Assembly Analysis Of Piston, Connecting Rod & Crankshaft

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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2013): 4.438Assembly Analysis of Piston, Connecting Rod &CrankshaftL. Karthik Chakravarthy ˡ Dr. P. Srikanth 21Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, VCE, Wgl, TS2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, KITS, Wgl, TSAbstract: The main function of the piston of an IC engine is to receive the impulse from the expanding gas and to transmit the energyto the crankshaft through the connecting rod. The piston must also disperse a large amount of heat from the combustion chamber to thecylinder walls. The aim of this Project is to Model & Assemble the Piston, Connecting Rod & Crankshaft for a 4-stoke air-cooled 150ccEngine by theoretical calculations & also to Compare the Structural Analysis & Modal Analysis on two different materials such as(Aluminum Alloy – Cast iron) for Piston, (Aluminum Alloy – Manganese steel) for Connecting Rod & (Nickel Chromium steel – Highcarbon steel) for Crankshaft. Modeling, Assembly of Piston, Connecting rod and Crankshaft is done in Pro/Engineering software &Analysis is done in ANSYS. Structural analysis is used to determine displacements & stresses under static & buckling loads. ModalAnalysis is used to determine the Vibration characteristics(natural frequencies & mode shapes) of the three components. By comparingthe displacement & stress results, using Cast Iron for Piston, Manganese Steel for Connecting rod and High Carbon Steel forcrankshaft is best combination for assembly.Keywords: Piston, Connecting Rod, Crankshaft, Pro/E, ANSYS, Structural Analysis & Modal Analysis.1. Introductionrod bolts which hold the bearing "cap" onto the big end;typically there is a pinhole bored through the bearing and thebig end of the con rod so that pressurized lubricating motoroil squirts out onto the thrust side of the cylinder wall tolubricate the travel of the pistons and piston rings.Internal combustion engines are seen every day inautomobiles, trucks, and buses. The name internalcombustion refers also to gas turbines except that the nameis usually applied to reciprocating internal combustion (I.C.)engines like the ones found in everyday automobiles. Sparkignition engines take a mixture of fuel and air, compress it,and ignite it using a spark plug. The name reciprocating' isgiven because of the motion that the crank mechanism goesthrough. The piston cylinder engine is basically a crankslider mechanism, where the slider is the piston in this case.The piston is moved up and down by the rotary motion ofthe two arms or links. The crankshaft rotates which makesthe two links rotate. The piston is encapsulated within acombustion chamber. The bore is the diameter of thechamber. The valves on top represent induction and exhaustvalves necessary for the intake of an air-fuel mixture andexhaust of chamber residuals. In a spark ignition engine aspark plug is required to transfer an electrical discharge toignite the mixture.The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, isthe part of an engine which translates reciprocating linearpiston motion into rotation. To convert the reciprocatingmotion into rotation, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or"crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offsetfrom that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of theconnecting rods from each cylinder attach. It typicallyconnects to a flywheel, to reduce the pulsation characteristicof the four-stroke cycle, and sometimes a torsional orvibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsionvibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft bythe cylinders farthest from the output end acting on thetorsional elasticity of the metal.1.1 Piston2. Experimental CalculationsIn every engine, piston plays an important role in workingand producing results. Piston forms a guide and bearing forthe small end of connecting rod and also transmits the forceof explosion in the cylinder, to the crank shaft throughconnecting rod. The piston is the single, most active andvery critical component of the automotive engine.2.1. Engine SpecificationsSuzuki GS150R is a 150cc, 4-stroke air-cooled engine isused for the study on Piston, Connecting Rod & CrankShaft. This delivers robust acceleration performance in thelow to mid range. The engine is specially deigned to fulfillthe conflicting demands of acceleration and fuel efficiency.1.2 Connecting RodxxxxxxxIn a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod connectsthe piston to the crank or crankshaft. The small end attachesto the piston pin, gudgeon pin or wrist pin & big endconnects to the bearing journal on the crank throw, runningon replaceable bearing shells accessible via the connectingPaper ID: SUB1557881.3 CrankshaftType Air-cooled, 4-Stroke,Bore x Stroke (mm) 57.0 x 58.6Displacement (cm3) 149.5Max Power 13.8bhp @ 8,500rpmMax Torque 13.4Nm @ 6,000rpmCompression Ratio 9.35:1Carburetor BS26 with TPSVolume 4 Issue 6, June 2015www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY1803

