Principles of Statutory InterpretationEmily WendelLegislative Service CommissionEmily Wendel has served as an attorney with the Legislative Service Commissionsince 2011. She works primarily in the areas of elections, ethics, and constitutionalissues as part of the State and Local Government division of LSC’s research staff. Ms.Wendel earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Toledo College of Law and aBachelor of Arts degree, magna cum laude, in German and English from WittenbergUniversity.
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATIONEmily E. Wendel , AttorneyOhio Legislative Service CommissionPublic Practice CLEOctober 26, 2017I. Textual and legislative canons Begin with the plain meaning of the text, and end there if possible.o Except when the text suggests an absurd result or a scrivener's error.o See State v. Traylor, 100 Miss. 544 (1911). If the plain meaning is ambiguous, determine legislative intent.o R.C. 1.49. When the legislature amends a statute, it is presumed that a change in the law isintended.o See Fleming Foods of Texas, Inc. v. Rylander, 6 S.W.3d 278 (Tex. 1999).o Drafting strategy: Avoid making unnecessary changes to the statute. Legislative statements that no substantive change is intended may beinsufficient. A statute is presumed to be prospective.o Ohio Const. Art. II, Sec. 28.o R.C. 1.48. A just and reasonable result is intended.o A strained or forced construction is not favored.o Avoid inconsistent or absurd results.o A result feasible of execution is intended.o R.C. 1.47. An unrepealed statute does not become defunct by reason of desuetude (disuse).o See State v. French, 460 N.W.2d 2 (Minn. 1990).o Drafting strategy: Check for existing statutes that may affect the goal of the current draft. Do not assume that a defunct statute that is left on the books will notaffect new legislation. Repeal of a repealing statute does not revive prior law.o R.C. 1.57.
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATION Remedial laws are to be liberally construed.o An ambiguous statute that is intended to remedy a problem should beinterpreted broadly, instead of narrowly, in order to address the problemmore fully.o R.C. 1.11. A statute is presumed to be severable.o If part of a statute is ruled unconstitutional, the unconstitutional part shouldbe "severed" and the remaining law should still be enforced, if possible.o R.C. 1.50. Computation of timeo Time is computed by excluding the first and including the last day, exceptthat when the last day falls on a Sunday or a legal holiday, the act may bedone on the next succeeding day that is not a Sunday or a legal holiday. (R.C.1.14.)o If a number of months is to be computed by counting the months from aparticular day, the period ends on the same numerical day in the concludingmonth as the day of the month from which the computation is begun, unlessthere are not that many days in the concluding month, in which case theperiod ends on the last day of that month. (R.C. 1.45.)II. Contextual canons The entire statute is intended to be effective.o Statutes in pari materia (addressing the same subject matter) must, if possible,be construed to give full effect to each and to gather legislative intent fromthe whole of the enactments.o A statute is to be construed as a whole to give a consistent, harmonious, andsensible effect to all its parts.o R.C. 1.47(B).o See State v. French, 460 N.W.2d 2 (Minn. 1990) and Cheap Escape v. Haddox,LLC, 120 Ohio St. 3d 493 (2008).o Drafting strategy: Be aware of surrounding statutes that may affect the draft, even if theydo not seem to be directly related to the topic. Be clear and specific so that a court will not need to look beyond theimmediate statute to interpret the intended meaning.2 of 7
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATION Surplusage Canono Every word and provision is to be given effect.o Avoid redundant or superfluous phrasing. Presumption of Consistent Usageo Interpret the same or similar terms in a statute the same way.o A change or difference in terminology is considered meaningful.o Drafting strategy: Use terminology that is consistent with the terms used in existingstatutes that have the same meaning. In new drafts, use the same term in the same way each time. Specific provisions prevail as an exception to general provisions.o But, exceptions should be read narrowly.o R.C. 1.12 and 1.51.o See Nebraska Equal Opportunity Comm'n v. State Emps. Ret. Sys., 471 N.W.2d398 (Neb. 1991).o Drafting strategy: When creating an exception to a general provision, explicitly"notwithstand" the general statute in the exception or add "except asprovided in" to the general statute. If statutes are irreconcilable, the statute with the latest effective date prevails.o If the statutes have the same effective date, the statute prevails that is latest inits passage by the legislature.o R.C. 1.52.III. Grammar, syntax, and linguistic inferences Follow the ordinary usage of terms, unless they are given a specified or technicalmeaning.o R.C. 1.42. Punctuation is meaningful.o Consider using the Oxford (serial) comma to make your writing more clear.o See O'Connor v. Oakhurst Dairy, 851 F.3d 69 (5th Cir. 2017).3 of 7
