2011 By Pearson Education, Inc.

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2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.Publishing as FT PressUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458FT Press offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, pleasecontact U.S. Corporate and Government Sales, 1-800-382-3419, corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com.For sales outside the U.S., please contact International Sales atinternational@pearson.com.Company and product names mentioned herein are the trademarks orregistered trademarks of their respective owners.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in anyform or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.Printed in the United States of AmericaISBN-10: 0-13-707543-XISBN-13: 978-0-13-707543-0First Printing September 2010Pearson Education LTD.Pearson Education Australia PTY, Limited.Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd.Pearson Education North Asia, Ltd.Pearson Education Canada, Ltd.Pearson Educación de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.Pearson Education—JapanPearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd.The Library of Congress cataloging-in-publication data is on file.Vice President,PublisherTim MooreAssociate Publisher andDirector of MarketingAmy NeidlingerAcquisions EditorMegan ColvinOperations ManagerGina KanouseSenior MarketingManagerJulie PhiferPublicity ManagerLaura CzajaAssistant MarketingManagerMegan ColvinCover DesignerAlan ClementsManaging EditorKristy HartProject EditorsJovana San NicolasShirley andBarbara CampbellCopy EditorSan Dee PhillipsProofreaderSeth KerneyIndexerErika MillenCompositorJake McFarlandManufacturing BuyerDan Uhrig

ContentsIntroduction . 1Chapter 1REAP (Retail Ecosystem Analytics Process) .7Utilizing REAP to Deliver Consistent Results . 7Shopper Analysis Integration . 12Case Studies. 17Chapter 2Measuring Marketing at Retail inSupermarkets .25Overview. 25Phase One—POPAI’s Channel Studies. 26Chapter 3Measuring Marketing at Retail inConvenience Stores .43Overview. 43Learning One: Retail Marketing Execution TechniquesConcentrated . 47Learning Two: Marketing Messages Concentrated . 48Learning Three: Huge Premium for Excellence. 49Learning Four: Brand Size Drives Outpost Display Activity . 50Learning Five: Category Response Varies Widely byMessage Location . 51Learning Six: Borrowed Interest Has a DisproportionateImpact on Smaller Brands . 52Learning Seven: Strong Brand Expression SignificantlyOutperforms Generic Treatment. 53Learning Eight: Store Is Not Overloaded withRetail Marketing Material . 53Learning Nine: Effectiveness Ratio Predicts Sales Success . 55Learning Ten: Retailer Analysis Yields SuccesssImplementation Model . 56

Chapter 4Measuring Marketing at Retail in Drug Stores .63Overview. 63Learning One: Many Key Results Consistent withOther Studies . 64Learning Two: Retail Marketing Effectiveness Higher inChain Drug Stores. 65Learning Three: Message Matters. 65Learning Four: Promotion/Advertising ConsistentlyEnhances Impact . 68Learning Five: Brand-Focused Messages More Effective . 70Learning Six: Price Savings Drive Impulse Results . 72Learning Seven: Value Message Drives Private Label . 72Learning Eight: Shopper Actions Differ from Words . 74Learning Nine: RFID Tracking Delivers Reliable,Real-Time Data. 74Learning Ten: Retail Audience and CPM Very Attractive . 75Chapter 5Establishing In-Store Marketing Measures .79Retail Marketing Metrics . 79Definitions . 79Potential Reach . 81Actual Audience Reach . 82In-Store Rating Points. 82Cost Per Thousand (CPM) . 83Audience Delivery Worksheet . 84Phase One Summary . 85Phase Two—Nielsen’s PRISM Project . 89Research Learnings . 93Summary . 96Chapter 6Capturing Shopping Dynamics in Store .101Overview. 101Market Tests. 103Examples of Retail Marketing Ratios. 110Potential Applications . 116Recap . 117Summary . 119The Retail Marketing Model Shifts . 120

