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Second ITYAccess ControlNon-RepudiationCryptographyand InformationSecurityV.K. Pachghare

Cryptography andInformation SecuritySecond EditionV.K. PACHGHAREAssociate ProfessorDepartment of Computer Engineering and Information TechnologyCollege of Engineering, Pune(An Autonomous Institute of Government of Maharashtra)Delhi-1100922015

CRYPTOGRAPHY AND INFORMATION SECURITY, Second EditionV.K. Pachghare 2015 by PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may bereproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher.ISBN-978-81-203-5082-3The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.Fifth Printing (Second Edition).January, 2015Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, Rimjhim House, 111, PatparganjIndustrial Estate, Delhi-110092 and Printed by Mudrak, 30-A, Patparganj, Delhi-110091.

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on. 11.1Security  11.2Elements of Information Security   21.2.1 Confidentiality  21.2.2 Integrity  21.2.3 Availability  21.3Security Policy   31.4Security Techniques    31.5Steps for Better Security   41.6Category of Computer Security   51.7The Operational Model of Network Security   61.8Security Services   61.9Basic Network Security Terminology   71.9.1 Cryptography  71.9.2 Hacking  81.9.3 Encryption  81.9.4 Decryption  81.9.5 Cryptanalysis  91.10 Security Attacks   91.10.1 Passive Attack   91.10.2 Active Attack   10Summary  12Exercises    12Multiple Choice Questions  13v

viContents2.Data Encryption Techniques. 142.1Introduction  142.2Encryption Methods   152.2.1 Symmetric Encryption   152.2.2 Asymmetric Encryption   162.3Cryptography  172.4Substitution Ciphers   172.4.1 The Caesar Cipher   172.4.2 Monoalphabetic Ciphers   182.4.3 Playfair Cipher   192.4.4 The Hill Cipher   222.4.5 Polyalphabetic Ciphers   262.4.6 One-time Pad or Vernam Cipher   282.5Transposition Ciphers   292.5.1 Single Columnar Transposition   302.5.2 Double Columnar Transposition   312.6Cryptanalysis  322.6.1 Enumerate All Short Keywords    322.6.2 Dictionary Attacks   332.7Steganography  342.7.1 Applications    342.7.2 Limitations  35Solved Problems   35Summary  44Exercises  44Multiple Choice Questions   453.Data3. Standards. 47Indroduction  47Block Ciphers   47Block Cipher Modes of Operation   483.3.1 Electronic Code Book (ECB) Mode   483.3.2 Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode   493.3.3 Feedback Mode   513.3.4 Counter Mode   54Feistel Ciphers   56Data Encryption Standard   573.5.1 Working of DES   583.5.2 Cracking DES   64Triple DES   643.6.1 Working of Triple DES   643.6.2 Modes of Operation   65DES Design Criteria   653.7.1 Design of S-box   65Other Block Ciphers   66Differential Cryptanalysis   66

Contentsvii3.10 Linear cryptanalysis   673.11 Weak Keys in DES Algorithms   67Summary  70Exercises  70Multiple Choice Questions   714.Advanced Encryption Standard. 724.1Introduction  724.2Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)   734.3Overview of Rijndael   734.4Key Generation   744.4.1 Round Constant    764.5Encryption  774.5.1 Initial Round   784.5.2 Round 1    794.6Decryption  844.6.1 Initial Round   844.6.2 Round 1    844.7Galois Field of Multiplication   864.8Advantages of AES   884.9Comparison of AES with Other Ciphers   89Solved ltiple Choice Questions  965.Symmetric Ciphers. 975.1Introduction  975.2Blowfish Encryption Algorithm   975.2.1 Key Expansion   985.2.2 Encryption  995.2.3 Blowfish Architecture   1015.2.4 Cryptanalysis of Blowfish   1025.3RC5  1025.3.1 Characteristics of RC5   1035.3.2 Parameters  1045.3.3 Cipher Modes in RC5   1055.4RC4    1065.4.1 Design  1065.4.2 Characteristics  1065.4.3 Algorithms  1065.5RC6  1075.5.1 Parameters of RC6   1085.5.2 Basic Operations    1085.5.3 Working of RC6   1095.6Comparison between RC6 and RC5   109

