TECHNICAL REFERENCE TABLE OF CONTENTS - Spray

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TECHNICAL REFERENCETABLE O F CO N TEN T SBasic Nozzle CharacteristicsA2Capacity and Specific GravityA5Spray Performance ConsiderationsA6Pump Selection GuidelinesA7Spray Drop SizeA8Drop Size Terminology and ImpactA9Operating Pressure and Nozzle MaterialsA10Viscosity, Temperature and Surface TensionA11Pressure DropA12Maintenance TipsA14Weights, Measurements and FormulasA15General Safety InstructionsA16A1

TECHNICALREFERENCEBAS IC NOZZL E C HAR AC T E R I ST I C SSpray nozzles are precision components designed to yield very specific performance under specific conditions. To help youdetermine the best nozzle type for your application, the following chart summarizes the performance that each nozzle typeis designed to deliver. Visit youtube.com/sprayingsystems for video demonstrations of spray patterns.The spray pattern images on the right were acquired in our spray laboratories using Laser Sheet Imaging (LSI). LSI images arecollected by passing a laser sheet through a cross-section of the spray plume and imaging with a light-filtered camera. Thedistributions are directly proportional to the surface area distribution of the sprayed material (red: high; blue: low; black: zero).Volume distributions typically are similar to surface area distributions for these nozzles, depending on the local dropsize distributions.LASER SHEET IMAGEFULL CONE NOZZLES U ses a unique internal vane design to producea solid cone-shaped spray patternTypical applications: S pray pattern consists of medium- to large-sized drops Dust suppression Chemical injection Fire protection Metal cooling Washing/rinsingSpray Angle Range:15 to 125 FULL CONE (SPIRAL-TYPE) NOZZLES P roduces a solid cone-shaped spray pattern whenthe fluid exits the voids in the spiralTypical applications: S pray pattern is not as uniform as full cone nozzleswith an internal vane Fire protection Spray pattern consists of relatively coarse drops Dust suppression Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) QuenchingSpray Angle Range:50 to 170 FULL CONE (OVAL SPRAY) NOZZLES U ses a unique internal vane to produce a solidcone-shaped spray pattern with oval impact areawith a width approximately one-half its length Spray pattern consists of medium- to large-sized dropsTypical applications: A ir/gas washing C ooling and quenching D ust control Fire suppressionSpray Angle Range:60 to 105 FULL CONE (SQUARE SPRAY) NOZZLES U ses a unique internal vane to produce a solidcone-shaped spray with square impact areaTypical applications: S pray pattern is uniform across entire spray area Spray pattern consists of medium- to large-sized drops C ooling and quenching A ir/gas washing D ust control Fire suppressionSpray Angle Range:52 to 105 A2spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAY

B AS I C N O Z Z L E C HAR AC T E R I ST I C STECHNICALREFERENCELASER SHEET IMAGEFLAT (EVEN) NOZZLES Provides even distribution of medium-sized dropsthroughout the thin, rectangular spray patternTypical applications: When used on a header, nozzles are positionedfor edge-to-edge pattern contact High-pressure cleaning Descaling Label removalSpray Angle Range:25 to 65 FLAT SPRAY (TAPERED) NOZZLES Produces a tapered-edge flat spray patternTypical applications: Used on spray headers to provide uniform coverageas a result of overlapping distributions Coating Cooling Moisturizing WashingSpray Angle Range:15 to 110 FLAT SPRAY (DEFLECTED-TYPE) NOZZLES Uses a deflector surface to form an even flatspray pattern consisting of medium-sized dropsTypical applications: Large free passage design reduces cloggingthrough the round orifice Washing Showers in papermakingSpray Angle Range:15 to 150 HOLLOW CONE (WHIRLCHAMBER-TYPE) NOZZLES Uses a whirlchamber to rotate the fluidand produce a circular spray patternTypical applications: Ideal for use when a combination of smalldrop size and higher capacity is needed Cooling products on conveyors Air, gas and water cooling Dust control Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Water aerationSpray Angle Range:40 to 165 HOLLOW CONE (DEFLECTED-TYPE) NOZZLES Uses a deflector cap to form anumbrella-shaped hollow cone patternTypical applications: Decorative spray Dust suppression Fire protection Flush cleaning of tube/pipe interiors Water curtainspray.com 1.800.95.SPRAYSpray Angle Range:100 to 180 A3