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2013): 4.438 Ignition CDI Starting Electric & Kick Transmission 5-speed Maximum gas pressure , P 15.454N/mm2 Indicated power IP 11217.05kw Brake power BP 8415.2kw Mechanical efficiency 75% lc length of crankpin 34.38 mm b distance between the bearings 1 & 2 is equal to twicethe piston diameter 2D 2 57 114 mm, i.e. b1 b2 b/2 57 mm3. 2D Drawings3.1 PISTON2.2. PISTON Temperature at the center of piston head Tc 2600c to2900c Temperature at the edge of piston head Te 1850c to2150c Maximum gas pressure p 15.454N/mm2 Bore or outside diameter of piston D 57mm Thickness of piston headth 5.45mmPiston rings pressure of the gas on the cylinder wall 0.042N/mm2 allowable bending(tensile stress) for cast iron rings 110Mpa Radial thickness t1 D Figure 1.1: Piston 2D drawing3.2 Connecting Rod 1.93mmAxial thickness t2 D/10nr 1.9mmnr no of rings 3width of the top land b1 6.54mmdistance between ring grooves,b2 t2 1.9mmTotal length of the pistonL length of the skirt length of ring section top land Length of ring section 5 b2 or t2 9.5mm L 45.6 9.5 6.54 61.64mm2.3 Connecting Rod Length of connecting rod 2times the stroke L 2 58.6 117.2mm Buckling load , Wb (σc . A)/1 a[l/kxx]2 Thickness of flange and web of the section t 3.21mm Width of section B 4t 12.84mm Height of section H 5t 16.05 16mm Area A 11t2 113.3mm Height of the big end (crank end) H2 1.1H to 1.25H H2 20mm Height at the small end (piston end) 0.9H H1 14.4mmFigure 1.2: Connecting rod 2D drawing3.3 Crankshaft2.4 Crankshaft D piston diameter or cylinder bore 57 mmP maximum intensity of pressure on the piston 15.454N/mm2 dc Diameter of crankpin 22.92mm Paper ID: SUB155788Figure 1.3: Crankshaft 2DdrawingVolume 4 Issue 6, June 2015www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY1804

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2013): 4.4383.4 Assembly4.3 Connecting RodFigure 2.3: Connecting rod 3D model4.4 CrankshaftFigure 1.4: Assembly 2D drawing4. DesigningtheModelsPRO/Engineer softwarebyusingPro/ENGINEER Wildfire is the standard in 3D productdesign, featuring industry-leading productivity tools thatpromote best practices in design while ensuring compliancewith your industry and company standards. IntegratedPro/ENGINEER CAD/CAM/CAE solutions allow you todesign faster than ever, while maximizing innovation andquality to ultimately create exceptional products.Figure 2.4: Crankshaft 3Dmodel4.5 Assembly4.1 PistonFigure 2.5: Assembly 3D model5. Results & DiscussionsStructural analysis is Used to determine displacements,stresses, etc. under static loading conditions. ANSYS cancompute both linear and nonlinear static analyses.Nonlinearities can include plasticity, stress stiffening, largedeflection, large strain, hyper elasticity, contact surfaces,and creep. Buckling Analysis is Used to calculate thebuckling loads and determine the buckling mode shape.Both linear (eigen value) buckling and nonlinear bucklinganalyses are possible.Figure 2.1: Piston 3D model4.2 Piston Pin5.1 Structural Analysis for MaterialsMaterial‘E’‘µ’DensityAluminum Alloy 70000 0.33 0.0000026 Kg/Mm3N/mm2Connecting Aluminum Alloy 70000 0.33 0.0000026 Kg/Mm3RodN/mm2CrankNickel2100000.0000077 Kg/Mm32shaftChromium Steel N/mm 0.27PistonFigure 2.2: Piston pin 3D modelPaper ID: SUB155788Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2015www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY1805

