West Virginia Pre-K Standards (Ages 3-5)

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West VirginiaPre-K Standards(Ages 3-5)Resource Booklet forUniversal Pre-KBased on WVBE Policy 2520.15Effective July 1, 2019

West Virginia Board of Education2018-2019David G. Perry, PresidentMiller L. Hall, Vice PresidentThomas W. Campbell, CPA, Financial OfficerRobert W. Dunlevy, MemberF. Scott Rotruck, MemberDaniel D. Snavely, M.D., MemberDebra K. Sullivan, MemberNancy J. White, MemberJames S. Wilson, D.D.S., MemberSarah Armstrong Tucker, Ed.D., Ex OfficioChancellorWest Virginia Council for Community and Technical College EducationInterim ChancellorWest Virginia Higher Education Policy CommissionSteven L. Paine, Ed.D., Ex OfficioState Superintendent of SchoolsWest Virginia Department of Education

Table of ContentsForeword.2Introduction .3School ‘Readiness’ in WV: A Formal Definition.4Explanation of Terms.5Numbering of Standards.5Guiding Principles for the WV Pre-K Standards.6Approaches to Learning. 8Social and Emotional Development. 11English Language Arts: Explanation.14English Language Arts Standards .15Mathematics Standards.21Science Standards. 25Health and Physical Development.27The Arts. 30AppendicesA. Standards vs. Curriculum. 32B. Sample Introductory Parent Letter (Grade Pre-K). 33C. English Language Arts Standards Progressions. 34D. Mathematics: Mathematical Habits of Mind . 53Connecting the Mathematical Habits of Mind to theStandards for Mathematical Content. 55E. Mathematical Habits of Mind - Explanation and Examples for Preschool. 56F. Mathematics Standards Progressions. 59G. Developmentally Appropriate Foundations to SupportFormative Assessment Processes.67H. Crosswalk: Early Learning Scale/WV Pre-K Standards/Head Start Outcomes.68Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K1

ForewordDear West Virginia Educators,I am pleased to share the West Virginia Board of Education Policy 2520.15, West Virginia Pre-KStandards (Ages 3-5) for Universal Pre-K. The West Virginia Pre-K Standards are organizedto parallel content in the West Virginia College and Career Standards. The resources in thisbooklet are designed to support those invested in West Virginia’s young children throughexploration of the continuum of learning. It is critical to remember that while these standardsrepresent an alignment with K-12 standards, the West Virginia Pre-K Standards are not a“push-down” of standards. Instead, they are a developmentally appropriate set of standardsfor young children. We know that even our youngest learners must first develop basic skills,understandings, and attitudes toward learning before they can be successful with morerigorous content in later grades.Young children make learning connections through authentic hands-on experiences. Teachersthat allow children time to explore and discover both inside and outside, optimize children’sability to internalize and generalize content by making their own connections to priorknowledge. All children, regardless of age and ability, need opportunities to engage in learningactivities and experiences that are immersed in play.Strong foundations in learning set the stage for future academic and personal achievement.The positive academic impacts of early learning are further enhanced when schools connecthigh quality pre-k with the early and elementary grades. It is my sincere hope that you willutilize the resources found within this document to tailor your instruction to meet the needs ofeach child in your care.In closing, thank you for your dedication to the well-being and education of the pre-k childrenof our great state. I am humbled by the amazing work you do each day to in preparing eachchild in your care to face the challenges of the future.Sincerely,Steven L. Paine, Ed.DWest Virginia Superintendent of Schools2West Virginia Pre-K Standards