TECHNICALREFERENCEBAS IC NOZZL E C HAR AC T E R I ST I C SLASER SHEET IMAGEHOLLOW CONE (SPIRAL-TYPE) NOZZLES Produces a circular spray pattern when the fluidexits the voids in the spiralTypical applications: Drops are slightly coarser than those in otherhollow cone sprays Fire protection Provides a high flow rate in a compact nozzle size Dust suppression Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) One-piece design produces maximum throughputfor a given pipe sizeSpray Angle Range50 to 180 SOLID STREAM NOZZLES Produces a solid stream spray with the highestimpact per unit areaTypical applications: C leaning products when completeremoval of dirt and debris is required Decorative spray ponds Laminar flow operationsSpray Angle Range0 ATOMIZING (HYDRAULIC, FINE MIST) NOZZLES Produces a finely atomized, low capacityspray in a hollow cone pattern without useof compressed airTypical applications: Dust suppression Evaporative cooling Moisturizing Spray dryingSpray Angle Range35 to 165 AIR ATOMIZING AND AIR ASSISTED NOZZLES Produces a variety of cone and flat spray patternsthrough atomization of liquid by compressed airTypical applications: Internal mix impingement atomization forms veryfine drops Evaporative cooling Coating Humidification MoisturizingSpray Angle Range18 to 360 A4spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAY

C APAC I TY AN D S P E C I F I C G R AVI TYCAPACITY – FLUID CAPACITY VARIESWITH SPRAYING PRESSURESPECIFIC GRAVITYThe relationship of pressure and flow with a given orifice is:Q Flow Rate (in gpm or lpm)Q 1 (P1 ) nQ 2 (P2 ) nP Liquid pressure (in psi or bar)n F low exponentTo approximate any unknown flow or pressure, use thisformula when the other variables are known. The "n"exponent is used to approximate the ratio of pressureto flow based on the type of spray pattern.Example:To determine the flow rate of water for a 1/4G-10 standard fullcone nozzle at 150 psi or at 10 bar, consult the performancecharts in this catalog.You will find that: The spray angle is 65 Flow (Q1) at 40 psi 1.9 gpm Flow (Q1) at 3 bar 7.5 lpm Pressure (P1) 40 psi Pressure (P1) 3 bar Pressure (P2) 150 psi Pressure (P2) 10 barSolving for Q2 3.5 gpmSolving for Q2 13 lpmQ1(P1 / P2)n All capacity tabulations in this catalog are based on water.Since the specific gravity of a liquid affects its flow rate,tabulated catalog capacities must be multiplied by theconversion factor that applies to the specific gravity ofthe liquid being sprayed as explained below.Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a fluidcompared to the density of water. The specific gravity ofwater is defined as 1. When spraying fluids other than water,specific gravity must be considered in the flow calculations.1SGQ2 Q1(water) x Using the previous example: Fluid sprayed is heavier than water and has a specificgravity of 1.4 Flow of water at 150 psi 3.5 gpm The spray angle is 65 Q2 TECHNICALREFERENCE1.9 gpm(40 / 150).46Q2 Q1(P1 / P2)n 7.5 lpm(3 / 10).46 Heavy fluid (Q2) Q1(water)*1/ 1.4Q2 3.5 gpm * 1 2.95 gpm 1.4 Fluid sprayed is heavier than water and has a specificgravity of 1.4 Flow of water at 10 bar 13 lpm Heavy fluid (Q2) Q1(water)*1/ 1.4Q2 13 lpm * 1 11 lpm 1.4FLOW EXPONENT FOR SPECIFIC NOZZLE TYPESHollow Cone Nozzles – AllFull Cone Nozzles – Vaneless, 15 and 30 SeriesFlat Spray Nozzles – AllSolid Stream Nozzles – AllSpiral Nozzles – AllExponent “n”.50Full Cone Nozzles –Standard, Square, Oval and Large Capacity.46Full Cone Nozzles –Wide Spray and Wide Square Spray.44SPECIFIC GRAVITY VERSUS CONVERSION FACTORCONVERSION FACTORNozzle TypeWATERSPECIFIC GRAVITYVERSUS CONVERSION FACTORSPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUIDVisit spray.com/sprayware for online flow rateand spray coverage calculators.spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAYKEY: Conversion factor multiplied by the capacity of the nozzle whenspraying water gives the capacity of the nozzle when spraying a liquidwith a specific gravity corresponding to the conversion factor. Thisconversion factor accounts only for the effect of specific gravity oncapacity and does not account for other factors affecting capacity.A5