Chapter 7Shopper Models .125Retail Marketing Definition . 125Shopper Understanding . 126Summary . 143Chapter 8Decision Drivers .145Retail Factors and Purchase Decision Types . 145Financial Impact of Presentation Optimization . 145Retail Success Drivers . 150Leveraging Related Items. 177Shaping Opportunities . 187Emotional Power . 188Practical Learnings. 191Summary . 194Chapter 9Online Retailing .197Applying Learning and Traditional Tools . 197Managing Online Dynamics. 207Online Tools . 208Chapter 10Measuring Return on Investment .215Delivering Results . 215Retail Tools. 219Return on Investment Models . 223Achieving Success Through Shopper Intimacy . 229Index.235

IntroductionIntimacy is the only sustainable path to consistent results.The marketing world is in the midst of unprecedented changes thatshatter the core of all the traditional, “proven” marketing models. Thechanges retailers and marketers confront extend far beyond the welldocumented implosion of traditional media to include both consumers and retailers. Quite simply, every part of the conventional worldis in flux with new models yet to be defined. Increasingly, it appearsthat Moore’s Law, which postulates that processing capacity will doubleevery two years, can easily be applied to marketing to describe the speedof change and innovation. Achieving and maintaining, not just a connection, but true intimacy with the shopper, is the new necessity.Why do we say shopper intimacy?Today, although more attention than ever is focused on understandingwhat motivates the shopper, the conversation generally revolves around,shopper insights. We suggest that having insights into your shoppersbuying habits is not enough.For true success, you need intimacy—understanding what your shopperdoes and is going to do in this shopping environment and why. Withthis knowledge, you can better tailor and deliver both your message andoffer to encourage trial and long-term brand loyalty.Shopper intimacy comes from knowing how shoppers actually behaveat retail as revealed in the extensive in-store research, applying psychology and cognitive behavior studies to these observations to understandthe motivation for these behaviors, and then rigorously applying theselearnings throughout the organization in a formal program we call theRetail Ecosystem Analytics Process (REAP).1

Three macro-trends with profound implications for retailers and marketers drive the current market shifts—major demographic shifts, mediachanges, and the maturation of dominant retail concepts. Togetherthese trends have initiated unprecedented and ever-accelerating changethat affects all of us.Demographically, we live in an older society with more concentratedwealth and smaller households that increasingly do not meet the definition of a traditional family. Additionally, a series of dramatic shiftsbetween the older and younger generations can be seen in the growingmulticulturalism of society and the rapid adoption of new technologies by the youngest members of society. The generations meet in theirincreasing consumption of services versus goods, but diverge in theirunderstanding of the personal implications of technology.Together these trends explode the now antiquated notion of a massmarket and destroy the utility of measuring efforts to reach consumersin terms of cost per thousand. The rapid adoption of transformativetechnologies amplifies the demographic trends so that new consumersincreasingly self-define the groups with which they identify and assertcontrol over the information they consume and choices they make.The new consumers expect to find any product in the place they wantto purchase it. They expect universal quality and low costs. They wantproducts and shopping venues that speak to them as individuals andmembers of the groups they create and select.These demographic trends extend to traditional media decimated bythe effects of these shifts. The net is the delivery of fewer consumers fora constantly rising cost through a business model that may not be sustainable as advertisers demand accountability for all expenditures. Thisfocus on accountability extends to every element of the marketing planand means that marketers need to know what their shoppers had theopportunity to see, what they actually saw, and whether that interactionculminated in a sale.In the retail world, the dominant shopping formats have matured andexpanded across the developed geographies so that the metric for developed markets is now same-store sales, and store count growth is predominantly driven by expansion in developing economies. The focuson same-store sales performance results in assortment expansion into2Shopper Intimacy

