2y ago
3.00 MB
127 Pages
Last View : 2m ago
Last Download : 6m ago
Upload by : Aarya Seiber

TRANSISTORCIRCUITSby Allan LytelSchematics and descriptionsof over 100 transistorizedcircuits for r-f and audioapplications.


FIRST EDITIONFIRST PRINTING -FEBRUARY. 1965TRANSISTOR AF AND RF CIRCUITSCopyright (0 1965 by Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indianapolis. Indiana. Printed in the United States of America.Reproduction or use, without express permission, of editorialor pictorial content, in any manner, is prohibited. No patentliability is assumed with respect to the use of the informationcontained herein.Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 65-17354

PREFACEThe use of semiconductors in electronic circuits has. and still is,growing at a rapid rate. Experimenters and hobbyists are continuously looking for transistor circuits to construct.This book is a compilation of many r-f and audio circuits usingtransistors. In each of the five sections of the book, you will findschematics, parts lists, and discussions of operation of many of thecircuits. In addition, an introductory section provides general information on the construction of the circuits and includes a table ofparts manufacturers.Acknowledgment must be given to the following manufacturerswho supplied much of the data from which this book was prepared:Amperex Electronic Corp.; CBS Electronic Division, CBS, Inc.;Delco Radio Div.; Fairchild Semiconductor Corp.; General ElectricCo.; General Motors Corp.; Motorola Semiconductor Products;Nucleonic Products Co., Inc.; Pacific Semiconductor, Inc.; RadioCorporation of America; and Texas Instruments. Inc.ALLAN LYTELJanuary, 1965

CONTENTS7INTR0DUCTio:-;SECTION 1AUDIO-FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS13½-Watt Audio Amplifier-1/2-Watt Audio-Frequency Amplifier¾-Watt Amplifier-I-Watt Phonograph Amplifier-I-Watt AudioAmplifier-1.3-Watt Amplifier-2-Watt Audio Amplifier-1.7-WattAmplifier-2-Watt Audio Amplifier-2.S-Watt Audio Amplifier2.S-Watt Audio Amplifier-2.S-Watt Audio Amplifier-2.S-WattAudio Amplifier-6-Watt High-Fidelity Audio Amplifier--50-WattAudio Amplifier-Audio-Output Stage-Audio Power AmplifierLow-Distortion Power Amplifier-Phonograph Amplifier-IS-WattStereo Amplifier-Multi-input Preamplifier-Preamplifier-S-WattPhono Amplifier-IO-Watt Class-B AmplifierSECTION 2Oscn.LATORS, CONVERTERS, MIXERS38Code-Practice Oscillator-70-MC Power Oscillator-70-MC Colpitts Oscillator-70-MC Hartley Oscillator-27-MC Crystal Oscillator-100-KC Crystal-Controlled Oscillator-2-Mctcr Converter2SO-MC Oscillator-4SO MC-to-lOS MC Converter-SO-MC Converter-30-to-S.S-MC Mixer-76-MC Crystal Oscillator-500-MCOscillator Circuit-250 MC-to-60 MC Converter-80-6 Meter Converter-450 MC-to-IOS MC Converter-Code-Practice OscillatorsSECTION 3TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS .240-MC 8-Watt Transmitter-160-MC C-W Transmitter-170-MCTransmitter-120-MC Aircraft Transmitter-27-MC CB Transmitter-C-W Transmitter-20-Watt Marine Transmitter-Superregenerative 27-MC Receiver-30-MC Single-Sideband Transmitter-58