TECHNICALREFERENCESPR AY PER F OR M ANC E C O N S I DE R AT I O N SSPRAY ANGLE AND COVERAGETabulated spray angles indicate approximate spray coveragebased on spray or distribution of water. In actual spraying,the effective spray angle varies with spray distance. Liquidsmore viscous than water form relatively smaller spray angles(or even a solid stream), depending upon viscosity, nozzlecapacity and spraying pressure. Liquids with surface tensionslower than water will produce relatively wider spray anglesthan those listed for water. This table lists the theoreticalcoverage of spray patterns as calculated from the includedspray angle of the spray and the distance from the nozzleorifice. Values are based on the assumption that the sprayangle remains the same throughout the entire spray distance.In actual practice, the tabulated spray angle does not holdfor long spray distances. If the spray coverage requirement iscritical, request data sheets for specific spray coverage data.SPRAYDISTANCESPRAY ANGLETHEORETICAL COVERAGEExample: A spray nozzle with an angle of 65 spraying15" (39 cm) from the target provides19.2" (48.8 cm) of coverageTHEORETICAL SPRAY COVERAGE AT VARIOUS DISTANCES IN INCHES (CM) FROM NOZZLE cm36in.80cm48in.100cm5 10 15 20 25 2.616.921.28.717.526.335.344.330 35 40 45 50 30.334.939.744.853.663.172.882.893.355 60 65 70 75 0 85 90 95 100 716017519180.688.096.0105114168183200218238110 120 130 140 150 –286––––160 170 �Visit spray.com/sprayware for online flow rate and spray coverage calculators.A6spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAY

P U MP S E L E C T I O N G U I DE L I N E STECHNICALREFERENCEPUMPSEvery operation using spray nozzles requires a method toprovide fluid flow. Fluid flow can be provided by gravity, airpressure or mechanical pumps. It is important to understandthat pumping systems provide flow, not pressure. Pressureis the result of restricting flow. The output of an unrestrictedpump is 0 psi (bar). When a restriction is placed in the flow,line pressure will result.HOW PUMP TYPE AFFECTSNOZZLE SELECTIONThe main types of pumps are positive displacementand centrifugal. There are others, but the operationalprinciples are the same as for positive displacementand centrifugal pumps. High pressures usually require a positivedisplacement pumpCentrifugal pumps (velocity pumps)These pumps typically consist of a large vane (impeller)which is turned by a shaft inside a cavity (casing). Thegeometry of the impeller and casing moves the fluid in atangential motion. The fluid gets restricted to a smallervolume and is then discharged into the system piping.These types of pumps typically operate at low pressureand high volume. They may also consist of several stages toincrease the number of pressures available. These pumpshave the unique feature of being able to run while theoutlet is blocked. Since the pumps are velocity based,the impeller will spin in the casing fluid without “deadheading” the system itself. It will produce heat and maycavitate the fluid, but it will not build pressure like positivedisplacement pumps. However, a system bypass andpressure safety valve is still installed in the systemto protect components. Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) pumps may be an option.These pumps allow variable control of speed and flow rates Consider the fluid. Specific gravity will affect pump flowrates just as it affects nozzle flow rates Pump efficiencies, heat, available power, maintenanceand plant conditions should also be consideredPERFORMANCEPRESSURE (FT OR M)A fixed volume of fluid is delivered for every stroke of apiston, or plunger or rotation of a shaft. Examples includepiston pumps, plunger pumps, peristaltic pumps and gearpumps. Positive displacement pumps provide high pressure,and regardless of the system characteristics, will deliver afixed flow every rotation. These pumps must have anunrestricted bypass valve and a pressure relief valve. High flows usually require a centrifugal style pumpCENTRIFUGALPOSITIVEFLOW (GPM OR LPM)FLOW RATES AND FLUIDS10090PERCENTPositive displacement pumpsThe flow rates and pressures required by the systemwill determine the pump choice. There are many styles,sizes and types of pumps available but these generalguidelines should prove RE (PSI OR BAR)spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAYA7

