Timeout For Fast Fashion - Greenpeace

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Timeout for fast fashionG

The rise of fast fashionSales of clothing have nearlydoubled from 1 Trillion Dollarsin 2002 to 1.8 trillion dollarsin 2015, projected to rise to 2.1 trillion by 2025Timeout for fast fashionClothing production doubledfrom 2000 to 2014The number of garmentsexceeded 100 billion by 2014The rise in the production andconsumption of fast fashionThe average person buys60 percent more items ofclothing and keeps them forabout half as long as 15 yearsagoFast, cheap fashion has changed the way we dress; ithas also changed the way we think about clothes andwhat we do with them. We buy more clothes thanever before, we wear them fewer times - sometimesthey are not worn at all - and while our wardrobes arecluttered with rarely used clothes, we are also treatingclothes as disposable items. Fashion has become anovelty and the commercialisation and marketing offashion is leading to overconsumption and materialism- keeping our clothes and cherishing them is not infashion any more.Global trade in used clothesreaches 4.3 million tonnes,many are unlikely to be wornagain.Since 2000 there has beenan “explosive expansion” infast fashion, led by the brandsH&M and ZaraFashion retailers have been speeding up the turnaroundof fashion trends since the 1980’s, increasing the ratethat we use and throw away clothes – the life cycles ofconsumer products shortened by 50% between 1992and 2002.1 But today’s fast fashion phenomenon reallystarted at the turn of the century, with an even quickerturnaround of new styles achieved by brands likeZara and H&M, which have both shown an “explosiveexpansion” since 2000 to become the largest clothesretailers in the world.2 The “fast fashion” promoted bythese and other brands leads to increased consumptionof all clothes, including budget and basic items.3Rising sales, rising volumesThe volume of clothes being consumed is increasingthe impact of the textiles industry - already one of the1995200020152025biggest polluters. People in developed countries todayown many more items of clothing than they can actuallywear and with China and India following this dangeroustrend, the absolute quantities of clothing consumedcould rise even further.While in 2002 sales of clothing were worth 1 trillion,this has risen to 1.8 trillion by 2015 – and is forecastto rise further to 2.1 trillion by 2025.4 This representshuge volumes of material - clothing production doubledfrom 2000 to 2014. The average person buys 60percent more items of clothing and keeps them forabout half as long as 15 years ago.5 It’s not surprisingthat this overconsumption is spread unevenly across theworld; the average person in North America bought 16kg of new clothes in 2014 – the equivalent of 64 T-shirtsor 16 pairs of jeans6 – compared to only 2 kg per personin the Middle East/Africa.7 People in China are alreadyconsuming 6.5 kg per person – above the global averageof 5 kg/person – which could increase to anywherebetween 11 and 16 kg per person by 2030.8 Even if theamounts per person remain the same, increases in thepopulation of countries such as China and India meanthat the absolute quantities of clothing will continue torise.The fast fashion trend is amplified by the faster growthin sales of clothing online, which in the US is expected togrow at a rate of 17.2% in 2016 - 17.9 China overtook theUSA as the world’s largest digital market in 2014, withfashion the biggest e-commerce category.10 The easeof shopping online for clothes is likely to increase thenumber of purchases made and fuel the turnover of fastfashion.1102