40-Watt Marine Transmitter-A-M Tuner-ISO-MC F-M Transmitter-F-M Wireless Transmitter-27-MC Citizens Band Transmitter-F-M Tuner-I-Watt 27-MC Transmitter-Ultralow-Powered Transmitters-76-MC 2-Watt Transmitter-240-MC 0.5-WattTransmitter-5-Watt Citizens Band Transmitter-20-Watt MarineTransmitter-I-Watt Citizens Band Transmitter-Citizens BandTransceiver-76-MC IO-Watt Transmitter-27-MC TransmitterSuperregenerative 130-MC Receiver-27-MC Remote-ControlTransmitter-Superregenerative 27-MC ReceiverSECTION 4MODULATORS AND1-FAMPLIFIERS .96Mobile Modulator-25-Watt Modulator-60-MC 1-F Amplifier25-Watt Modulator-100-Watt Modulator-I2.5-MC 1-F Amplifier-5.5-MC 1-F Amplifier-JO-MC 1-F AmplifierSECTION 5MISCELLANEOUS CIRCUITSSignaling System-Mobile Public-Address System-5-Watt 150-MCAmplifier-Squelch Amplifier-I60-MC Power Amplifier-Automobile Tum-Signal Minder-C-W Monitor-I60-MC AmplifierMetronome Circuits-100-MC Amplifier-Low-Level O-C Amplifier-Varactor Tripler Circuit-Wide-Band Amplifier-50-MC Amplifier-50-KC Amplifier-IO-MC Video Amplifier-Speech Clipper-450-MC R-F Amplifier-160-MC Driver-Final-100-KC CrystalStandards-JO-MC Amplifier106

INTRODUCTIONThis book is designed primarily for the electronics experimenter;it covers radio receivers and audio amplifiers. In general, the powersupplies are not included, since various types can be used and theseare covered in another book.All of the circuits discussed have been built and tested; some usenoncommercial or nonstandard parts. Where this is the case, the parthas been described as completely as possible so that it can be madeor obtained by the builder. Because the field of transistors is growingrapidly and because new devices as well as new and different designations for old devices are appearing constantly, it is possible for youto substitute parts and still have a working unit.Usually, the resistors, capacitors, and inductors that are used as apart of the circuit should be as close as possible to the given values.For example, wattage ratings given for resistors, are for conditionsof normal ventilation. There are some deviations, of course, that canbe made, such as using larger or smaller capacitors than specified ina filter circuit. But, if an electrolytic capacitor has a higher voltagethan specified, it may not properly "form" at the circuit workingvoltage. In most cases it is good practice to at least build the circuitas it was originally built and tested before an experimentation or partssubstitution is made.These circuits have been contributed to the book by semiconductormanufacturers, and in some cases the semiconductors ·carry a "housenumber," which is an unregistered number used for a developmentaltransistor. In every case these transistors are available, either underthe number as given in the book, or perhaps under a registered number where the manufacturer has gone into large-scale commercialproduction.Lead dress and care in construction is critical, particularly in thehigh frequency, or front, end of these receivers. The construction ofmany of these circuits requires a considerable amount of experienceon the part of the experimenter. This is necessarily true for bothreceivers and transmitters, but it is not quite as necessary for audioamplifiers, since the lead dress and placing of parts is not usually ascritical as it is in radio-frequency circuits.7

Because circuit layouts will in most cases vary with the requirements, no specific mechanical details are normally given for the partslayouts. Where these details are given, it is because they are particularly important to the circuit being discussed. Circuit performancedepends on the quality of the components selected as well as the careused in the layout and construction of the circuit. To obtain the bestsignal reproduction from receivers and amplifiers, quality speakers,transformers, chokes, and transducers (microphones and phonographpickups) must be used.Parts for the receiver circuits may be obtained by specifying therequired characteristics of the desired components. When orderingr-f coils, the circuit location (antenna or interstage), tuning range,and tuning capacitance should be given. For i-f coils or transformers,the intermediate frequency, circuit location (first if, second if, etc.),and possibly the transistor used with the coil should be specified. Foroscillator coils, the receiver tuning range, intermediate frequency,type of converter transistor, and type of winding (tapped or transformer-coupled) should be known and included in the data given tothe supplier.Table 1 gives a list of the manufacturers who make the indicatedcomponents.POWER TRANSISTORSPower transistors require special considerations; they are veryrugged devices and can undergo considerable rough treatment, al 3.0003.125 A··1.080(7269634)Courtesy Delco Radio Div., General Motors Corp.Fig. A. Delco 7281361 heat sink.8