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATION The Rule of Negative Implication (expressio unius est exclusio alterius)o The inclusion of certain items implies the exclusion of others.o See Vincent v. Civil Service Comm'n, 54 Ohio St. 3d (1990).o Omitted-Case Canon (casus omissus pro omisso habendus est) A matter not covered is to be treated as not covered.o Presumption of Nonexclusive "Include" "Including" implies that that which follows is a partial, not anexhaustive listing of all that is subsumed within the stated category. It is not necessary to say, "including, but not limited to " See In re Hartman, 2 Ohio St. 3d 154 (1983) and Phelps Dodge Corp. v.NLRB, 313 U.S. 177 (1941). Noscitur a sociis ("It is known from its associates.")o Interpret a general term to be similar to more specific terms in a series.o See State v. Kasnett, 34 Ohio St. 2d 193 (1973) and Dolan v. U.S. Postal Service,546 U.S. 481 (2006). Ejusdem generis ("of the same kind")o Interpret a general term to reflect the class of objects reflected in more specificterms accompanying it.o See Sierra Club v. Kenney, 429 N.E. 2d 1214 (Ill. 1981) and Treasure IslandCatering Co. v. State Bd. of Equalization, 120 P. 2d 1 (Cal. 1941). Doctrine of the Last Antecedento Relative or qualifying words and phrases, where no contrary intentionappears, are construed to refer solely to the last antecedent with which theyare closely connected.o See U.S. v. Palmer, 16 U.S. 610 (1818) and People v. McPherson, 619 P.2d 38(Colo. 1980).o Drafting strategy: Use divisions to apply qualifiers only to the terms to which they apply. E.g., instead of "To get dessert, you must eat ham and eggs that aregreen," say, "To get dessert, you must eat both of the following:(A) Green eggs;(B) Ham." The singular includes the plural.o R.C. 1.43(A).4 of 7
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATION The masculine includes the feminine.o But, LSC's policy is to use gender-neutral language.o R.C. 1.31 and 1.43(B). Words in the present tense include the future tense.o R.C. 1.43(C).IV. Extrinsic sources of authority Legislative historyo The courts may examine LSC analyses, committee testimony, floor speeches,press releases, etc.o The interpretation of one member of the General Assembly who voted for abill is not enough to determine the intent of the entire General Assembly inpassing the bill.o See Meeks v. Papadopulos, 62 Ohio St. 2d 187 (1980); State v. Lowe, 112 Ohio St.3d 507 (2007); and State v. Smith, 80 Ohio St. 3d 89 (1997).o Drafting strategy: Be aware that the courts may look to LSC analyses and memoranda tointerpret a statute. If the analysis is necessary to understand the statute, the statute shouldbe drafted more clearly. Agency interpretationso Defer to an executive agency's interpretation of the laws that govern theagency, especially when there is express delegation of rule-making duties tothe agency.o Unless the agency's interpretation is contrary to the plain meaning of thestatute or is unreasonable.o Drafting strategy: Be aware of existing agency rules and directives that may impact astatute. If an agency's current interpretation is contrary to the drafter's intent,the drafter should clarify the statute. Constitutional issueso Legislation is intended to be constitutional. Avoid interpretations that would render a statute unconstitutional.5 of 7
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATIONo Separation of powers Avoid interpreting an ambiguous statute in such a way that it wouldviolate the constitutional separation of powers. See Dep't of the Navy v. Egan, 484 U.S. 518 (1988).o Due process The Rule of Lenity Do not apply punitive sanctions if there is ambiguity as to theunderlying criminal liability or criminal penalty. Also applies to civil sanctions that are punitive or when theunderlying liability is criminal. R.C. 2901.04(A). See State v. Straley, 2014-Ohio-2139 (2014) and State v. Traylor,100 Miss. 544 (1911). No criminal penalty imposed without a showing of specific intent. Rule against interpreting statutes to be retroactive, even if the statute iscurative or restorative. Do not interpret statutes to deny a right to a criminal jury trial.o The courts have recognized a presumption in favor of judicial review,especially for constitutional questions, but not for agency decisions not toprosecute.o The courts also follow a presumption against an exhaustion of remediesrequirement for a lawsuit to enforce constitutional rights.6 of 7