Fast fashion: From dirty production, to trends, to trashCoal powered power stationsproviding energy for textileand garment manufacturingClothes factoriesmaking garmentsFinished clothes packedand ready to ship to fastfashion shopsContainer shipsexport clothes tofast fashion shopsUsed clothes beingprocessed for shipmentBales of used clothingFast fashion StoresExtraction and refining of oil formanufacture of synthetic fibresGrowing of cotton,using large amounts offertilizers and pesticidesTextile factories - spinningfibres and making fabrics,using large amounts of energyand chemicalsEnvironmental concerns - why detoxingtextiles is crucial but not enoughOur consumption of fast fashion is pushing atthe boundaries of the Earth’s capacity to absorbgreenhouse gases, hazardous chemicals and clotheswaste as well as depleting resources such as water andland. On any level, this cannot be sustained.“Fast fashion is now a large, sophisticated business fedby a fragmented and relatively low-tech productionsystem. This system has outsize environmental effects:making clothes typically requires using a lot of waterand chemicals and emitting significant amounts ofgreenhouse gases. Reports also continue to emergeabout clothing-factory workers being underpaid andexposed to unsafe—even deadly—workplace conditions ”1203Intensive use ofhazardous chemicalscausing irreversiblepollutionTextile pollution in waterwaysfrom manufacturing and thegrowing of cottonTo compete in the ongoing race to make and sellclothes that are ever cheaper, the textile industryhas relocated to countries with low labour costsand inadequate regulations. Despite regular mediaattention and NGO campaigns, suppliers in thosecountries are being pushed beyond their limits, withsignificant environmental and social impacts, suchas the poisoning of rivers with hazardous chemicals,unacceptable working conditions and the use of childlabour.Since 2011, Greenpeace’s Detox campaign has beenchallenging this environmental toll and has gatheredsupport from 78 companies, including fashion brands,large retailers and textiles suppliers, to achievegreater transparency and zero discharges of hazardouschemicals in their supply chain manufacturing by 2020.Imports of clothes from countries with no regulationon nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE) have been foundUnwanted clothes waiting to be bundled into balesShoppers buying fast fashionin the USA the avarge personbought 64 garments in 2013to be contaminated by these hazardous chemicalsthat are likely to be completely removed duringwashing throughout the lifetime of the garment, andhave the potential to enter the aquatic environment.For UK alone, it was calculated that they could haveaccounted for up to 173kg of NPE emissions to thewater environment in 2011.13 This chemical is beingprogressively eliminated by companies committed toDetox. However, if the trend for more and cheaperclothes continues, any gains that are made oneliminating hazardous chemicals will be outstrippedby higher rates of production and consumption in theindustry as a whole.High energy use is another reason why “the textileindustry is considered one of the most polluting in theworld”.14 The purchase and use of clothing contributesabout 3% of global production CO2 emissions orover 850 million tonnes (Mt) of CO2 a year, from themanufacturing, logistics and usage such as washing,drying and ironing).15Recycling fast fashion for export.4.3 million tonnes traded in 2014Fast fashion expansion wouldn’t be possible withoutthe rising use of polyester, which is relatively cheapand easily available and is now used in 60% of ourgarments; in 2016 about 21.3 million tonnes was used inclothing, an increase of 157% from the amount used in2000, which was about 8.3 million tonnes.16 Relianceon polyester is increasing the environmental impactsof fast fashion – when the fossil fuels for polymerproduction are taken into account, emissions of CO2for polyester in clothing, at 282 billion kg in 2015 - arenearly 3 times higher than those for cotton, at 98billion kg.17 Polyester is also not easily degradable;synthetic microfibres are released from clotheswhen they are washed, eventually making their wayinto rivers and seas, where they can potentially takedecades to degrade. Microfibres can have a range ofimpacts once they reach the aquatic environment, suchas impacts on feeding activity,18 or carrying invasivebacteria that can be harmful to humans.04

Today’s trends are tomorrow’s trashEstimates suggest that as much as 95 percent of theclothes thrown out with domestic waste and could beused again—re-worn, reused or recycled—dependingon the state of the textile wastes. 20Instead, the vast majority are thrown out with ourhousehold waste and end up in landfills or incinerators.Worldwide, millions of tonnes of textiles waste is eitherlandfilled or incinerated; not only is this a huge wasteof all of the resources in these products but it createsyet more pollution, through emissions of hazardouschemicals and greenhouse gases from incineratorstacks or landfills.Up to date and comprehensive figures on the volumesof clothes waste and used clothing globally are notcompiled. This lack of standardised informationshows limited interest by policymakers and a lack oftransparency from the fashion industry about its useof resources and the amounts wasted. In the EU 1.5-2million tons of used clothing is generated annually,only 10-12% of the best quality clothes are re-soldlocally and much of the rest is likely to be exported tocountries in the Global South. Figures from the EUas a whole are not available but in the UK 70% of the540,000 tonnes of clothes that are collected for reuse are exported; in the USA 53% (800,000 tonnes) isexported.The export of used clothing has risen dramatically sincethe year 2000, with 4.3 million tonnes traded in 2014.The leading exporters are the USA, Germany, the UK,South Korea, Japan, Netherlands, Malaysia, Belgium,China and France21 and the main importers includePakistan, Malaysia, Russia, and India, although thesemay not be the final destinations.22 For example, largeamounts of used clothes are reprocessed in India andPakistan and re-exported to Africa.Whereas in the last century used clothing from Europeand the US used to be high quality and good value, thisis no longer the case; much of it is unsaleable due to05poor quality - often associated with the greater useof synthetics and poly/cotton mixes - and re-saleableitems are competing with new imported clothing fromChina.23 In addition, not all exported clothes are reused: reports suggest only about 30% of used clothesexported to India are suitable for re-sale, for example,extra large clothes from the US are not re-saleablein Africa. The remainder is reprocessed into yarn forcheap blankets and insulation.24To protect local clothes production and development,among other reasons, 42 countries, mostly in Africa,South America and Asia, have some kind of restrictionor ban in place for imports of used clothing and theprospects of a ban by the East African Communitycountries of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania andUganda threatens to impact on exports from theUK.26,27The second hand clothing system is on the brink ofcollapse,28 partly due to the poor quality of cheap fastfashion garments, as shown by recent reports fromthe US. Exports from the UK reached a peak in 2014.According to Alan Wheeler, director of the TextileRecycling Association in the UK “if clothing qualitycontinues to fall, demand from the internationalmarket drops even further and the closed-looprecycling technology doesn’t come through, we mighthave a secondhand clothing crisis. And then therewouldn’t be any place at all to take your cheap, oldclothes.”29The myth of re-use and recyclingSo what happens to clothes that aren’t being re-used?The number of garments made with polyester/polycotton blends has increased the quantities of lowerquality clothing used for wiping rags and insulationfibres – half of which is sold for less than the acquisitionvalue. However, this down-cycling is a temporarysolution, ultimately these rags and insulation becomewaste too.Polyester - Fast fashion’s favorite material is on the Nylon706050403020100198019902000201020202030Start of the riseof Fast FashionIncrease in global fibre demand - million tonnes43.5% of the textiles fibres are for clothes - Graph adapted from Textile World (2015)A lot more can be done to keep our old clothesseparate from household waste – this would keep thematerial clean and allow more of it to be re-used andrecycled, but ultimately, we need to both close theloop – by recycling the fibres into virgin material tomake new clothes – and to slow down the rate that weconsume by focussing on the clothes that are neededand re-thinking the systems used to supply them,taking in all stages from their design to their re-use orrecycling.At the moment closing the loop through the recyclingof textile fibres is nowhere near possible; while themechanical recycling of cotton (and wool) is anestablished process, this results in a loss of quality. Therecycling of synthetic fabrics is much more limited withonly a few companies offering chemical recycling ofsynthetic fabrics at the moment. Chemical recyclingof natural fibres is also possible, with some start-upsprocessing used cotton to manufacture Lyocell-likefibres, which is a chemically modified cellulose. 3006