Table 1. Component Manufacturers2Tuner assembliesXTransformer coresTransformers-i-f, r-f, and r-f chokesTransformers-audio and powerX1. Automatic Electric Sales Corp.400 N. Wolf RoadNorthlake, Ill.2. Arnold Magnetics Corp.6050 West Jefferson Blvd.Los Angeles, Calif.3. Better Coil and Transformer Corp.Goodland, Ind.4. Columbus Process Co., Inc.Columbus, Ind.5. Indiana General Corp.Crows Mill RoadKeasby, N. J.6. General Instrument Co.Automatic Manufacturing Division65 Governeur StreetNewark, N. J.' 34567a910111213XXXXXX15161718XXXXX14XXX7. P. R. Mallory and Co., Inc.3029 East Washington St.Indianapolis, Ind.8. Magnetic Metals Co.Hayes Avenue at 21st StreetCamden, N. J.9. Microtran Co., Inc.145 East Mineola AvenueValley Stream, N. Y.10. Mid-West Coil and Transformer Co.1642 N. HalsteadChicago, 111.11. J. W. Miller Co.5917 South Main StreetLos Angeles, Calif.12. Stancor Electronics, Inc.3501 West Addison StreetChicago, Ill.XXXXXXXXX13. Triad Transformer Corp.4055 Redwood AvenueVenice, Calif.14. TRW Electronic Components, Div.Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge, Inc.Davis and Copewood StreetsCamden, N. J. 0810315. Thordarson Meissner, Inc.7th and BellmontMt. Carmel, Ill.16. United Transformer Corp.150 Varick StreetNew York, N. Y.17. Workman TV Products, Inc.Box 5397Sarasota, Florida18. Merit Coil & Transformer Corp.2040 Sherman StreetHollywood, FloridaXXX

though unnecessary mechanical shock is to be avoided. It is importantto avoid extreme shock or excessive bending or twisting of the powertransistor leads when they are being used. When operated withintheir normal ratings, power transistors provide a long and usefullife. But, even small excessive voltage or excessive power demandsmay possibly destroy the transistor instantaneously.When you are building or experimenting with new circuits, it isimportant to take certain precautions. Before applying power to acircuit, the polarity of the power-supply voltage should be checkedand then rechecked. A voltage of incorrect polarity applied to acircuit can damage the transistors as well as any electrolytic capacitorsDELCO TRANSISTOR MOUNTING KIT NO. 7274633---DELCO HI-POWER TRANSISTORMICA INSULATOR1-1/8SQ. X .001 TO .002 THK. INSULATING BUSHINGS.,--, -,;a::;;,, TE - CK .USE TWO FOR MATERIAL OF1/4" OR GREATER THICKNESS.COPPER OR ALUMINUM HEAT SINKOR CHASSISMICA INSULATORMETAL WASHERSOLDER LUG1 10-32 HEX. NUTDELCO TRANSISTOR MOUNTING KIT NO. 7274775MICA INSULATORCOPPER OR ALUM!- HEAT SINKOR CHASSISINSULATING BUSHING (2). .:. -----LOCKWASHERCourtesy Delco Radio Div., General Motors Corp.Fig. 8. Mounting transistors on heat sink.10

that are used in the circuit. After a new circuit is built and is beingtested, the voltage should be applied in easy stages, beginning with avalue below normal. Check the basic wiring to see if the circuit operation is correct. It is important to be very careful of high-voltagesurges at all times. If the 12-volt electronic power supply that youare using is unregulated, it is possible to load this power supply witha storage battery in order to stabilize the voltage. If the circuit appearsto be operating properly, the collector current in the power transistorstages should be measured, and the bias adjusted if necessary.Temperature extremes can be damaging to a transistor. Powertransistors should usually be mounted on a heat sink or radiator.Where the collector is above ground potential, the sink should beinsulated from the chassis; if possible, bolt the transistor to the chassiswith insulated bolts and use a washer between the transistor andchassis.Excessive heat is an enemy of power transistors. Since heat increases the collector cutoff current thus reducing the power output,further heat is then developed; it is possible that thermal runawaymay result. A circuit can be stabilized by using a thermistor or temperature-sensitive resistor in the base circuit so that an increase in(721N34lCourtesy Delco Radio Div., General Motors Corp.Fig. C. Delco 7281366 heat sink.11