PRINCIPLES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATIONSources and Additional ReadingRussell E. Carparelli, The Rehnquist Court's Canons of Statutory Construction (Sept. 2005).Available online here.Reed Dickerson, The Interpretation and Application of Statutes (Little, Brown and Company 1975).See WorldCat for library copies and BookFinder for copies for sale.William N. Eskridge, Jr., Dynamic Statutory Interpretation (Harvard University Press 1994).See WorldCat for library copies and BookFinder for copies for sale.Bryan A. Garner, "Outtakes from a Treatise: Garner and Scalia Present a Quiz on Textualism:Part 1 of 2," A.B.A. Journal, Oct. 1, 2012. Available online here.Bryan A. Garner, "A Text on Textualism, Part 2: Garner and Scalia Offer More Outtakes fromTheir Latest Collaboration," A.B.A. Journal, Nov. 1, 2012. Available online here.Robert A. Katzmann, Judging Statutes (Oxford University Press 2014). See WorldCat for librarycopies and BookFinder for copies for sale.Maureen Bonace McMahon, Legislative History in Ohio: Myths and Realities, 46 Clev. St. L. Rev. 49(1998). Available online here.William H. Page, The Construction of Statutes with Citations of Ohio Authorities (W.H. Anderson1937). See WorldCat for library copies.Jery Payne, "The Doctrine of the Last Antecedent," The Legislative Lawyer, May 2014.Available online here.Antonin Scalia and Bryan A. Garner, Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal Texts (West 2012).See WorldCat for library copies and BookFinder for copies for sale.Norman Singer and J.D. Shambie Singer, Sutherland Statutes and Statutory Construction(Thomson Reuters 2014). See WorldCat for library copies.Kathleen M. Trafford, "The importance of legislative history in Supreme Court decisions," OhioLawyer, September/October 2013. Available online here.Daniel Victor, "A Bill, a Lawsuit and One Very Important (Missing) Comma," State LegislaturesMagazine, September 2017. Available online here.7 of 7
Panel Discussion:Various Perspectives on Statutory InterpretationFred NelsonOhio Attorney GeneralRepresentative Robert CuppOhio House of RepresentativesJudge Melody StewartOhio Court of AppealsFred Nelson is the Senior Advisor and Director of Major Litigation for OhioAttorney General Mike DeWine. His prior government service includes work in thefederal government as Majority Counsel for a subcommittee of the U.S. Senate JudiciaryCommittee, as Deputy Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Policy in theReagan Justice Department, as Associate White House Counsel under the first PresidentBush, and as the first Chief of Staff and Legal Counsel for Cincinnati Congressman SteveChabot. Mr. Nelson was elected Judge of the Hamilton County Court of Common Pleasin 2002 and served in that capacity from 2003 – 2009. He was valedictorian of his classat Hamilton College and graduated with honors from Harvard Law School.State Representative Robert R. Cupp currently represents the 4th House Districtof Ohio. He earned his political science and law degrees from Ohio Northern.Representative Cupp has served as an elected official in all three branches ofgovernment and at both the local and state levels: as an Allen County commissioner, afour-term state senator, a court-of-appeals judge, and a justice of the Supreme Court ofOhio. He also served as a city prosecutor, and as Chief Legal Counsel to Ohio Auditor ofState, Dave Yost. In addition to his public service, Representative Cupp engaged in theprivate practice of law in Lima for more than 25 years and has taught courses inleadership studies, judicial process, and state education policy at Ohio NorthernUniversity.Judge Melody Stewart was elected to the Ohio Court of Appeals – EighthAppellate District in 2006 and twice reelected. She has over 30 years of combinedadministrative, legal, and academic experience in a number of private and publicsettings. Judge Stewart earned a Bachelor of Music degree from the CollegeConservatory of Music at the University of Cincinnati; her law degree as a PatriciaRoberts Harris Fellow from the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland StateUniversity; and her Ph.D. as a Mandel Leadership Fellow at Case Western ReserveUniversity’s Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences. She is currently a member of theboard of the Ohio Supreme Court’s Judicial College and is chair of the Ohio Capital CaseAttorney Fee Council.