IntroductionPolicy 2520.15, West Virginia Pre-K Standards (Ages 3-5)Children benefit from high-quality preschool experiences that are grounded in standardsbased practices. The West Virginia Pre-K Standards provide a framework across all learningdomains. Enriched environments and optimized learning opportunities to support the WestVirginia Pre-K Standards take place in a variety of early learning settings. In March 2002, theWest Virginia legislature passed Senate Bill 247 that became West Virginia Code §18-5-44, amandate for high-quality early education programs for all four-year-old children and threeyear-old children with identified special needs. These early education programs are known asWest Virginia Pre-K. To support the provision of enriched environments for young children, acollaborative group of West Virginia early education professionals developed the West VirginiaPre-K Standards. The standards are designed to serve as early learning guidelines for allchildren ages three through five regardless of the setting.The West Virginia Pre-K Standards are grounded in scientific child development research,children’s approaches to learning, and effective educational practices. Vital to implementingthese standards is the ability to teach using appropriate strategies. Teaching practicesgrounded in the implementation of these standards will create a foundation of lifelonglearning for West Virginia’s children. Young children live in a society where information isconstantly changing and the ability to function well in an increasingly global economy isessential. As a result, it is essential that children develop dispositions and skills which allowthem to become competent, independent learners who utilize the world around them toprogress across all developmental domains. To fulfill this role, teachers of young children mustalso be lifelong learners, continuously building their professional knowledge, and functionalcompetencies based on current research.The West Virginia Pre-K Standards are intended to guide practitioners in offering high-qualityearly education environments and experiences that are responsive to individual children andmaximize learning. Using this framework, educators can plan high-quality learning experiencesfor all children, including those with disabilities. The framework is not designed as anassessment tool, nor should it be used as a way to delay the entry of eligible children intokindergarten.The West Virginia Pre-K Standards are considered an integral part of an inter-relatedcomprehensive curriculum and assessment system as defined by Policy 2525. The WVBE hasthe responsibility for establishing high-quality standards for all education programs (W. Va.Code §18 9A 22). Several foundations frame the design of the West Virginia Pre-K Standardsand describe an approach that promotes lifelong learning competencies.Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K3

School ‘Readiness’ in WV: A Formal DefinitionIn West Virginia, school readiness refers to the process of assuring children have access to thebest available resources prior to entering first grade. Available resources support children andtheir families and focus on maximizing children’s holistic development from birth.Acknowledging that each child’s development is significantly affected by previous experiences,school readiness also entails the capacity of schools and programs to welcome families and beprepared to serve all children effectively within the developmental domains of: health and physical development, social and emotional development, language and communication, cognition and general knowledge, and individual approaches to learning.To support school readiness efforts and assure the use of developmentally effective methodsfor children prior to entering first grade, the Ready, Set, Go! West Virginia ComprehensiveFramework for School Readiness is utilized in West Virginia. This comprehensive frameworkincludes an approach that focuses on how the state and local communities, schools, andprograms can offer support and resources for families and children prior to and during theirtransition into school. Programs serving children in Early Learning Readiness grades (WVPre-K and Kindergarten) also provide opportunities for children to build solid foundations andpositive dispositions to learning.4West Virginia Pre-K Standards

Explanation of TermsDomains are the broad components that make up a content area; e.g., reading, writing,speaking/listening, and language make up the English language arts content area.Clusters are groups of standards that define the expectations students must demonstrate tobe college and career ready.Standards are the expectations for what students should know, understand, and be able to do;standards represent educational goals.Numbering of StandardsThe numbering for each standard is composed of three parts, each part separated by a period: the content area code (e.g., ELA for English language arts), the grade level (Pre-K), and the standard.Illustration: AL.PK.1 refers to Approaches to Learning, grade Pre-K, standard 1.ELA.PK.1 refers to English language arts, grade Pre-K, standard 1.Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K5

Guiding Principles for the WV Pre-K StandardsFoundationsDescriptionRepresentation and symbolicthinking are critical.Children use representation and symbolic thinking across all domainsto develop an understanding of concepts and generalizations fromconcrete to abstract. The ability to pretend and use symbols arefoundations of symbolic and abstract thought, which leads to thedevelopment of academic skills such as math, science, and literacy.The experiences that lead to a child’s ability to think abstractly mustbe embedded in the curriculum through opportunities for activeexploration, pretend play, and symbolic communication. Childrenshould have the opportunity to invent with materials and words.Children are active learners.Children learn through active involvement (exploring, playing,manipulating, and problem solving). They construct their ownknowledge by engaging in experiences in the environment with peersand adults. Adults must use experiences with children to scaffoldprevious knowledge with new concepts. Active learning is a keycomponent of both child-initiated and teacher-facilitated experiences.Development and learning are Learning and development do not simply coexist. The processinterrelated.of learning is directly related to the process of development.Experiences grounded in the WV Pre-K Standards must be integratedand emphasize development and learning.Each child is an individuallearner.Children go through similar stages of development but at individualrates. Not all children within an age group should be expected toarrive at early learning expectations at the same time or with thesame degree of proficiency.Children with special needsare typically best served ininclusive settings.Children with special needs must be offered a least restrictiveenvironment that provides opportunities to develop across domainsthrough interactions with their peers and adults. Attention toindividual variation is critical, specifically regarding the developmentof concepts and proficiencies across domains. Individualizedmodifications and adaptations provide each child with opportunitiesto reach their full potential.English Language Learnersare best served in inclusivesettings.When immersed in an inclusive environment, children who areacquiring the English language are provided opportunities todevelop expressive and receptive language through interactionswith their peers and adults. Attention to individual variation iscritical, specifically regarding their development of concepts andproficiencies across domains. Children should be provided consistentopportunities to interact and demonstrate their abilities, skills, andknowledge in any language, including their home language.Family engagement is criticalto the success of youngchildren.The family is the child’s first and most important teacher. Theyprovide a deep understanding of their child during the first years ofschool. Teachers must establish and maintain ongoing relationshipswith families to best support children’s development and linkagesbetween home and school.6West Virginia Pre-K Standards