Although there is currently much interest in chemicalrecycling and a lot of research is going on, none ofthese technologies are commercially viable at thispoint. The main reason is probably the relativelyhigh price of the chemically recycled fibre productcompared to virgin material.31The recycling of mixed textile waste poses a seriouschallenge. Technical problems that impede textilerecycling include:- The complexity of clothes, which are often composedof different fabrics, with the stitching and trims madeof different materials. Buttons, zips and other nontextile parts need to be removed before processing,while colour pigments, coatings and prints causeadditional problems.- The increasing use of fibre mixes in fabrics, such ascotton/polyester. What looks and feels like a woolpullover, can easily contain 50 % synthetic fibres suchas nylon and viscose.These mixed fabrics cannot be recycled chemicallywithout prior separation of the fibre fractions. Thisseparation is technically possible for poly/cottonfabrics, as polyester but not cotton dissolves underalkaline conditions, but the process is still at a trialstage. Other fibre mixes, especially if they containelastane, pose even more challenges.32Even once these technical challenges are overcome,the current system of design for disposal is workingagainst closing the loop.33 The myth that clothes arerecycled or re-used could even be increasing ourconsumption. Instead of throwaway materialism weneed “true materialism”: “a switch from an idea of aconsumer society where materials matter little, to atruly material society, where materials – and the worldthey rely on – are cherished.”3407Conclusion: Have we reached peakfashion?We need to kick the fast fashion habit. Not only willthis help the environment, we will be helping ourselves.According to Maxine Bédat, co-founder of Zady;“consumers are reaching their limit. While the pleasureof cheap fashion is neurologically very real, consumersare equally experiencing the mental exhaustion fromthe accumulation of all of this cheap clothing. .Wehave a broken system and a consumer that is hungryfor change”.35The simplest step we can take is to wear our clothes forlonger. Look after them, repair them, restyle and reinvent them, swap them with friends and pass them on.Just increasing the lifespan of our clothes reduces allof their environmental impacts; for greenhouse gases“doubling the useful life of clothing from one year totwo years reduces emissions over the year by 24%”,36as does buying second hand clothes; every kilogram ofvirgin cotton displaced by second hand clothing savesapproximately 65 kWh, or 90 kWh for polyester.37We can directly contribute to reducing these impactsby “shopping” our own wardrobes to use what wealready have, or buying second hand clothes - andwhen we need to buy new, look for eco and fair tradelabels. Standards on durability would help us chooseclothes that last.But fashion brands and manufacturers must take thegreater share of responsibility for transforming the fastfashion system into one that respects the boundariesof the earth and the needs and concerns of theircustomers.Some observers have warned about the futureeconomic viability of the fast fashion model; “overall,continuing business as usual would result in severeresource scarcity, high volatility in resource prices .and hence threaten the profits and success of fashionindustry’s business models.”38Better quality clothes need to be designed, whichare durable, fit the customer’s needs, are repairable,re-usable and at the end of their lives, completelyrecyclable - and which customers will cherish for manyyears. New business models are needed to deliverthese changes, including systems for manufacturing,retailing, servicing and re-use/recycling, that will alsoencourage new attitudes among customers.A sustainable fashion system would both close theloop and slow it down. New business models that willcreate multiple transformations, from the supply chainthrough to the customer and back again, are the onlyway to make fashion fit for the future.