temperature decreases the base-to-emitter voltage and stabilizes thecollector cutoff current.Transistor heat sinks are necessary in many power-transistor applications. Fig. A shows the Delco 7281361 heat sink made of extrudedaluminum. This has a nominal weight of 8 ounces and a surface areaof about 110 square inches. The mounting of two different types oftransistors in this heat sink is shown in Fig. B. The use of thesemounting kits allows the insulated mounting of transistors to thisheat sink.The effectiveness of a particular heat sink depends on the contactinterface between the transistor and the heat-sink surface. It is necessary that the most intimate contact be made for heat transfer, andthe effectiveness of this contact depends on the meeting of the surfacesand the pressure holding them together. The use of a grease or oil isuseful in minimizing the effect of any surface irregularity where thetwo surfaces meet. A suggested type is silicone oil, type 200 (DowComing Corp., Midland, Michigan).A different type of heat sink (Delco type 7281366) is shown inFig. C. This type of heat sink has an insulated spacer which is usedto insulate the entire heat sink from the chassis. The transistor can bemounted directly to the heat sink rather than using a mica insulatorwhich insulates the transistor from the chassis but does not act as aneffective heat contact. Nominal weight is 10 ounces, and there is asurface area of 165 square inches.12

Section 1AUDIO-FREQUENCYAMPLIFIERS½-WATT AUDIO AMPLIFIERThis circuit shows a simple three-stage audio amplifier of a typethat can be used in an intercom where the speaker is also used asa microphone. The amplifier has a maximum power output of 0.5watt, with a 5 % distortion at 0.4 watt. The drive requirement for thiscircuit is 5 mv at 0.4 watt, and the frequency response is from 140cycles to 2 kc at 0.25 watt.INPUTCourtesy Delco Radio Div., General Motors Corp.½-watt amplifier.13

½-WAff AUDIO-FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERThe amplifier uses five transistors and a 9-volt source to produce0.5 watt of audio power. No transformers are used; the frequencyresponse is essentially flat from 95 cycles to 16 kc, and the powergain at 1 kc is 86 db.There is a 45-ma standby current with zero signal, and for maximum power output an input signal of 1.6 mv is required with a distortion of 10% at I kc; the input current needed from the battery toprovide maximum power output is 90 ma. There is 2 % distortionat 1 kc with an output of 50 mw; the circuit input impedance is 24K.Cz.I.INPUT-,c,9VQ,-SFT 33702-SFT 353Oi-SFT 325Q4-SFT 325Os-SFT 325C1 -5 mfd, 6V electrolyticC2 -100 mfd, 12V electrolyticC3 -25 mfd, 6V electrolyticC4 -500 mfd, 3V electrolyticC1 -50 mfd, 6V electrolyticC6 -50 mfd, 6V electrolyticC7 -1000 mfd, 6V electrolyticR1 -560K, ½ watt 10%R2-2.2K, ½ watt 10% Ri-5,6K, ½ watt 10%R4-lK, ½ watt 10%Rs-820 ohm, ½ watt 10%R6 -820 ohm,½ watt 10%R,-100 ohm,½ watt 10%R1 -100 ohm, '12 watt 10%R9-lOO ohm, 112 watt 10%R10-1.5K, ½ watt 10%R11-82 ohm,½ watt 10%R12 -1.5K, ½ watt 10%R13 -82 ohm, ½ watt 10%R14-1 ohm,½ watt 10%R11 -1 ohm,½ watt 10%Speaker-20 ohms impedanceCourtesy Nucleonic Products Co.½ watt audio-frequency amplifler.14

¾-WATT AUDIO AMPLIFIERThis four-transistor amplifier provides a 0.75-watt output and usesa 9-volt source which is split into two 4.5-volt sources as shown.The frequency response is from 100 cycles to 8 kc, with a maximumpower gain of 77 db at 1 kc.The standby current with no signal input is 17 ma, and the inputcurrent to provide maximum power output at 1 kc is 120 ma; there isa 10% distortion at this maximum power output. The input impedance to this amplifier is SK.Z l21l.IIIIII-- - - -'!:JQ,-SFT 353Q2-SFT 353R11 -1.5K, '12 watt 10%Ru-12O ohm, ½ watt 5%Q3-SFT 325R14-1.5K, ½ watt 10%Q4-SFT 325R15 -12O ohm, '12 watt 5%R,-22K, ½ watt 10%Ru-13O ohm, Type A/T, -20% thermis R2-12OK, ½ watt 10%torR3-lK, 112 watt 10%R16-13O ohm, Type A/T, -20% thermis R4-47 ohm,½ watt 10%torRs-6.BK, ½ watt 10%C1-2 mfd, 6V electrolyticR.-6.BK, ½ watt 10%C2-25 mfd, 6V electrolyticR7 -1 OK, ½ watt 10%(3-10 mfd, 6V electrolyticR8 -47O ohm, ½ watt 10%C4-5O mfd, 12V electrolyticR9-150 ohm,½ watt 10%Cs-5O mfd, 6V electrolyticR10 -39K, ½ watt 10%C6-500 mfd, ceramic capacitorTl-Type MH2O89 driver transformerCourtesy Nucleonic Products Co.1/4 w H audio amplifler.15