United States Court of AppealsFor the First CircuitNo. 16-1901KEVIN O'CONNOR; CHRISTOPHER O'CONNOR; JAMES ADAM COX; MICHAELFRASER; ROBERT MCNALLY,Plaintiffs, Appellants,v.OAKHURST DAIRY; DAIRY FARMERS OF AMERICA, INC.,Defendants, Appellees.APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTFOR THE DISTRICT OF MAINE[Hon. Nancy Torresen, Chief U.S. District Judge]BeforeLynch, Lipez, and Barron,Circuit Judges.David G. Webbert, with whom Jeffrey Neil Young, Carol J.Garvan, and Johnson, Webbert, and Young, LLP were on brief, forappellants.David L. Schenberg, with whom Patrick F. Hulla andOgletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak and Stewart, P.C. were on brief,for appellees.March 13, 2017
BARRON, Circuit Judge.this case.For want of a comma, we haveIt arises from a dispute between a Maine dairycompany and its delivery drivers, and it concerns the scope ofan exemption from Maine's overtime law.26 M.R.S.A. § 664(3).Specifically, if that exemption used a serial comma to mark offthe last of the activities that it lists, then the exemptionwould clearly encompass an activity that the drivers perform.And, in that event, the drivers would plainly fall within theexemption and thus outside the overtime law's protection.But,as it happens, there is no serial comma to be found in theexemption's list of activities, thus leading to this disputeover whether the drivers fall within the exemption from theovertime law or not.The District Court concluded that, despite the absentcomma, the Maine legislature unambiguously intended for the lastterm in the exemption's list of activities to identify an exemptactivity in its own right.The District Court thus grantedsummary judgment to the dairy company, as there is no disputethat the drivers do perform that activity.But, we concludethat the exemption's scope is actually not so clear in hestate's wage and hour laws must be construed liberally in ordertoaccomplishtheirremedialpurpose,- 2 -weadoptthedrivers'
narrower reading of the exemption.We therefore reverse thegrant of summary judgment and remand for further proceedings.I.Maine's wage and hour law is set forth in Chapter 7 ofTitle 26 of the Maine Revised Statutes.The Maine overtime lawis part of the state's wage and hour law.The overtime law provides that "[a]n employer may notrequire an employee to work more than 40 hours in any one weekunless 1 1/2 times the regular hourly rate is paid for all hoursactuallyworkedinM.R.S.A. § 664(3).excessof40hoursinthatweek."26The overtime law does not separately definethe term, "employee."Instead, it relies on the definition of"employee" that the Chapter elsewhere sets forth.That definition, which applies to the Chapter as awhole, provides that an "employee" is "any individual employedor permitted to work by an employer," id. at § 663(3). However,the definition expressly excludes a few categories of workerswho are specifically defined not to be "employee[s]," id. at §663(3)(A)-(L).The delivery drivers do not fall within the categoriesof workers excluded from the definition."employees."They thus are plainlyBut some workers who fall within the statutorydefinition of "employee" nonetheless fall outside the protectionof the overtime law due to a series of express exemptions from- 3 -
that law.The exemption to the overtime law that is in disputehere is Exemption F.Exemption F covers employees whose work involves thehandling--inonewayenumerated food y, Exemption F states thatthe protection of the overtime law does not apply g,marketing,storing,packing for shipment or distribution of:(1) Agricultural produce;(2) Meat and fish products; and(3) Perishable foods.26 M.R.S.A. § 664(3)(F).The parties' dispute concerns themeaning of the words "packing for shipment or ination,these words refer to the single activity of "packing," whetherthe "packing" is for "shipment" or for "distribution."Thedrivers further contend that, although they do handle perishablefoods, they do not engage in "packing" them.As a result, thedrivers argue that, as employees who fall outside Exemption F,the Maine overtime law protects efer to two distinct exempt activities, with the first being"packing for shipment" and the second being "distribution."Andbecause the delivery drivers do -- quite obviously -- engage inthe"distribution"ofdairyproducts,- 4 -whichare"perishable
foods," Oakhurst contends that the drivers fall within ExemptionF and thus outside the overtime law's protection.The delivery drivers lost this interpretive disputebelow.They had filed suit against Oakhurst on May 5, 2014 inthe United States District Court for the District of Maine.Thesuit sought unpaid overtime wages under the federal Fair LaborStandards Act, 29 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq., and the Maine overtimelaw,26M.R.S.A.MagistrateJudge,§ s-motionsaforpartial summary judgment to resolve their dispute over the scopeof Exemption F.JudgeruledbetteroneAfter hearings on those motions, the ingofExemptionOakhurst'sFwasmotion.theTheDistrict Court agreed with the Magistrate Judge's recommendationand granted summary judgment for Oakhurst on the ground that"distribution" was a stand-alone exempt activity.21The delivery drivers also made claims based on otherprovisions of Maine wage and hour law.26 M.R.S.A. § 621-A(timely and full payment of wages); id. § 626 (payment of iesprovisions).These claims appear to rise or fall based on thesuccess of the overtime claim, so we do not consider themseparately.2After granting Oakhurst's motion for partial summaryjudgment on the meaning of Exemption F, the District Courtdismissed all of plaintiffs' state la
Reed Dickerson, The Interpretation and Application of Statutes (Little, Brown and Company 1975). See WorldCat for library copies and BookFinder for copies for sale. William N. Eskridge, Jr., Dynamic Statutory Interpretation (Harvard University Press 1994). See WorldCat for library copies and BookFinder for copies for sale.