TECHNICALREFERENCESPR AY DR OP S IZESPRAY DROP SIZE (ATOMIZATION)Accurate drop size information is an important factorin optimizing spray nozzle performance, particularly inindustrial applications such as gas cooling, gasconditioning, fire suppression and spray drying.Drop size refers to the size of the individual spray dropsthat comprise a nozzle’s spray pattern. Each spray providesa range of drop sizes; this range is referred to as drop sizedistribution. Drop size distribution is dependent on the spraypattern type and varies significantly from one type to another.The smallest drop sizes are achieved by air atomizing nozzleswhile the largest drops are produced by full cone hydraulicspray nozzles.DROP SIZE BY SPRAY PATTERN TYPEAT VARIOUS PRESSURES AND CAPACITIES10 psi (0.7 bar)SprayPatternTypeCapacityVMD40 psi (2.8 bar)Capacitymicrons gpmlpm100 psi (7 12.19453603400.1024Flat Fan.055.1918.92604300Full Cone.1012.384511404300Capacitymicrons UAL DROP SIZES 500 µm 1200 µm5500 µmOne inch 25,400 µmOne millimeter 1,000 µmµm micrometersLiquid properties, nozzle capacity, spraying pressure and sprayangle also affect drop size. Lower spraying pressures providelarger drop sizes. Conversely, higher spraying pressures yieldsmaller drop sizes. Within each type of spray pattern thesmallest capacities produce the smallest spray drops,and the largest capacities produce the largest spray drops.Based on a sampling of nozzles selected to show the wide rangeof possible drop sizes available.RELATIVE DROP SIZEGeneral drop size categories are used throughout this catalog. Actual drop size will vary based on flow rate and pressure,so for some nozzles, more than one drop size category is shown. If drop size is critical in your application, contact us forspecific information.IN MICRONSFOG10 to 100VERY SMALLA8LIGHT RAIN100 to 500SMALLMODERATE RAIN500 to 1000MEDIUMINTENSE/HEAVY RAIN1000 to 5000LARGEspray.com 1.800.95.SPRAY

TECHNICALREFERENCEDRO P S I Z E T E R MI N O LO G Y AN D I MPAC TDROP SIZE TERMINOLOGYIMPACTTerminology is often a major source of discrepancy andconfusion in understanding drop size. To accurately comparedrop sizes from one nozzle to another, the same diametershave to be used. Drop size is usually expressed in microns(micrometers). Following are the most popular characteristicdiameters and their definitions.Impact, is the measure of force imparted on a surface bya spray pattern at a given distance. It can be expressed inseveral ways. All definitions are derived from the most basicequation of total impact force. This is the force that anyflow, at any pressure, is capable of making on a surface.This does not account for orifice shape, nozzle type, fluidproperties and other factors.DV0.5 : VOLUME MEDIAN DIAMETER (VMD)A means of expressing drop size in terms of the volumeof liquid sprayed. The Volume Median Diameter drop sizewhen measured in terms of volume is a value where 50%of the total volume of liquid sprayed is made up of dropswith diameters larger than the median value and 50% withsmaller diameters.DV0.9 :A value where 90% of the total volume of liquid sprayed ismade up of drops with diameters smaller or equal to thisvalue. This measurement is best suited when completeevaporation of the spray is required.D32 : SAUTER MEAN DIAMETER (SMD)A means of expressing the fineness of a spray in termsof the surface area produced by the spray. The SauterMean Diameter is the diameter of a drop having the samevolume-to-surface area ratio as the total volume of all thedrops to the total surface area of all the drops.I K x Q x PTotal theoretical impact constant (based on units)x flow (at pressure P) x square root of pressure (P)I total theoreticalspray psikg/cm2barMPaNewtons NewtonsK constantQ flow rateP liquid pressureThe constant (K), is a unit conversion based on themeasurement system used. The conversions are listedin the chart above.Example:I .0526 x 3.5 gpm x 150 psiMore drop size data is available on all types of spraynozzles. For more information contact your localSpraying Systems Co. sales engineer.I 2.25 lbs(f) is available for distributionthroughout the patternContact your local sales engineer for assistancein determining impact in your application.spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAYA9