high-traffic categories to spur more store visits and the growth of privatelabels to capture higher margins per transaction. As with media, eachinvestment is tested against its return to the bottom line.The inter-related strands of shopper diversification and empowerment,mass media implosion, and retail maturation converging at a time ofgreat economic distress creates a major inflection point that shifts moreattention to the marketing activity at retail.Unfortunately, although leading practitioners recognize these shifts,they also acknowledge that their organizations lack crucial pieces ofunderstanding in the areas that are most critical to driving greater success in the marketing at retail arena. These leading practitioners agree onan ideal model in which marketing research and insights generated froma steady stream of measurement data and performance metrics for retaillead to the development and execution of well-defined strategies thatengage shoppers, close sales, and ultimately create the brand loyalty thatunderpins brand equity (see Figure I.1). At the same time, they ruefullyadmit that they are unable to effectively execute against it.Marketing-at-Retail ModelEquityLoyaltyConversionShopper EngagementMessage Was SeenOpportunity to SeeExecution/PlacementMedia Plan DevelopmentMarketing Research and InsightsFigure I.1 REAP Design ProcessThis book seeks to provide the data, tools, and methodology that provide the missing links for implementing this model and increasing retailsuccess.Introduction3

Our shopper intimacy program promises to bring together the worlds ofretailers and marketers in the place where they meet with the shopper.Intimacy drives consistent retail results, and to achieve intimacy, we takea journey in five phases: Market intelligence on shopper behavior at retail Behavioral research to unlock the foundational precepts drivingshopping behavior in store A process for integrating this data to achieve intimacy with theshopper Tools for implementing strategies driven by this intimacy New measurement techniques for tracking successCollectively, the industry has spent millions of dollars on research instore to Quantify the traffic in the store Track the marketing activity taking place at retail Measure the impact of differential executions in differentchannels Track shoppers interaction with marketing material and its eventual conversion into salesIf shopper intimacy provides the path to consistent results, the knowledge gained from research at retail provides the necessary informationbase for its initiation. We dissect the recent market intelligence with aneye to drawing lessons about what works at retail by measuring shoppers’ behavior in stores. We then move to a discussion of key academicresearch into shopper behavior, breaking our review into the biologic,cognitive, logical, and social foundations of human behavior in the retailenvironment. By applying the knowledge developed by researchers inthe lab with the intelligence gathered in-store, we establish a contextualframework through which we can isolate key variables to create insights.By testing and verifying insights within a formal process and setting upa continuous feedback cycle, we create intimacy with the shoppers as weanswer the fundamental question of what shoppers want (see Figure I.2).4Shopper Intimacy

Market IntelligenceAcademic ResearchInsight ntIntimacyFigure I.2 Shopper Analysis - IntegrationAs with any program, strategy without execution results in complete failure. To ensure that our hard-won intimacy drives results, we developed aRetail Ecosystem Analytics Process (REAP) that extends strategic consideration to all the key players in creating retail success. Combined with thetools developed from our analyses of successful programs, we provide apractical guide to generating ongoing sales success (see Figure I.3).StrategyProcessRetailResultsToolsFigure I.3 REAP StrategyIntroduction5

The payoff is the information, tools, and methodology to deliver thefollowing: Better understanding of the marketing at retail environment Improved retail results based on insights that lead to shopperintimacy Establishment of a more accurate medium valuation Proper integration of retail into marketing mixJohn Wanamaker, the much-admired 19th-century merchant, famouslysaid, “I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted. I justdon’t know which half.” Our studies help lift this veil of mystery tounderstand what works and why, so we can better predict what will workin the future to drive increased marketing investment efficiency.6Shopper Intimacy