viiiContents5.7IDEA  1105.7.1 Working of IDEA    1115.7.2 Decryption  1145.7.3 Security  115Solved 8Multiple Choice Questions   1296.Number Theory. 1306.1Introduction  1306.2Prime Numbers   1306.2.1 Relative Prime Numbers   1316.3Modular Arithmetic   1316.3.1 Properties  1326.4Fermat’s Theorem   1346.4.1 An Application of Fermat’s Little Theorem and Congruence   1366.5Euler’s Theorem    1386.5.1 The General Formula to Compute (n)  1396.6Euclidean Algorithm   1436.6.1 Extended Euclidean Algorithm   1456.7Primality Test   1516.7.1 Naïve Methods   1516.7.2 Probabilistic Tests   1526.7.3 Fermat Primality Test   1526.7.4 Miller–Rabin Primality Test   1536.7.5 Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena Primality Test (AKS Test)   1536.8Chinese Remainder Theorem   1546.9Discrete Logarithms   1586.9.1 Index Calculus Algorithm   159Summary  160Exercises  160Multiple Choice Questions   1617.Public Key Cryptosystems. 1627.1Introduction  1627.2Public Key Cryptography   1637.2.1 Authentication, Secrecy and Confidentiality   1657.2.2 Key Length and Encryption Strength    1687.2.3 Applications of Public Key Cryptography   1687.2.4 Strength and Weakness of Public Key    1697.2.5 Comparison of Asymmetric Encryption and SymmetricEncryption  1697.3RSA Algorithm   1697.3.1 Working of RSA   1697.3.2 Key Length   1727.3.3 Security  172

ContentsixSolved Problems   173Summary  176Exercises  177Multiple Choice Questions   1778.Key Management. 1788.1Introduction  1788.2Key Distribution   1788.2.1 Public Announcement   1798.2.2 Publicly Available Directory    1798.2.3 Public Key Authority    1808.2.4 Public Key Certificates   1818.3Diffie–Hellman Key Exchange   1828.3.1 Description  1838.3.2 Security  1858.3.3 Man-in-the-Middle Attack   1858.3.4 Authentication  1868.4Elliptic Curve Arithmetic   1868.4.1 Elliptic Curve Groups Over Real Numbers   1878.4.2 Elliptic Curve Addition: A Geometric Approach   1878.4.3 Elliptic Curve Addition: An Algebraic Approach   1908.4.4 Elliptic Curve Groups over FP  1908.4.5 Arithmetic in an Elliptic Curve Group over FP  1918.4.6 Elliptic Curve Groups over F2n    1928.4.7 Arithmetic in an Elliptic Curve Group over F2m    1928.5Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)   1938.5.1 Elliptic Curve Diffie–Hellman   1938.5.2 Key Establishment Protocol   1938.6Elliptic Curve Security and Efficiency   1948.7Zero-Knowledge Proof    1958.7.1 Cave Story   196Solved 1Multiple Choice Questions  2019.Authentication. 2029.1Introduction  2029.1.1 Objectives    2029.1.2 Measurements    2039.2Authentication Methods   2049.2.1 Password-based Authentication Method   2049.2.2 Two-factor Authentication Method   2069.2.3 Biometric Authentication Method   2069.2.4 Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)   2089.3Message Digest   2109.3.1 MD2  210

Cryptography And Information Security30%OFFPublisher : PHI LearningISBN : 9788120350823Author : V. K. PachghareType the URL : this eBook

Cryptography and Information Security and Second Edition V.K. Pachghare Authentication Confidentiality Integrity Non-Repudiation Access Control SECURITY. Delhi-110092 2015 Cryptography and Information Security Second Edition V.K. PACHGHARE Associate Professor Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology