-280.8. Cornell pest management guidelines for berry crops. Revised annually. default.aspx.9. ElderberryNIC. Online collection of elderberry resources, maintained by Michigan State University. id 260250&page id 429827&msue portal id 25643.10. FDA. Submitting qualified health claims. ims/QualifiedHealthClaims/default.htm.11. Finn, C.E., A.L. Thomas, P.L. Byers, and S. Serçe. 2008. Evaluation of American (Sambucus canadensis) andEuropean (S. nigra) elderberry genotypes grown in diverse environments and implications for cultivardevelopment. HortScience 43(5):1385-1391.12. Godsey, L.D. 2012. Elderberry financial decision support tool. erryfinance.php.13. Mohebalian, P. 2011. U.S. consumer preference for elderberry products. University of Missouri, Columbia.MS Thesis.14. Mohebalian, P., M.M. Cernusca, and F.X. Aguilar. 2012. Discovering niche markets for elderberry juice inthe U.S. HortTechnology. 22(4): In Press.15. Thomas, A.L., P.L. Byers, C.E. Finn, Y.C. Chen, G.E. Rottinghaus, A.M. Malone, and W.L. Applequist. 2008.Occurrence of rutin and chlorogenic acid in elderberry leaf, flower, and stem in response to genotype,environment, and season. In: G. Gardner and L.E. Craker (eds.). Plants as food and medicine: Theutilization and development of horticultural plants for human health. Acta Horticulturae 765:197-206.16. Thomas, A.L., P.L. Byers, and M.R. Ellersieck. 2009. Productivity and characteristics of Americanelderberry in response to various pruning methods. HortScience 44(3)

AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to acknowledge the elderberry research contributions of the Missouri State UniversityState Fruit Experiment Station staff, including Martin Kaps and John Avery, as well as Lincoln Universityfaculty Sanjun Gu and Jaime Piñero. Finally, thanks to Phillip Mohebalian for contributing to the marketingsection of this guide from his M.S. thesis research on elderberry.AuthorsPatrick L. Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist, University of Missouri ExtensionAndrew L. Thomas, Research Assistant Professor, University of Missouri, Southwest Research CenterMihaela M. Cernusca, Marketing Specialist, MU Center for AgroforestryLarry D. Godsey, Economist, MU Center for AgroforestryMichael A. Gold, Research Professor, Forestry, MU Center for AgroforestryVisit to learnabout the Center's current elderberry research.Produced byThe Center for Agroforestry, University of MissouriShibu Jose, Ph.D., Director203 ABNR Columbia, MO 65211Outreach UnitMichael A. Gold, Ph.D., Associate DirectorLarry D. Godsey, Ph.D., EconomistMihaela M. Cernusca, M.B.A., Marketing and Evaluation SpecialistLaura Orozco, Information Specialist InternFor more information, visit 884-2874; musnragroforestry@missouri.eduThis work was funded through the University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry under cooperative agreements 58-62275-029, 58-6227-2-008 and 58-6227-5-028 with the United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural ResearchService. Special recognition is given to the USDA, ARS, and Dale Bumpers Small Farm Research Center, Booneville, Ark.Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and donot necessarily reflect the view of the USDA. Additional funding was provided by NCR-SARE project # LNC10-324.University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry12

production in Missouri. This guide outlines production practices and market information for American elderberry based on research and growers’ experiences in Missouri. AGROFORESTRY IN ACTION Growing and Marketing Elderberries in Missouri University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry AF1017

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