Endnotes1. Muthu (2014), Roadmap to Sustainable Textiles andClothing: Environmental and Social Aspects of Textilesand Clothing Supply Chain, Springer Science and BusinessMedia, Singapore 2014 Editor Subramanian SenthilkannanMuthu, SGS Hong Kong Limited.15. Carbon Trust (2011), Clothing - International CarbonFlows (CTC793)2. Martinez de Albeniz, Felipe Caro Victor (2014),Fast Fashion: Business Model Overview and ResearchOpportunities, April 25, 2014.17. Kirchain R, Olivetti E, Miller T R, and Greene S(2015), Sustainable Apparel Materials, An overview ofwhat we know and what could be done about the impact offour major apparel materials: Cotton, Polyester, Leather,& Rubber, October 7, 2015. Materials Systems Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA3. Martinez de Albeniz, Felipe Caro Victor (2014), op.cit.4. Source for 2002 - 2015 data, Mc Kinsey & Company,Succeeding in tomorrow’s global fashion market, 2016.Consumer and Shopper Insights, September 2014,Euromonitor data. Source for 2025 data, Statistica5. McKinsey & Company (2016), Style that’s sustainable:A new fast-fashion formula. By Nathalie Remy, EvelineSpeelman, and Steven Swartz, October 2016.6. Muthu (2014), op.cit.7. Textile World (2015), Man-Made Fibers Continue ToGrow, February 3, 2015. Calculation based on figure 2 - %age of fibres for apparel is 43.5%, interior and home textiles33%, industrial and technical textiles 23.5%. Teonline,Industry overview, figure 4.8. Textile World (2015), op.cit. Calculation based on figure 2and slide 27, 43.5% is apparel.9. Fashion Metric blog (2016), The Current State ofApparel eCommerce in 2016.10. Kingdom of the Netherlands (2014), CHINA’S FASHIONINDUSTRY, An overview of trends, opportunities, andchallenges, 201411. The Atlantic (2015), The Neurological Pleasures of FastFashion.12. McKinsey & Company (2016), op.cit.13. Environment Agency, UK (2013), Nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE) in imported textiles.14. Muthu (2014), op.cit.16. Textile World (2015), op.cit., Calculation based on figure1, 43.5% is apparelFigures are based on the following: “Over 706 billion kilograms ofgreenhouse gas can be attributed to polyester production for use intextiles in 2015 (based on the current marketplace, estimating that80% of polyester production goes into textile and including bothtextile yarn and staple fibers, which are the primary types of polyesterproduced).” Using the same %age of use in apparel as the authors usefor cotton (below) of 40%, 282 b kg CO2 is a conservative estimate forpolyester. Total GHG emissions for cotton are calculated as follows:“In 2013, 25 billion kilograms of cotton was produced worldwide.Approximately 40% of that, or about 10 billion kilograms, was used inmaking apparel. At that scale, the estimated cradle-to-gate impact ofcotton used within the global apparel industry is 107.5 million tons ofCO2-eq” (equivalent to 97522 million kg/ or 98 billion kg.)18. Watts, A., Urbina, M., Corr, S., Lewis, C. & Galloway,T. ‘Ingestion of plastic microfibers by the crab Carcinusmaenas and its effect on food consumption and energybalance.’ Env. Sci. Technol. 49, 14597–14604 (2015)19. McCormick, A., T.J. Hoellein, S.A. Mason, J. Schluep,and J.J. Kelly. “Microplastic Is an Abundant and DistinctMicrobial Habitat in an Urban River.” Environmental Science& Technology (2014): 11863-1871.20. Lu JJ & Hamouda H (2014), Current Status of FiberWaste Recycling and its Future. Advanced MaterialsResearch (Volume 878), pp. 122-131, 201421. WRAP (2016), Textiles Market Situation Report 2016Note: trade from the Netherlands and Belgium may includeused clothes from other European countries in transit22. FASH455 Global Apparel & Textile Trade and Sourcing(2015), Global Trade of Used Clothing (Updated:October 2015), Dr. Sheng Lu, Department of Fashion &Apparel Studies, University of Delaware; (2015).24. Wall Street Journal (2016), Fast-Fashion Castoffs FuelGlobal Recycling Network - Deluge of secondhand clothesfrom rich countries is processed, resold in the developingworld, June 26, 201625. International Trade Association, Office of Textiles andApparel (OTEXA), U.S. Trade Data on Worn Clothing andTextile Products.26. Guardian (2016), East Africa’s ban on second-handclothes won’t save its own industry, Andrew Brooks, 4thMay 2016.27. WRAP (2016), op.cit.28. Newsweek (2016), op.cit.29. Waste Management World (2016), WRAP Report:Falling Overseas Reuse & Recycling Demand for UK TextileExports, 08.03.2016 16:24.30. The Guardian (2015), Waste is so last season: recyclingclothes in the fashion industry, Hannah Gould, Thursday 26February 2015.31. Peterson, Ann (2015), Towards Recycling of TextileFibers. Chalmers University, Gothenburg 2015.32. ECO TLC (2014), Étude des perturbateurs etfacilitateurs au recyclage des textiles et linges de maison.33. Fastcoexist (2016), The fascinating psychology of whyand what we choose to recycle. August 2016.34. Fletcher, Kate (2016), Craft of Use - Post-GrowthFashion, Routledge, April 2016, page 141.35. Maxine Bédat (2016), Our love of cheap clothing has ahidden cost – it’s time for a fashion revolution, 22nd April2016, World Economic Forum.36. Carbon Trust (2011), op.cit.37. Lu JJ & Hamouda H (2014), op. cit.38. Muthu (2014), op.cit.23.Newsweek (2016), Fast Fashion is Creating anEnvironmental Crisis, 1st September 2016.10

Authors: Madeleine Cobbing, Yannick VicairePhotographer : Steffen HofemanGPublished byGreenpeace e.v., Hongkongstraße 10,20457 Hamburg, GermanyGreenpeace is an independent global campaigning organisationthat acts to change attitudes and behaviour, to protect andconserve the environment and to promote tox/fashion

fashion the biggest e-commerce category.10 The ease of shopping online for clothes is likely to increase the number of purchases made and fuel the turnover of fast fashion.11 Timeout for fast fashion 02 1995 2000 2015 2025 Since 2000 there has been an “explosive expansion” in fast fashion, led by the brands

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