FoundationsDescriptionChildren learn by experiencing Children begin their understanding of others by first interactingthe culture and world inwithin their own families, neighborhoods, and schools. Early learningwhich they live.settings and programs must be intentionally designed to providechildren the opportunity to move from self-awareness to awarenessand understanding of others. Using children’s background knowledgeas a catalyst for deepening understanding provides opportunitiesfor children to experience and share various cultural aspects of theworld in which they live. Each child’s home culture and languageare brought into the classroom as part of this shared classroomcommunity. Intentional teaching strategies must focus on acceptanceand respect of all individuals.The environment is the child’s Along with the family and the teacher, high-quality early learningthird teacher.environments provide children with the tools necessary for continualgrowth and development. Learning environments should be designedand equipped in a manner that supports discovery, small group andindividual learning, exploration, problem solving, and development.The learning environment should be designed to help childrendevelop a sense of community. To achieve this, teachers must knowthe children and families well so they can plan intentional ways foreveryone to interact and work collaboratively.School Readiness supportsthe holistic development ofchildren.School readiness is a process of ensuring that children haveaccess to the best available resources prior to entering first grade.Available resources support children and their families, and focus onmaximizing children’s holistic development from birth. Acknowledgingthat each child’s development is significantly impacted by previousexperiences, school readiness also entails the capacity of schoolsand programs to welcome families and be prepared to serve allchildren effectively within the developmental domains of health andphysical development, social and emotional development, languageand communication, cognition and general knowledge, and individualapproaches to learning.The formative assessmentprocess is a foundationalcomponent of all earlylearning programs.The formative assessment process is used to inform instructionand personalize learning. Used daily to assist with planning highquality opportunities for learning and development, this processuses various forms of evidence to help educators scaffold children’slearning to best meet their needs. The formative assessment processalso provides a meaningful approach for communicating individualchildren’s development and learning with families. Formativeassessment data reported to the WV Early Learning Reporting System:Pre-K (WV ELRS: Pre-K) is used to share progress with families and helpensure data driven decisions are made at the local and county levelsto drive continuous quality improvement efforts.Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K7

Approaches to LearningApproaches to Learning refers to observable behaviors that indicate ways children becomeengaged in and respond to social interactions and learning experiences. Children’s approachesto learning contribute to their success in school and influence their development and learningin all other domains. Children’s ability to stay focused, interested, and engaged in activitiessupports a range of positive outcomes, including cognitive, language, and social and emotionaldevelopment. It allows children to acquire new knowledge, learn new skills, and set andachieve goals for themselves. Many early learning experts view approaches to learning as oneof the most important domains of early childhood development.All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates contentstandards, and learning skills. Students in Pre-K will advance through a developmentallyappropriate progression of standards. The following chart represents the components ofApproaches to Learning standards in Pre-K:Executive Functioning and Cognitive SelfRegulation Self-regulationMaintain focusAttend to activitiesComplete challenging taskPersistence and Attentiveness Implement plans and ideas Engage in a product and activity for anextended period of time Purposeful play Show persistence in actions and behaviorInitiative and Curiosity Appropriate risk takingImaginationCreativityBuild on prior experienceInquire and investigateCooperation Collaborative work and playPlay organized by childrenShare knowledge and ideas with peersTake on roles and responsibilities in theclassroomPre-K Specifications:In Pre-K, students should be immersed in a rich environment and have numerousopportunities that foster independence and autonomy in order to meet college and careerreadiness expectations. As familiar adults support development in Approaches to Learning,children illustrate continuous growth in their ability to function appropriately within theclassroom, throughout routines, and during transitions. Children demonstrate positivegrowth in Approaches to Learning when they take on appropriate leadership roles within theirenvironment. They demonstrate increased abilities in expressing needs, feelings, and positivecoping skills. Children also show development in problem solving, independence, and groupwork.8West Virginia Pre-K Standards