1-WATI PHONOGRAPH AMPLIFIERThis circuit shows a complete 1-watt phonograph amplifier usingtwo type TI417 transistors, and one type SC727 power transistor.A single diode is used to provide half-wave rectification, and therectified voltage is applied to all three transistors. A bass and treblecontrol, as well as a volume control, are used in the circuit. The output transformer should have a 720-ohm primary to match the voicecoil impedance of the speaker.2.2 k6U212820 k100180k117v :pf16.8k' '150vTreb,.0021,1fCourtesy Texas Instruments Inc.1-watt phonograph amplifier.1-WATI AUDIO AMPLIFIERThis is a four-transistor 1-watt audio amplifier with a frequencyresponse from 75 cycles to 15 kc and a maximum power output of1.4 watts. The power supply voltage is 12 volts, and the standbycurrent for zero signal input is 20 ma. The power gain at 1 kc is78 db. With a 10-mv input and an input current of 16 ma at 1 kc,the distortion is 4 % with maximum power output. There is 2 % distortion at 1 kc with a power output of 250 mw. The transformers areavailable from Nucleonics Products Co., Los Angeles, California.R2-68K, ½ watt 10%Q 1 -SFT 337R3-68K, ½ watt 10%Q2-SFT 353R4 -4.7K, ½ watt 10%Q3-SFT 325Rs-47 ohms, ½ watt 10%Q4-SFT 325C1 -5 mfd, 9V electrolyticR6 -1.8K, ½ watt 10%R7 -1 OK, ½ watt 10%C2-1000 pf, 12V ceramicRa-lOK, ½ watt 10%C3-lO,OOO pf, 12V ceramicR9 -1.2K, ½ watt 10%C4-25 mfd, 6V electrolyticR,o-56K, ½ watt 10%Cs-10 mfd, 9V electrolyticR11 -560 ohms, ½ watt I 0%C6 -250 mfd, 12V electrolyticR12*-5.6K, ½ watt 10%C 5 mfd, 6V electrolyticP1-22K, 1/,4 watt linearRu-39 ohms, '12 watt 10%P2- l OOK, 1/,4 watt logarithmicR14-IOK, 112 watt 10%TH,-47 ohms@ 25 C a:-3.6%/ CR11-IOK, ½ watt 10%R1 -2.2K, ½ watt 10%R16-3.3 ohms, '12 watt I 0%*R 12 is adjusted to obtain the indicated value for open base voltage. 16

C:., . '.,.-----lln- t-41nllll""1.-.0. t"' :: iJ. t., .,. ,.u (J."'.0-. u .,,.0."'- o"' ,. IQ."; u. .,. uNiiuCourtesy Nucleonic Products Co.1-watt audio amplifier.17