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2013): 4.438than a typical static analysis. A reduced solver, utilizingautomatically or manually selected master degrees offreedom is used to drastically reduce the problem size andsolution time.DisplacementFigure 3.1: Imported Model from Pro/EngineerApplying Pressure – 15.454N/mm2Figure 3.4: DisplacementAs per the analysis imagesDisplacement Von Mises Stress(mm)(N/mm2)For MaterialPiston – Cast IronConnecting rod – AluminumAlloy A3600.328559Crankshaft – Nickel ChromiumAlloy SteelFigure 3.2: Applying the Loads303.3965.3 Structural Analysis for Materials:Von Mises StressMaterial„E‟„µ‟Density75000 0.211 0.000007kg/mm3N/mm2Connecting Manganese 210000 0.29 0.000008 kg/mm3RodSteelN/mm2Crank shaft High Carbon 2000000.000007872steelN/mm2 0.295kg/mm3PistonCast IronPressure – 15.454N/mm2Figure 3.3: Nodal Solution5.2 Modal AnalysisModal analysis is typically used to determine the vibrationcharacteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of astructure or a machine component while it is being designed.It can also serve as a starting point for another, moredetailed, dynamic analysis, such as a harmonic response orfull transient dynamic analysis. Modal analyses, while beingone of the most basic dynamic analysis types available inANSYS, can also be more computationally time consumingPaper ID: SUB155788Figure 3.5: Applying the LoadsVolume 4 Issue 6, June 2015www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY1806

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2013): 4.438Von Mises StressReferences[1] Afzal, A., 2004, “Fatigue Behavior and Life predictionof Forged Steel and PM Connecting Rods,” Master‟sThesis, University of Toledo.[2] Athavale, S. and Sajanpawar, P. R., 1991, “Studies onSome Modelling Aspects in the Finite Element Analysisof Small Gasoline Engine Components,” Small EngineTechnology Conference Proceedings, Society ofAutomotive Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, pp. 379-389.[3] Balasubramaniam, B., Svoboda, M., and Bauer, W.,1991, “Structural optimization of I.C. engines subjectedto mechanical and thermal loads,” Computer Methodsin Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 89, pp.337-360.[4] Bhandari, V. B., 1994, “Design of Machine Elements,”Tata McGraw-Hill.[5] Clark, J. P., Field III, F. R., and Nallicheri, N. V., 1989,“Engine state-of-the-art a competitive assessment ofsteel, cost estimates and performance analysis,”Research Report BR 89-1, Automotive ApplicationsCommittee, American Iron and Steel Institute.[6] El-Sayed, M. E. M., and Lund, E. H., 1990, “Structuraloptimization with fatigue life constraints,” EngineeringFracture Mechanics, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 1149-1156.[7] Folgar, F., Wldrig, J. E., and Hunt, J. W., 1987,“Design, Fabrication and Performance of FiberFP/Metal Matrix Composite Connecting Rods,” SAETechnical Paper Series 1987, Paper No. 870406.[8] Ferguson, C. R., 1986, “Internal Combustion Engines,Applied Thermosciences,” John Wiley and Sons, Inc.[9] Goenka, P. K. and Oh, K. P., 1986, “An OptimumConnecting Rod Design Study – A LubricationViewpoint,” Journal of Tribology, Transactions ofASME, July 1986, Vol. 108.Figure 3.6: Nodal Solution5.4 Modal AnalysisDisplacementFigure 3.7: DisplacementAs per the analysis imagesMaterialDisplacement(mm)Piston – Cast IronConnecting rod – Manganese Steel 0.188534Crankshaft – High Carbon SteelVon MisesStress(N/mm2)292.3546. ConclusionIn this project piston, connecting rod and crankshaft aredesigned & assembled the three parts. Modeling andassembly is done in Pro/Engineer. Structural, Modal analysisare done on the assembly. Analysis is done in ANSYS.By performing structural analysis, we get displacement andstress. The stress is within the range of permissible stressvalues. By performing the modal analysis, we can observedifferent mode shapes of the assembly. By observing thestress value, we conclude that our design is safe for workingcondition. By comparing the stress results, using (Cast Ironfor Piston, Manganese Steel for Connecting rod and HighCarbon Steel for crankshaft) is the best combination forassembly.Paper ID: SUB155788Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2015www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY1807

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Temperature at the center of piston head T. c 260. 0. c to 290. 0. c Temperature at the edge of piston head T. e 185. 0. c to 215. 0. c Maximum gas pressure p 15.454N/mm. 2 Bore or outside diameter of piston D 57mm Thickness of piston headt. h 5.45mm. Piston rings

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