Numbering of StandardsThe following Approaches to Learning standards are numbered continuously. The ranges in thechart below relate to the clusters found within the Approaches to Learning domain:Executive Functioning and Cognitive Self-RegulationSustain attention, impulse control, flexibility inthinkingStandards 1-2Initiative and CuriosityInterest in varied topics and experiences, desire to Standards 3-5learn, creativeness, and independence in learningPersistence and AttentivenessEngagement in activities with persistence andattentionStandards 6-10CooperationInterest and engagement in group experiencesStandards 11-13Executive Functioning and Cognitive Self-RegulationClusterSustain attention, impulse control, flexibility in thinkingAL.PK.1Illustrate increasing abilities in impulse control.AL.PK.2Demonstrate actions, words, and behaviors with increasing independence.Initiative and CuriosityClusterInterest in varied topics and experiences, desire to learn, creativeness, andindependence in learningAL.PK.3Demonstrate flexibility, imagination, and inventiveness in approaching tasks andactivities.AL.PK.4Originate and combine ideas to learn and discuss a range of topics.AL.PK.5Inquire and investigate.Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K9

Persistence and AttentivenessClusterEngagement in activities with persistence and attentionAL.PK.6Persist in completing tasks, activities, projects, and experiences.AL.PK.7Increase concentration over a reasonable amount of time despite distractions andinterruptions.AL.PK.8Engage in project or activity over an extended period of time.AL.PK.9Continuously create, develop, and implement plans.AL.PK.10Seek solutions to questions, tasks, or problems through trial and error.CooperationClusterInterest and engagement in group experiencesAL.PK.11Initiate and engage in learning experiences and play with peers.AL.PK.12Relate and share knowledge with peers.AL.PK.13Assemble and guide classroom activities.10West Virginia Pre-K Standards

Social and Emotional DevelopmentPositive social and emotional development provides a critical foundation for lifelongdevelopment and learning. Social and emotional skills are necessary to foster secureattachment with adults and peers, maintain healthy relationships, regulate one’s behaviorand emotions, and develop a healthy concept of personal identity. Developing these skillsthrough active learning helps children navigate new environments, facilitate the developmentof supportive relationships with peers and adults, and support their ability to participate inlearning activities. Essential to this process is the child’s ability to self-regulate and persistin activities when challenged with new experiences. To self-regulate, a child will be able toexpress, recognize, and manage their own emotions as well as respond appropriately to others’emotions. These processes are the primary goals for young children and are incorporated intoall learning standards.All West Virginia teachers are responsible for meeting the needs of all children through aholistic approach. Students in Pre-K will advance through a developmentally appropriateprogression of standards. The following chart represents social and emotional developmentstandards that will be developed in Pre-K:Self-Concept Show confidence in self Express self Exhibit personal responsibilityKnowledge of Family and Community Identify and understand their roles and thatof others within the communitySocial Relationships Develop Positive relationships with children and adults Follow rules and routines Participate in cooperative and group play with guidance from adultsPre-K SpecificationsIn Pre-K, students should be immersed in a supportive environment and have numerousopportunities to develop self-concept, positive social relationships, and knowledge offamily and community roles. Positively navigating through these concepts is foundational inbecoming lifelong learners. Appropriate attachments with adults and peers form foundationsfor learning in all other domains. Learning and development occur simultaneously in all areas.Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K11