IndexAaccess, 183accumulation rules for media measures, 80accuracy of measurements, 36-37actual audience reach, 82Adaptation level theory, 137adjacencies, 165-168, 221Ahold USA, 93aisle sensors, 91Albertsons, 91Aldi, 164aligning store shelves, 179-180American Research Federation (ARF), 79amount of retail marketing, 53-55analysisin REAP, 8shopper analysis integrationexplained, 12-14retail marketing scorecards, 14-15segmentation premiums, 15-16traditional shopper segmentation traits,16-17analytic brand model (ROI), 228analytic retail model (ROI), 227Anheuser-Busch, 103A&P, 93Apple Store, 154ARF (American Research Federation), 79assisted versus open sell, 184assortment, 8, 163-164, 216-217attention, focusing, 221audienceaudience delivery worksheet, 84-85defined, 80size of, 94Bbehavior. See shopper behaviorBest Buy, 152best practices model, 122biologic, 141-143, 200Blackwell, Roger, 131boredom, 141brand acceptance scorecard, 15brand A message impact ratio (MARI), 113brandsbrand channel segmentation, 19brand-focused messages, 70-71brand ROI measurement, 38dominant brand on lowest shelf, 172dominant brand side by side, 173leveraging, 221-222value perceptions, 193British Petroleum, 103Brooks. See drug store studyCCalhoun, David, 94Carrefour, 152case studies (REAP)brand channel segmentation, 19collaborative failure, 18-19retailer assortment rationalization, 17-18shopper psychographic segmentation,20-23Catapult Marketing, 93category sales response to price/salesmessaging, 68category shopping variations within stores,35-36Chabris, Christopher, 127chain drug store study. See drug store studyChanel, 155channel segmentation, 19channel studiesconvenience store study, 43-59drug store study, 63-78supermarket study, 26-40actual audience reach, 82IRP (In-Store Rating Points), 82-83potential reach, 81choosing when to interrupt traffic flow, 222Christian Dior, 155ClipCam technology, 105Clorox, 93close rates by category, 95close rates by channel, 95Coca-Cola, 91, 103cognitive research, 126, 197-198conscious processing, 128-129consistency, 131-134deselection, 127-128235

pattern and structures, 129-131selective perception, 129collaboration, 231collaborative failure, 18-19color palette, 154-156complementary merchandising, 220communication, 206, 218-219comparative price information, 194compare and save effectiveness ratio, 72-73ConAgra Foods, 93connecting with shoppers in onlineretailing, 212conscious processing, 128-129consistency, 131-134, 141consistent execution, 222consistent marketing performance areas, 33constituency inclusion (REAP), 9-12consumer behavior. See shopper behaviorcontemporary supermarket layout, 159-160context, 193convenience store study (POPAI)amount of retail marketing, 53-55average brand lift by category, 48average coverage by brand category, 45core area versus outdoor placement, 50-51cost efficiency, 57-58custom versus generic sales increase, 53effectiveness ratio impact, 55-56key retail marketing location, 46marketing messages, 48-49outdoor versus indoor lift, 51-52overview, 43-44percentage of category retail marketing bylocation, 47proof of placement, 56-57range of sales life, 49-50retail marketing placement, 45retail marketing techniques, 47sales effectiveness, 57-58small brand relative sales increase, 52-53success element importance by segment,58-59conversion metrics, 108-109core area placement, 50-51cost efficiency, 57-58cost per thousand (CPM), 75-77, 79, 83-84cross-merchandising, 182, 192custom sales increase, 53CVS. See drug store studyDdata analysis in online retailing, 211decision drivers, 200-201. See also purchasedrivers; retail success driversemotional power, 188-191financial impact of presentationoptimization, 145-146leveraging related items, 177-180planned versus unplanned purchases,148-150236Indexretail factors and purchase decisiontypes, 145retail success dynamic, 146-148shaping opportunities, 187-188tips and guidelines, 191-194demographic shifts, 2deselection, 127-128designhome pages, 202-203in REAP, 9Diageo, 103differential close rates by category, 95differential close rates by channel, 95DigiTrack software, 105discourse shift, 121display organization, 194dominant brand on lowest shelf, 172dominant brand side by side, 173dominant shopper patterns, 208-209, 220drug store layout, 158drug store study (POPAI)brand-focused messages, 70-71category sales response to price/salesmessaging, 68compare and save effectiveness ratio, 72-73consumer interview versus actions, 74consumer response to price- andsales-related messaging, 72cost per thousand (CPM), 75-77marketing message sales increase, 66marketing technique effectiveness, 64-65message impact variance, 67message sales lift range, 67potential reach, 75-76promotion impact, 68-70retail marketing effectiveness ratios, 65RFID typical placement, 74-75dump bin effectiveness ratio, 114dynamic tensions, 215consumer dynamic, 216retail dynamicsassortment, 216-217communication, 218-219familiarity, 218navigation, 216-217Eease of purchase, 184-185, 205-206education, 185-186, 206effectiveness ratio, 29-31, 107, 230convenience store study, 55-56dump bin effectiveness ratio, 114effectiveness ratio without promotionalmessage, 115effectiveness ratio with promotionalmessage, 116overall effectiveness ratio, 114Elizabeth Arden, 155emotional power, 188-191engagement factor, 108engagement model, 138