1.3-WATT AMPLIFIERThis is a three-transistor amplifier using an 18-volt battery supplyto produce 1.3 watts of audio power. The frequency response of theamplifier is from 200 cycles to 20 kc, and the power gain at 1 kcis 67 db. The standby current with zero signal input is 15 ma, andthe input current at maximum power output is 110 ma. Distortionat 1 kc is 3% with a 375-mw output. The transformer is a specialtype available from the manufacturer, Nucleonics Products Company,Los Angeles, California.:sonSPKR.---- --- - ---- - ------ ,. IBV Q,-SFT 353Q2-SFT 325Qs-SFT 325C1 -50 mfd, 50V electrolyticC2-100 mfd, 50V electrolyticC5 -300 mfd, 12V electrolyticTH,-50 ohms @ 25 CTH2-50 ohms@ 25 CR,-1.5K, ½ watt 10%R2-22K, ½ watt 10%R5 -180 ohms,½ watt 10%R,-33 ohms,½ watt 10%Rs-1.2K, ½ watt 10%R6 -33 ohms,½ watt 10%R7 -1.2K, ½ watt 10%R1 -2.2 ohms, ½ watt 10%R.-2.2 ohms,½ watt 10%Courtesy Nucleonic Products Co.1.3-watt amplifier.2-WATT AUDIO AMPLIFIERThis circuit shows a 2-watt audio amplifier using special Amperextransistors types 2N2429, 2N2428, and 2N243 l. It consists of apreamplifier stage using a 2N2429, feeding a driver stage using a2N2428, and two transistors type 2N2431 in the output stage.This output stage is class B push-pull, using a common emitter resistor (R14) and a negative temperature coefficient resistor (RlO)to provide thermal stability. The amplifier operates from a 9-voltsupply and can deliver 2 watts at 10% distortion, or 1.55 watts at4% distortion. Frequency response for this amplifier is flat within3 db from 60 cycles to 19 kc.18

A Ferro:iwube Part No. R201AC/ AllOSColliurna ofCoppe,EnamelBA8

MODULATORS AND 1-F AMPLIFIERS . Mobile Modulator-25-Watt Modulator-60-MC 1-F Amplifier-25-Watt Modulator-100-Watt Modulator-I2.5-MC 1-F Amplifier -5.5-MC 1-F Amplifier-JO-MC 1-F Amplifier SECTION 5 MISCELLANEOUS CIRCUITS Signaling System-Mobile Public-Address System-5-Watt 150-MC Amplifier-Squelch Amplifier-I60-MC Power Amplifier-Auto

Related Documents:

Go to: 1 - 100 Transistor Circuits Go to: 101 - 200 Transistor Circuits Go to: 100 IC Circuits To learn about the development and history of the 555, go to these links: . But you can see the circuits are mine by the

Aug 01, 2018 · Basically there are two types of transistor: PNP and NPN. We have labelled the NPN transistor as BC547. This means you can use ANY NPN transistor, such as 2N2222, BC108, 2N3704, BC337 and hundreds of others. Some circuits use TUN for Transistor Universal NPN and this is the same as ou

Transistor Amplifier Circuits Unit 1 – Introduction to Transistor Amplifiers 2 NEW TERMS AND WORDS Multistage - an amplifier circuit that uses more than one active component (transistor). active component - a circuit component that controls gain or directs current flow. gain - the amount by which an amplifier

Contemporary Electric Circuits, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, 2008 Class Notes Ch. 9 Page 1 Strangeway, Petersen, Gassert, and Lokken CHAPTER 9 Series–Parallel Analysis of AC Circuits Chapter Outline 9.1 AC Series Circuits 9.2 AC Parallel Circuits 9.3 AC Series–Parallel Circuits 9.4 Analysis of Multiple-Source AC Circuits Using Superposition 9.1 AC SERIES CIRCUITS

Bit comparator system in which 1-Bit full adder and 1-Transistor AND gate are present. The 1-Bit full adder is constructed using 8-Transistor with capacitor to decrease the delay, power dissipation, no of transistor's, circuit complexity and average power consumption. Keywords— comparator ,no of transistor

Circuits, Devices, Networks, and Microelectronics 217 CHAPTER 10. TRANSISTORS and TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS: 10.1 INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTORS The transistor is a component of the form of a ’transfer-resistance’ or ’

be considered a "cookbook of transistor circuits"-a master workbook of "umptey nine" handy, uncomplicated circuits as a reference guide around the ham shack, in the house, in conjunction with CB'ing, hi-fi'ing, and general experimenting. Alas, no such volume seemed to be available. Ne

tn,1 the transistor is in the o or cuto mode, since no channel is formed and no current can ow. When v GS V tn or v GS V tn v OV, the transistor is in the on mode, and the i D-v DS curve is as shown. The transistor can be either in the triode region or saturation region. The transistor i