Numbering of StandardsThe following standards are numbered continuously. The ranges in the chart below relate tothe clusters found within the Social and Emotional Development domains:Self-ConceptDevelopment of Self-ConceptStandards 1-3Development of Self-Expression and SelfAwarenessStandards 4-6Social RelationshipsDevelopment and Demonstration of Pro-SocialBehaviorsStandards 7-12CooperationStandards 13-18Knowledge of Family and CommunityProgression of Understanding of their Role in theFamily and CommunityStandards 19-23Self-ConceptClusterDevelopment of Self-ConceptSE.PK.1Describe themselves by using physical characteristics/traits (e.g., hair, body parts,and height).SE.PK.2Demonstrate growing confidence in their own developing skills and expresses pridein accomplishments.SE.PK.3Increase independence in a variety of activities, routines, and tasks.ClusterDevelopment of Self-Expression and Self-AwarenessSE.PK.4Demonstrate progress in expressing needs, wants, and feelings.SE.PK.5Express a broad range of emotions and recognize these emotions in self and others.SE.PK.6Respond appropriately to different social situations.12West Virginia Pre-K Standards

Social RelationshipsClusterDevelopment and Demonstration of Pro-Social BehaviorsSE.PK.7Develop positive relationships with children and adults.SE.PK.8Show empathy and caring for others.SE.PK.9Follow basic rules and routines.SE.PK.10Use materials purposefully, safely, and responsibly.SE.PK.11Develop and sustain friendships with peers.SE.PK.12Manage transitions and begin to adapt to changes in routines.ClusterCooperationSE.PK.13Use communication skills to initiate or join classroom activities.SE.PK.14Engage in cooperative play.SE.PK.15Take turns with materials and during experiences.SE.PK.16Use and accept negotiation, compromise, and discussion to resolve conflicts.SE.PK.17Accept guidance and direction from a variety of familiar adults.SE.PK.18Participate in a variety of classroom activities and tasks.Knowledge of Family and CommunityClusterProgression of Understanding of their Role in the Family and CommunitySE.PK.19Understand and describe the interactive roles and relationships among familymembers.SE.PK.20Identify and describe roles of community members.SE.PK.21Understand similarities and respect differences among people (e.g., gender, race,special needs, culture, language, and family structure).SE.PK.22Identify themselves as a member of groups within a community.SE.PK.23Identify and describe locations and places in their community.Resource Booklet for Universal Pre-K13

English Language ArtsExplanation of TermsDomains are the broad components that make up a content area; e.g., reading, writing,speaking/listening, and language make up the English language arts content area.14LanguageStudents will learn and apply the standard rules of written and spoken English whileapproaching language as a matter of craft and informed choice among alternativesto communicate. Students will understand words and phrases, their relationships,and their nuances and acquire new vocabulary, particularly general academic anddomain-specific words and phrases.ReadingThe development of proficient reading skills is critical for mastering academiccontent. Students must show a steadily growing ability to discern more from andmake fuller use of text. This includes making an increasing number of connectionsamong ideas and between texts, considering a wider range of textual evidence andbecoming more sensitive to inconsistencies, ambiguities, and poor reasoning in text.To build the foundations of reading, students will master the essential componentsof reading (i.e., fluency, phonics, word recognition, phonological awareness, andprint concepts). Students will gain exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor isalso infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex textsthrough the grades. Students advancing through the grades areexpected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further developskills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.Speaking/ListeningStudents will be required to communicate ideas clearly and efficiently, includingbut not limited to formal presentation. They will use oral communication andinterpersonal skills as they work together. They will need to be able to express andlisten carefully to ideas, integrate information from oral, visual, quantitative andmedia sources, evaluate what they hear, use media and visual displays strategicallyto help achieve communicative purposes, and adapt speech to context and task.WritingStudents will apply writing skills and strategies to communicate effectively fordifferent purposes using specific writing types. They will use the writing process byappropriately applying the organization of ideas, development of main ideas andsupporting details, varied sentence structure, word choice, and mechanics. Using avariety of literary and informational texts, print sources and media sources, studentswill select, organize, and evaluate for research purposes.West Virginia Pre-K Standards

English Language ArtsEnglish language arts (ELA) refers to language development and the ability to interpretmeaning from written text. Language development refers to emerging abilities in receptive andexpressive language. This domain includes understanding and using one or more languages.Language development is among the most important tasks of the first five years of a child’slife. Language is the key to learning across all domains. Specific language skills in earlychildhood are predictive of later success in learning to read and w

Standards (Ages 3-5) for Universal Pre-K. The West Virginia Pre-K Standards are organized to parallel content in the West Virginia College and Career Standards. The resources in this booklet are designed to support those invested in West Virginia’s

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