Envirosell, 161Estee Lauder, 155expansive model (ROI), 224-227expectations, 133exposure, 80F–G–Hfamiliarity, 218financial impact of presentation optimization, 145-146focusing attention, 221frequency of promotions, 37, 80Frito-Lay, 103, 181General Mills, 93general store layout, 157generic sales increase (convenience storestudy), 53grocery store layoutcontemporary supermarket layout, 159-160traditional grocery store layout, 158-159Gross Rating Points (GRPs), 80Group M, 93HBA category impact ratio, 112heightheight effectiveness index, 110impact by, 110Hershey’s, 103Hewlett-Packard, 93holistic marketing scorecard, 15home pagescommunication/education, 206ease of purchase, 205-206involvement, 206meaningful sites, 209overview, 201-202page design, 202-203page organization, 203product access, 204-205purchase drivers, 204recommended page design, 213site navigation, 202visibility, 204Hy-Vee, 93Iimpact by height, 110impact ratio, 107brand A message impact ratio, 113HBA category impact ratio, 112impact ratio brand comparison, 113overall impact ratio, 111store material impact ratios, 112In-Store Marketing Institute (ISMI), 91In-Store Rating Points (IRP), 80, 82-83incentives, 210inconsistent marketing execution, 33-35industry opportunity (supermarket channel),39-40information overload, 192-193Integer, 93integration, 231interrupting traffic flow, 222involvement, 187, 206IRP (In-Store Rating Points), 80, 82-83ISMI (In-Store Marketing Institute), 91item tracking (MARI), 109J–K–LKellogg’s, 91Kmart, 93Korn, Mel, 12Kraft, 93Kroger, 15, 91Lafley, A. G., 97layers of information in online, 211layout of stores, 156-163chain drug store layout, 158contemporary supermarket layout, 159-160general store layout, 157“race track” layout, 160-161Toys R Us, 161-163traditional grocery store layout, 158-159leveragingbrands, 221-222related itemsexplained, 177purchased drivers. See purchase driversshelf alignment, 179-180shopper segmentation, 178-179list use, decline of, 193logic, 134-138, 198-199consumer behavior model, 136engagement model, 138explained, 134-135shopping process, 136-137L’Oreal, 155MMAC (MARI Advisory Council), 103macroscanning, 171-172making a stand, 219managing online dynamics, 207MARI (Marketing-at-Retail Initiative)background, 101-103conversion metrics, 108-109data delivery, 106data summary, 106effectiveness ratio, 107engagement factor, 108impact ratio, 107item tracking, 109MAC (MARI Advisory Council), 103market tests, 103-106potential applications, 116-117retail marketing ratios, 109-115shopping equation, 108Index237