TECHNICALREFERENCEOPER ATING PR ES S UR E AN D N O Z Z L E MAT E R I AL SOPERATING PRESSURENOZZLE WEARThe values given in the tabulation sections of this catalogindicate the most commonly used pressure ranges for theassociated spray nozzle or accessory.Nozzle wear is typically characterized by an increase innozzle capacity, followed by a general deterioration of thespray pattern. Flat fan spray nozzles with elliptical orificesexperience a narrowing of the spray pattern. In other spraypattern types, the distribution within the spray patterndeteriorates without substantially changing the coveragearea. The increase in nozzle capacity can sometimes berecognized by a decrease in system operating pressure,particularly when using positive displacement pumps.Contact your local Spraying Systems Co. sales engineerif your application requires pressure ranges beyondthose stated in this catalog.NOZZLE MATERIALSFor each nozzle there is a selection of “standard” materialsthat have been determined to meet the usual requirementsof the applications most commonly associated with that typeof nozzle. Standard materials include brass, steel, variousstainless steels, hardened stainless steels, many plasticsand various carbides. Spray nozzles can also be suppliedin other materials upon special request including: AMPCO 8 Nylon CARPENTER 20(Alloy 20) Polypropylene,PVC and CPVC Ceramics REFRAX CUPRO NICKEL Silicon carbide Graphite Stellite HASTELLOY Titanium INCONEL Zirconium MONEL Materials having harder surfaces generally provide longerwear life. The chart below provides standard abrasionresistance ratios for different materials to help you determineif you should consider a different material for your nozzles,orifice inserts and/or spray tips.Materials that offer better corrosion resistance are alsoavailable. However, the rate of chemical corrosion onspecific nozzle materials is dependent on the solutionbeing sprayed. The corrosive properties of the liquidbeing sprayed, its percent concentration and temperature,as well as the corrosion resistance of the nozzle materialto the chemical must all be considered.APPROXIMATE ABRASION RESISTANCE RATIOSSpray Nozzle MaterialResistance MONEL2–3Stainless Steel4–6HASTELLOY4–6Hardened Stainless Steel10–15Stellite10–15Silicon Carbide (Nitride nthetic Ruby or Sapphire600–2000See Trademark Registration and Ownership, page i-1.A10spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAY

VIS C OS ITY, TEMP E R AT U R E AN D S U R FAC E T E N S I O NTECHNICALREFERENCEVISCOSITYSURFACE TENSIONAbsolute (dynamic) viscosity is the property of a liquid whichresists change in the shape or arrangement of its elementsduring flow. Liquid viscosity is a primary factor affectingspray pattern formation and, to a lesser degree, capacity.High viscosity liquids – 100 cp or higher – require a higherminimum pressure to begin formation of a spray pattern andprovide narrower spray angles as compared to those of water.The surface of a liquid tends to assume the smallest possiblesize; acting, in this respect, like a membrane under tension.Any portion of the liquid surface exerts a tension uponadjacent portions or upon other objects with which it isin contact. This force is in the plane of the surface and itsamount per unit of length is surface tension. Its value forwater is about 73 dynes per cm at 70 F (21 C). The maineffects of surface tension are on minimum operatingpressure, spray angle and drop size.TEMPERATUREThe property of surface tension is more apparent atlow operating pressures. A higher surface tension reducesthe spray angle, particularly on hollow cone and flat fanspray nozzles. Low surface tensions can allow a nozzleto be operated at a lower pressure.The values given in this catalog are based on sprayingwater at 70 F (21 C). Although liquid temperature changes donot affect the spray performance of a nozzle, they often affectviscosity, surface tension and specific gravity which doinfluence spray nozzle performance.SUMMARY OF SPRAY PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONSThe factors below can affect a spray nozzle’s performance, and the effects can vary based on nozzle type and size. In someapplications, there are interrelated factors which may counteract certain effects. For instance, in the case of a hollow conespray nozzle, increasing the temperature of the liquid decreases the specific gravity, thereby producing a greater flow ratewhile at the same time decreasing the viscosity which reduces the flow.NozzleCharacteristicsIncrease inOperating PressureIncrease inSpecific GravityIncrease inViscosityIncrease inFluid TemperatureIncrease inSurface TensionPattern gibleDrop Spray AngleIncreases then cityIncreasesDecreasesFull/hollow cone –increasesFlat – decreasesDepends on fluid sprayedand nozzle usedNo ds on fluid sprayedand nozzle usedNo effectspray.com 1.800.95.SPRAYA11