the history of law. Statutory interpretation itself has a long history. There is nothing new about controversies revolving around the question of how the texts of statutes should be read and applied in contested cases. Interest in statutory interpretation, including its past, is widely shared, and I
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RELEVANT STATUTORY ACCOUNTING AND GAAP GUIDANCE Statutory Accounting 18. As discussed above, current statutory accounting is limited to dealing with specific asset and liability captions included on a company’s statement of financial position. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 19.
an agency’s interpretation controlling deference.21 If the agency’s interpretation is Skidmore eligible, the court will defer if the agency can convince the court that the agency is an expert, that it brought that expertise to bear in reaching its interpretation, and that its interpretation is persuasive.22 If the agency is not
intersystemic statutory interpretation 1901 introduction Here is the puzzle: why do federal courts interpreting state statutes routinely look to U.S. Supreme Court cases for the appropriate principles of
3. Statutory Gender Pay Gap Report 2019 In this section is reported the Statutory Gender Pay Gap, the Gender Pay Gap (Excluding Casual Staff), and a review of Bonus Pay. A positive black number, means that there is a pay gap in favour of men, whereas a negative red number means that there is a pay gap in favour of women. 3.1. Statutory Gender .
Statutory and non-statutory documents applicable to the electrical industry. Do you have any responsibility for the installation, maintenance and/or upkeep of the fixed wiring or portable appliances at work? If so, a time will come if it hasn’t already when you will need to know how to stay on the right side of the law.
and disadvantage, this project draws upon a range of key thinkers to make sense of neoliberalism and gendered neoliberal policies. This theoretical position draws upon the work of Stuart Hall, Stanley Cohen, Jamie Peck and Pat Carlen to critically analyse the narratives of 24 non-statutory service-users, 16 statutory service-users and 7
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interpretation.” The word translated “interpretation” is only found in this verse in the Bible and means “an explanation.” Thus, “private interpretation” means the prophets did not write their own opinions, but
meaning of statutes, the prevailing view is that a judge’s task is not to make the law, but rather to interpret the law made by Congress. The two main theories of statutory interpretation— purposivism and textualism—disagree about how judges can best adhere to this ideal of legislative supremacy.
This interpretation (INT 99-00) includes reference of all FASB EITFs, including those previously included in Appendix B as a statutory accounting interpretation, that were 1) rejected as not applicable to statutory accounting; 2) rejected . Table of Contents v No. Title Page INT 06-02 Accounting and Reporting for Investments in a Certified .
Statutory Interpretation: Theories, Tools, and Trends Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction "No vehicles in the park." For decades, lawyers have debated the proper scope of this hypothetical law.1 The rule at first appears admirably straightforward, but thought experiments applying the law quickly reveal
products, statutory accounting principles came to be regarded as generally accepted accounting principles for mutual and fraternal companies, even though statutory account-ing may not have been entirely consistent with other relevant GAAP guidance that was available on other items such as accounting for investments.
Contract HHSM-500-2015-00246C ; Enhanced Direct Enrollment (EDE) API Companion Guide Version 5.6 August 17, 2020 : CMS FFE Companion Guide ii . Document Control . Author Versio n Rev. date Summary of Changes Section Page Abigail Flock, Alexandra Astarita, Sean Song 1.0 . 1/23/2018 . Initial Version . All . All . Scott Bickle, Alexandra Astarita, Sean Song 2.0 . 3/15/2018 . Incorporated Client .