study results, 107summary, 117-120marketing-at-retail activity, 194Marketing-at-Retail Initiative. See MARImarketing material matrix (supermarketstudy), 28marketing material observation breakout(supermarket study), 29marketing messagescomparative price information, 194convenience store study, 48-49drug store studybrand-focused messages, 70-71category sales response to price/salesmessaging, 68consumer response to price- andsales-related messaging, 72marketing messages sales increase, 66message impact variance, 67message sales lift range, 67effectiveness ratio, 115information overload, 192-193shopper exposure to, 94marketing metrics. See metricsmarketing researchMARI (Marketing-at-Retail Initiative)background, 101-103conversion metrics, 108-109data delivery, 106data summary, 106effectiveness ratio, 107engagement factor, 108impact ratio, 107item tracking, 109MAC (MARI Advisory Council), 103market tests, 103-106retail marketing ratios, 109-116shopping equation, 108study results, 107Nielsen’s PRISM Projectoverview, 89-91stage one results, 91-92stage two results, 92-93Phase One programsaverage sales lift, 87average transaction size, 88average weekly audience per store, 88overview, 85retail marketing effectiveness ratio, 87retail marketing presense, 86POPAI convenience store studyamount of retail marketing, 53-55average brand lift by category, 48average coverage by brand category, 45core area versus outdoor placement,50-51cost efficiency, 57-58custom versus generic sales increase, 53effectiveness ratio impact, 55-56key retail marketing location, 46marketing messages, 48-49outdoor versus indoor lift, 51-52238Indexoverview, 43-44percentage of category retail marketingby location, 47percentage of retail marketing bylocation, 46proof of placement, 56-57range of sales life, 49-50retail marketing placement, 45retail marketing techniques, 47sales effectiveness, 57-58small brand relative sales increase, 52-53success element importance by segment,58-59POPAI drug store studybrand-focused messages, 70-71category sales response to price/salesmessaging, 68compare and save effectiveness ratio,72-73consumer interview versus actions, 74consumer response to price- andsales-related messaging, 72cost per thousand (CPM), 75-77marketing message sales increase, 66marketing technique effectiveness, 64-65message impact variance, 67message sales lift range, 67overview, 63-64potential reach, 75-76promotion impact, 68-70retail marketing effectiveness ratios, 65RFID typical placement, 74-75POPAI supermarket studyaccuracy of measurements, 36-37actual audience reach, 82brand ROI measurement, 38category shopping variations withinstores, 35-36consistent performance areas, 33effectiveness of retail marketing, 29-31frequency of promotions/size ofbrand, 37inconsistent execution, 33-35industry opportunity, 39-40IRP (In-Store Rating Points), 82-83lack of systematic measurement, 38marketing material matrix, 28marketing material observationbreakout, 29overview, 26-29potential reach, 81variations in execution and results, 31-33timeline, 25-26market shifts, 2market tests (MARI), 103-106MARS Advertising, 93Mars Snackfood, 93mass media, 2Mattel, 19, 93, 156McDonald, Bob, 92McKee Foods, 103meal centers, 185

meaningful conversations, structuring, 220meaningful sites, 209Measured Medium Initiative, 25measurements, 36-37, 223Measuring At–Retail AdvertisingEffectiveness in Chain DrugStores. See drug store studymedia integration, 122media shifts, 2Meijer, 93, 152metricsaccumulation rules for media measures, 80audience delivery worksheet, 84-85defined, 80size of, 94conversion metrics, 108-109cost per thousand (CPM), 75-77, 79, 83-84exposure, 80frequency, 80Gross Rating Points (GRPs), 80In-Store Rating Points (IRP), 80-83modeling approach, 93Opportunity to See (OTS), 79overview, 79reach, 80-82recency theory, 80Target Rating Points (TRPs), 80Miller Brewing, 91modeling approach, 93Moore’s Law, 1multiplatform strategy, 209N–Onavigating home pages, 202navigation, 156-163, 216-217Nielsen’s PRISM Projectoverview, 89-91stage one results, 91-92stage two results, 92-93Nintendo, 93OMD, 93online retailingconnection/involvement with shoppers, 212data analysis, 211dominant shopper patterns, 208-209home pagescommunication/education, 206ease of purchase, 205-206involvement, 206meaningful sites, 209overview, 201-202page design, 202-203page organization, 203product access, 204-205purchase drivers, 204recommended page design, 213site navigation, 202visibility, 204incentives, 210layers of information, 211multiplatform strategy, 209online dynamics, managing, 207overview, 197path to purchase, 212personalization, 209-210search optimization, 208shopper behaviorbiologic, 200cognitive research, 197-198decision drivers, 200-206logic, 198-199social influences, 199-200operating within dominant shopperschemata, 220opportunities, shaping, 187-188Opportunity to See (OTS), 79optimizing searc

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