TECHNICALREFERENCEPR ES S UR E DROPESTIMATING PRESSURE DROPS THROUGH FLUIDLINE ACCESSORIESThe rated capacities listed in this catalog for valves, strainers and fittings typically correspond to pressure dropsof approximately 5% of their maximum operating pressure.Visit spray.com/sprayware for an online pressure drop calculator. Or contact your local sales engineer.APPROXIMATE FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS IN EQUIVALENT FEET (METERS) OF STRAIGHT PIPEUse the chart below to determine the equivalent length of pipe through fittings to equate the friction loss.Pipe SizeStandard Wt.(in.)Actual Inside Dia.in. (mm)Gate ValveFULL OPENft. (m)Globe ValveFULL OPENft. (m)45 Elbowft. (m)Run ofStandard Teeft. (m)Standard Elbow orRun of Tee Reduced 1/2ft. (m)Standard TeeThrough Side Outletft. (m)1/8.269 (6.8).15 (.05)8.0 (2.4).35 (.11).40 (.12).75 (.23)1.4 (.43)1/4.364 (9.2).20 (.06)11.0 (3.4).50 (.15).65 (.20)1.1 (.34)2.2 (.67)1/2.622 (15.8).35 (.11)18.6 (5.7).78 (.24)1.1 (.34)1.7 (.52)3.3 (1.0)3/4.824 (21).44 (.13)23.1 (7.0).97 (.30)1.4 (.43)2.1 (.64)4.2 (1.3)11.049 (27).56 (.17)29.4 (9.0)1.2 (.37)1.8 (.55)2.6 (.79)5.3 (1.6)1-1/41.380 (35).74 (.23)38.6 (11.8)1.6 (.49)2.3 (.70)3.5 (1.1)7.0 (2.1)1-1/21.610 (41).86 (.26)45.2 (13.8)1.9 (.58)2.7 (.82)4.1 (1.2)8.1 (2.5)22.067 (53)1.1 (.34)58 (17.7)2.4 (.73)3.5 (1.1)5.2 (1.6)10.4 (3.2)2-1/22.469 (63)1.3 (.40)69 (21)2.9 (.88)4.2 (1.3)6.2 (1.9)12.4 (3.8)33.068 (78)1.6 (.49)86 (26)3.6 (1.1)5.2 (1.6)7.7 (2.3)15.5 (4.7)44.026 (102)2.1 (.64)113 (34)4.7 (1.4)6.8 (2.1)10.2 (3.1)20.3 (6.2)55.047 (128)2.7 (.82)142 (43)5.9 (1.8)8.5 (2.6)12.7 (3.9)25.4 (7.7)66.065 (154)3.2 (.98)170 (52)7.1 (2.2)10.2 (3.1)15.3 (4.7)31 (9.4)AIR FLOW (SCFM AND NLPM) THROUGH SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPEAppliedPressurepsigA12Nominal Standard Pipe Size (scfm)1/8" 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" nal Standard Pipe Size (nlpm)1/8" 1/4" 613.02740801352400.314.2 34.0 144641252003700.722.7 48.1 110218310595124518103540566510480201.33.06.613.0 18.535751102153506001.436.8 85.0 213520038564011002.870.8 15534065096017553820566510900 18120 31150603.58.018.034509319529056090016004.199.1 2275109651415 26305520821015860 25485 45305804.7 10.5234465120255380720120021005.5133297650 1245 1840 3400722010760 20390 33980 594651005.8 13.0295480150315470900145026006.9164370820 1530 2265 4250892013310 25485 41060 73625spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAY

TECHNICALREFERENCEP R E S S U R E DR O PFLOW OF WATER THROUGH SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE – PRESSURE DROPPressure Drop in psi for Various Pipe Diameters10 ft. Length PipeFlowgpm 1/8" ¼" 3/8" ½".3.42.4.70 .16.5.6¾"1" 1¼" 1½"2"2½"3" 3½" 4"Pressure Drop in bar for Various Pipe Diameters10 m Length PipeFlow5"6"8"lpm 1/8" ¼" 3/8" ½"1¾"1" 1¼" 1½" 2" 2½" 3" 3½" 4".16 .041.1 .242.26 .061.5 .332.5.40 .08.82.5 .54 .133.56 .12 .031.03.7 .83 .19 .064.96 .21 .05 .021.58.0 1.8 .40 .1262.0 .45 .10 .032.0 13.4 3.0 .66 .21 .0583.5 .74 .17 .05 .012.54.5 1.0 .32 .08101.2 .25 .08 .023.06.4 1.4 .43 .11121.7 .35 .11 .034.011.1 2.4 .74 .18 .06152.6 .54 .17 .04 .015.03.7 1.1 .28 .0820.92 .28 .07 .026.05.2 1.6 .38 .12251.2 .45 .11 .038.09.1 2.8 .66 .20 .05302.1 .62 .15 .04 .01104.2 1.0 .30 .08401.1 .25 .08 .022.2 .64 .16 .0820256"8".071.5155"60.54 .16 .04 .02 .0063.8 1.1 .28 .13 .0480.93 .28 .07 .03 .0091.7 .42 .19 .06100.43 .12 .05 .01302.4 .59 .27 .08115.58 .14 .06 .015353.2 .79 .36 .11 .04130.72 .18 .08 .02 .01401.0 .47 .14 .06150.23 .10 .03 .012451.3 .59 .17 .07170.29 .13 .04 .016501.6 .72 .20 .08190.36 .16 .05 .02602.2 1.0 .29 .12 .04230.50 .23 .07 .03 .009701.4 .38 .16 .05260.32 .09 .04 .01801.8 .50 .20 .07300.38 .11 .04 .02 .007902.2 .62 .25 .09 .04340.50 .14 .06 .02 .0091002.7 .76 .31 .11 .05380.61 .18 .07 .03 .011251.2 .47 .16 .08 .04470.28 .11 .04 .02 .0091501.7 .67 .22 .11 .06570.39 .15 .05 .03 .012002.9 1.2 .39 .19 .10750.64 .26 .09 .04 .02 .007250.59 .28 .15 .05950.14 .06 .03 .01300.84 .40 .21 .071150.19 .09 .05 .02400.70 .37 .12 .051500.16 .08 .03 .01500.57 .18 .071900.13 .04 .02750.39 .16 .04 2800.09 .03 .0091000.68 .27 .07 3800.16 .06 .0220001.0 .26 7500.23 .06Recommended capacity range for each size is shown in shaded areas.For pipe lengths greater than 10 ft. (3 m), the pressure loss is proportional to the length. For 50 ft. (15 m) of pipe, the pressure drop is approximately 5 times the value in the table.spray.com 1.800.95.SPRAYA13

TECHNICALREFERENCEMAINTENANC E TIPSMAINTAINING SPRAY NOZZLESWATCH FOR THESE SIGNS OF NOZZLE WEAR:Like any precision component, spray nozzles wear over time.Spray nozzle wear can be hard to detect. Small changesin performance can result in quality problems and wastedwater, chemicals and electricity. The cost of using wornnozzles can be very significant – tens of thousands of dollarsor more per year. Detecting nozzle wear in the early stagescan prevent a significant profit drain. Quality control issues and increased scrap. Check foruneven coating, cooling, drying or cleaning and changesin temperature, dust content and humidityUSING NOZZLES THAT AR

coverage of spray patterns as calculated from the included spray angle of the spray and the distance from the nozzle orifice. Values are based on the assumption that the spray angle remains the same throughout the entire spray distance. In actual practice, the tabulated spray angle

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table of contents reviewed early. It is proposed that, in the digital environment, " the table of contents needs to be generated automatically to reflect the dynamic feature of "digital books" and online collections. the table of contents needs to provide an overview to contents of the documents it covers; the overview

The table below lists the documents required to assemble an IMDRF ToC-based regulatory submission. Table 1 - List of ToC Reference Documents . IMDRF . In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Market Authorization Table of Contents (IVD MA ToC) [IMDRF/RPS WG/N13] or . IMDRF Non-In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Market Authorization Table of

Table 2-1. Reference flows 2 Table 2-2. System boundaries 3 Table 2-3. TRACI impact assessment descriptions 7 Table 2-4. Other environmental indicators 7 Table 3-1. Key energy datasets used in inventory analysis 11 Table 3-2. Key material and process data sets used in inventory analysis 12 Table 3-3. Isolation gown parameters 17 Table 3-4.